Displaying all 11 publications

  1. The EMPA-KIDNEY Collaborative Group, Herrington WG, Staplin N, Wanner C, Green JB, Hauske SJ, et al.
    N Engl J Med, 2023 Jan 12;388(2):117-127.
    PMID: 36331190 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2204233
    BACKGROUND: The effects of empagliflozin in patients with chronic kidney disease who are at risk for disease progression are not well understood. The EMPA-KIDNEY trial was designed to assess the effects of treatment with empagliflozin in a broad range of such patients.

    METHODS: We enrolled patients with chronic kidney disease who had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of at least 20 but less than 45 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area, or who had an eGFR of at least 45 but less than 90 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 with a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (with albumin measured in milligrams and creatinine measured in grams) of at least 200. Patients were randomly assigned to receive empagliflozin (10 mg once daily) or matching placebo. The primary outcome was a composite of progression of kidney disease (defined as end-stage kidney disease, a sustained decrease in eGFR to <10 ml per minute per 1.73 m2, a sustained decrease in eGFR of ≥40% from baseline, or death from renal causes) or death from cardiovascular causes.

    RESULTS: A total of 6609 patients underwent randomization. During a median of 2.0 years of follow-up, progression of kidney disease or death from cardiovascular causes occurred in 432 of 3304 patients (13.1%) in the empagliflozin group and in 558 of 3305 patients (16.9%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64 to 0.82; P<0.001). Results were consistent among patients with or without diabetes and across subgroups defined according to eGFR ranges. The rate of hospitalization from any cause was lower in the empagliflozin group than in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.78 to 0.95; P = 0.003), but there were no significant between-group differences with respect to the composite outcome of hospitalization for heart failure or death from cardiovascular causes (which occurred in 4.0% in the empagliflozin group and 4.6% in the placebo group) or death from any cause (in 4.5% and 5.1%, respectively). The rates of serious adverse events were similar in the two groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: Among a wide range of patients with chronic kidney disease who were at risk for disease progression, empagliflozin therapy led to a lower risk of progression of kidney disease or death from cardiovascular causes than placebo. (Funded by Boehringer Ingelheim and others; EMPA-KIDNEY ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03594110; EudraCT number, 2017-002971-24.).

    Matched MeSH terms: Benzhydryl Compounds/adverse effects
  2. Mayne KJ, Staplin N, Keane DF, Wanner C, Brenner S, Cejka V, et al.
    J Am Soc Nephrol, 2024 Feb 01;35(2):202-215.
    PMID: 38082486 DOI: 10.1681/ASN.0000000000000271
    SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: SGLT2 inhibitors reduce risk of kidney progression, AKI, and cardiovascular disease, but the mechanisms of benefit are incompletely understood. Bioimpedance spectroscopy can estimate body water and fat mass. One quarter of the EMPA-KIDNEY bioimpedance substudy CKD population had clinically significant levels of bioimpedance-derived "Fluid Overload" at recruitment. Empagliflozin induced a prompt and sustained reduction in "Fluid Overload," irrespective of sex, diabetes, and baseline N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide or eGFR. No significant effect on bioimpedance-derived fat mass was observed. The effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on body water may be one of the contributing mechanisms by which they mediate effects on cardiovascular risk.

    BACKGROUND: CKD is associated with fluid excess that can be estimated by bioimpedance spectroscopy. We aimed to assess effects of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibition on bioimpedance-derived "Fluid Overload" and adiposity in a CKD population.

    METHODS: EMPA-KIDNEY was a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of empagliflozin 10 mg once daily in patients with CKD at risk of progression. In a substudy, bioimpedance measurements were added to the main trial procedures at randomization and at 2- and 18-month follow-up visits. The substudy's primary outcome was the study-average difference in absolute "Fluid Overload" (an estimate of excess extracellular water) analyzed using a mixed model repeated measures approach.

    RESULTS: The 660 substudy participants were broadly representative of the 6609-participant trial population. Substudy mean baseline absolute "Fluid Overload" was 0.4±1.7 L. Compared with placebo, the overall mean absolute "Fluid Overload" difference among those allocated empagliflozin was -0.24 L (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.38 to -0.11), with similar sized differences at 2 and 18 months, and in prespecified subgroups. Total body water differences comprised between-group differences in extracellular water of -0.49 L (95% CI, -0.69 to -0.30, including the -0.24 L "Fluid Overload" difference) and a -0.30 L (95% CI, -0.57 to -0.03) difference in intracellular water. There was no significant effect of empagliflozin on bioimpedance-derived adipose tissue mass (-0.28 kg [95% CI, -1.41 to 0.85]). The between-group difference in weight was -0.7 kg (95% CI, -1.3 to -0.1).

    CONCLUSIONS: In a broad range of patients with CKD, empagliflozin resulted in a sustained reduction in a bioimpedance-derived estimate of fluid overload, with no statistically significant effect on fat mass.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT03594110 ; EuDRACT: 2017-002971-24 ( https://eudract.ema.europa.eu/ ).

    Matched MeSH terms: Benzhydryl Compounds/adverse effects
  3. Zaid SS, Othman S, Kassim NM
    PMID: 25519484 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-509
    To investigate the potential protective effects of Tualang honey against the toxicity effects induced by Bisphenol A (BPA) on pubertal development of ovaries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Benzhydryl Compounds/adverse effects*
  4. Balakumar P, Sundram K, Dhanaraj SA
    Pharmacol Res, 2014 Apr;82:34-9.
    PMID: 24705156 DOI: 10.1016/j.phrs.2014.03.008
    Diabetes mellitus is a greatly challenging disease of the 21 century, and the mortality rate due to this insidious disease is increasing worldwide in spite of availability of effective oral hypoglycemic agents. Satisfactory management of glycemic control in patients afflicted with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains a major clinical challenge. Identification of potential pharmacological target sites is therefore continuing as an integral part of the diabetic research. The sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) expressed in the renal proximal tubule plays an essential role in glucose reabsorption. Pharmacological blockade of SGLT2 prevents glucose reabsorption and subsequently induces the elimination of filtered glucose via urine, the process is known as 'glucuresis'. Dapagliflozin is a selective inhibitor of SGLT2. The US FDA approved dapagliflozin in January 2014 to improve glycemic control along with diet and exercise in adult patients afflicted with T2DM. It has a potential to decrease glycated hemoglobin and to promote weight loss. Although the mechanism of action of dapagliflozin is not directly linked with insulin or insulin sensitivity, reduction of plasma glucose by dapagliflozin via induction of glucosuria could improve muscle insulin sensitivity. Moreover, dapagliflozin could cause diuresis and subsequently fall in blood pressure. In addition to general discussion on the pharmacology of dapagliflozin, we propose in this review the possibilities of dual antidiabetic effect of dapagliflozin and its possible additional beneficial actions in hypertensive-obese-T2DM patients through its indirect blood pressure-lowering action and reduction of body calories and weight. Long-term clinical studies are however needed to clarify this contention.
    Matched MeSH terms: Benzhydryl Compounds/adverse effects
  5. Chin KY, Pang KL, Mark-Lee WF
    Int J Med Sci, 2018;15(10):1043-1050.
    PMID: 30013446 DOI: 10.7150/ijms.25634
    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor which can bind to the oestrogen receptor. It also possesses oestrogenic, antiandrogenic, inflammatory and oxidative properties. Since bone responds to changes in sex hormones, inflammatory and oxidative status, BPA exposure could influence bone health in humans. This review aimed to summarize the current evidence on the relationship between BPA and bone health derived from cellular, animal and human studies. Exposure to BPA (0.5-12.5 µM) decreased the proliferation of osteoblast and osteoclast precursor cells and induce their apoptosis. Bisphenol AF (10 nM) enhanced transforming growth factor beta signalling but bisphenol S (10 nM) inhibited Wnt signalling involved in osteoblast differentiation in vitro. In animals, BPA and its derivatives demonstrated distinct effects in different models. In prenatal/postnatal exposure, BPA increased femoral bone mineral content in male rats (at 25 ug/kg/day) but decreased femoral mechanical strength in female mice (at 10 µg/kg/day). In oestrogen deficiency models, BPA improved bone mineral density and microstructures in aromatase knockout mice (at very high dose, 0.1% or 1.0% w/w diet) but decreased trabecular density in ovariectomized rats (at 37 or 370 ug/kg/day). In contrast, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (30 mg/kg/day i.p.) improved bone health in normal male and female rodents and decreased trabecular separation in ovariectomized rodents. Two cross-sectional studies have been performed to examine the relationship between BPA level and bone mineral density in humans but they yielded negligible association. As a conclusion, BPA and its derivatives could influence bone health and a possible gender effect was observed in animal studies. However, its effects in humans await verification from more comprehensive longitudinal studies in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Benzhydryl Compounds/adverse effects*
  6. Chou YM, Seak CJ, Goh ZNL, Seak JC, Seak CK, Lin CC
    Medicine (Baltimore), 2018 Jun;97(25):e11056.
    PMID: 29923997 DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000011056
    RATIONALE: Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious and potentially life-threatening acute complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (eDKA) is however challenging to identify in the emergency department (ED) due to absence of marked hyperglycemia, often leading to delayed diagnosis and treatment. eDKA has been recently found to be associated with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, one of the newest classes of antidiabetics, though there are very limited reports implicating dapagliflozin as the offending agent in ED patients. Here we report a type 2 diabetic patient who presented to the ED with eDKA secondary to dapagliflozin administration.

    PATIENT CONCERNS: A 61-year-old Asian female with underlying type 2 DM presented to our ED with body weakness, dyspnea, nausea, vomiting, and mild abdominal pain for the past 2 days. These symptoms were preceded by poor oral intake for 1 week due to severe toothache. Dapagliflozin was recently added to her antidiabetic drug regimen of metformin and glibenclamide 2 weeks ago.

    DIAGNOSES: Arterial blood gases showed a picture of severe metabolic acidosis with an elevated anion gap, while ketones were elevated in blood and positive in urine. Blood glucose was mildly elevated at 180 mg/dL. Serum lactate levels were normal. Our patient was thus diagnosed with eDKA.

    INTERVENTION: Our patient was promptly admitted to the intensive care unit and treated for eDKA through intravenous rehydration therapy with insulin infusion.

    OUTCOMES: Serial blood gas analyses showed gradual resolution of the patient's ketoacidosis with normalized anion gap and clearance of serum ketones. She was discharged uneventfully on day 4, with permanent cessation of dapagliflozin administration.

    LESSONS: Life-threatening eDKA as a complication of dapagliflozin is a challenging and easilymissed diagnosis in the ED. Such an ED presentation is very rare, nevertheless emergency physicians are reminded to consider the diagnosis of eDKA in a patient whose drug regimen includes any SGLT2 inhibitor, especially if the patient presents with nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dyspnea, lethargy, and is clinically dehydrated. These patients should then be investigated with ketone studies and blood gas analyses regardless of blood glucose levels for prompt diagnosis and treatment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Benzhydryl Compounds/adverse effects*
  7. Cherney DZI, Dekkers CCJ, Barbour SJ, Cattran D, Abdul Gafor AH, Greasley PJ, et al.
    Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, 2020 07;8(7):582-593.
    PMID: 32559474 DOI: 10.1016/S2213-8587(20)30162-5
    BACKGROUND: SGLT2 inhibition decreases albuminuria and reduces the risk of kidney disease progression in patients with type 2 diabetes. These benefits are unlikely to be mediated by improvements in glycaemic control alone. Therefore, we aimed to examine the kidney effects of the SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin in patients with proteinuric kidney disease without diabetes.

    METHODS: DIAMOND was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial done at six hospitals in Canada, Malaysia, and the Netherlands. Eligible participants were adult patients (aged 18-75 years) with chronic kidney disease, without a diagnosis of diabetes, with a 24-h urinary protein excretion greater than 500 mg and less than or equal to 3500 mg and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of at least 25 mL/min per 1·73 m2, and who were on stable renin-angiotensin system blockade. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive placebo and then dapagliflozin 10 mg per day or vice versa. Each treatment period lasted 6 weeks with a 6-week washout period in between. Participants, investigators, and study personnel were masked to assignment throughout the trial and analysis. The primary outcome was percentage change from baseline in 24-h proteinuria during dapagliflozin treatment relative to placebo. Secondary outcomes were changes in measured GFR (mGFR; via iohexol clearance), bodyweight, blood pressure, and concentrations of neurohormonal biomarkers. Analyses were done in accordance with the intention-to-treat principle. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03190694.

    FINDINGS: Between Nov 22, 2017, and April 5, 2019, 58 patients were screened, of whom 53 (mean age 51 years [SD 13]; 32% women) were randomly assigned (27 received dapagliflozin then placebo and 26 received placebo then dapagliflozin). One patient discontinued during the first treatment period. All patients were included in the analysis. Mean baseline mGFR was 58·3 mL/min per 1·73 m2 (SD 23), median proteinuria was 1110 mg per 24 h (IQR 730-1560), and mean HbA1c was 5·6% (SD 0·4). The difference in mean proteinuria change from baseline between dapagliflozin and placebo was 0·9% (95% CI -16·6 to 22·1; p=0·93). Compared with placebo, mGFR was changed with dapagliflozin treatment by -6·6 mL/min per 1·73 m2 (-9·0 to -4·2; p<0·0001) at week 6. This reduction was fully reversible within 6 weeks after dapagliflozin discontinuation. Compared with placebo, bodyweight was reduced by 1·5 kg (0·03-3·0; p=0·046) with dapagliflozin; changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and concentrations of neurohormonal biomarkers did not differ significantly between dapagliflozin and placebo treatment. The numbers of patients who had one or more adverse events during dapagliflozin treatment (17 [32%] of 53) and during placebo treatment (13 [25%] of 52) were similar. No hypoglycaemic events were reported and no deaths occurred.

    INTERPRETATION: 6-week treatment with dapagliflozin did not affect proteinuria in patients with chronic kidney disease without diabetes, but did induce an acute and reversible decline in mGFR and a reduction in bodyweight. Long-term clinical trials are underway to determine whether SGLT2 inhibitors can safely reduce the rate of major clinical kidney outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease with and without diabetes.

    FUNDING: AstraZeneca.

    Matched MeSH terms: Benzhydryl Compounds/adverse effects*
  8. Rasdi Z, Kamaludin R, Ab Rahim S, Syed Ahmad Fuad SB, Othman MHD, Siran R, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2020 Apr 03;10(1):5882.
    PMID: 32246001 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-62420-1
    This study aimed to examine the impact of BPA exposure on pregnancy and foetuses on cardiac tissues and the expression of cardiac microRNAs (miRNAs) related to heart development and diseases. Pregnancy is known to be the "critical windows" in determining the offspring physical and cells development in their life after birth. The increment of the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a later stage of life has been reported by few studies demonstrated from prenatal exposure of BPA. BPA has been shown to alter miRNAs expression profiles for organ development, regeneration and metabolic functions. These alterations have been associated with the risk of CVDs. However, the associations between pregnancy outcomes and miRNAs expression in cardiac of mother- and foetuses-exposed to BPA are still not entirely explored. In BPA-exposed pregnant rat groups, a significant weight gained was observed in comparison to control (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Benzhydryl Compounds/adverse effects*
  9. Wan Seman WJ, Kori N, Rajoo S, Othman H, Mohd Noor N, Wahab NA, et al.
    Diabetes Obes Metab, 2016 06;18(6):628-32.
    PMID: 26889911 DOI: 10.1111/dom.12649
    The aim of the present study was to assess the hypoglycaemia risk and safety of dapagliflozin compared with sulphonylurea during the fasting month of Ramadan. In this 12-week, randomized, open-label, two-arm parallel group study, 110 patients with type 2 diabetes who were receiving sulphonylurea and metformin were randomized either to receive 10 mg (n = 58) of dapagliflozin daily or to continue receiving sulphonylurea (n = 52). The primary outcome was to compare the effects of dapagliflozin and sulphonylurea on the proportions of patients with at least one episode of hypoglycaemia during Ramadan, as well as to assess the safety of dapagliflozin when used to treat patients observing Ramadan. A lower proportion of patients had reported or documented hypoglycaemia in the dapagliflozin group than in the sulphonylurea group: 4 (6.9%) versus 15 (28.8%); p = 0.002. The relative risk of any reported or documented hypoglycaemia in the 4th week of Ramadan was significantly lower in the dapagliflozin group: RR=0.24, 95%CI: 0.09, 0.68; p=0.002. No significance differences were observed between the two groups regarding postural hypotension (13.8 vs 3.8%; p = 0.210) or urinary tract infections (10.3 vs 3.8%; p = 0.277). In conclusion, fewer patients exhibited hypoglycaemia in the dapagliflozin group than in the sulphonylurea group.
    Matched MeSH terms: Benzhydryl Compounds/adverse effects
  10. Lim LL, Tan AT, Moses K, Rajadhyaksha V, Chan SP
    J Diabetes Complications, 2017 Feb;31(2):494-503.
    PMID: 27866701 DOI: 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2016.10.008
    The burden of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in East Asia is alarming. Rapid modernization and urbanization have led to major lifestyle changes and a tremendous increase in the prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. The development of T2DM at a younger age, with lower body mass index, higher visceral adiposity, and more significant pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction compared to Caucasians are factors responsible for the increased prevalence of T2DM in East Asians. Sodium-glucose Cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors (canagliflozin, dapaglifozin, empagliflozin, etc.) reduce renal glucose reabsorption, leading to favorable effects on glycemic, blood pressure, and weight control. The insulin-independent mechanism enables their use as monotherapy or combination therapy with insulin and other oral antidiabetic agents. The role of SGLT2 inhibitors in the management of T2DM among East Asians is an interesting area of research, given that East Asians have been proven to be uniquely different from Caucasians. This review provides comprehensive coverage of the available literature not only on the efficacy and safety, but also on the recent cardiovascular and renal outcomes of SGLT2 inhibitors, focusing among East Asians.
    Matched MeSH terms: Benzhydryl Compounds/adverse effects
  11. Thent ZC, Froemming GRA, Muid S
    Life Sci, 2018 Apr 01;198:1-7.
    PMID: 29432759 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2018.02.013
    Bisphenol A (BPA) (2,2,-bis (hydroxyphenyl) propane), a well-known endocrine disruptor (ED), is the exogenous chemical that mimic the natural endogenous hormone like oestrogen. Due to its extensive exposure to humans, BPA is considered to be a major toxicological agent for general population. Environmental exposure of BPA results in adverse health outcomes including bone loss. BPA disturbs the bone health by decreasing the plasma calcium level and inhibiting the calcitonin secretion. BPA also stimulated differentiation and induced apoptosis in human osteoblasts and osteoclasts. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of the untoward effect of BPA against bone metabolism. The present review gives an overview on the possible mechanisms of BPA towards bone loss. The previous literature shows that BPA exerts its toxic effect on bone cells by binding to the oestrogen related receptor-gamma (ERγ), reducing the bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities. BPA interrupts the bone metabolism via RANKL, apoptosis and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways. It is, however, still debated on the exact underlying mechanism of BPA against bone health. We summarised the molecular evidences with possible mechanisms of BPA, an old environmental culprit, in bone loss and enlightened the underlying understanding of adverse action of BPA in the society.
    Matched MeSH terms: Benzhydryl Compounds/adverse effects*
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