Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 216 in total

  1. Ramli ANM, Badrulzaman SZS, Patil RV, Azelee NIW, Manas NHA, Aminan AW
    Vet Res Commun, 2024 Feb;48(1):29-37.
    PMID: 37840088 DOI: 10.1007/s11259-023-10235-6
    An edible bird nest is a product of the solidified saliva secretion from a few different swiftlet's species, during the breeding season. But the high impurities in A. maximus and C. esculent nests make them less ideal to be consumed. Eggshells and guano are the major contaminants contributing to the nitrite and nitrates contents. However, recent studies have shown significant medicinal and cosmetic applications of edible bird nest like anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, enhancing bone strength, and anti-aging. Thus, the high demand for edible bird nest in the global market to explore its potential application has improved from swiftlet farming activities to the cleaning process. Recent studies have shown the use of immobilized enzymes like keratinase for the removal of contaminants. The current review discusses the importance of Swiftlet bird nest, its application, and commercialization.
    Matched MeSH terms: Birds*
  2. OGAKI M
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 1949 Jul;29(4):459-62.
    PMID: 18153046
    Matched MeSH terms: Birds*
  3. Ali JR, Heaney LR
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc, 2021 06;96(3):922-942.
    PMID: 33502095 DOI: 10.1111/brv.12683
    Due to its position between the highly distinct Oriental and Australasian biogeographical realms, much effort has been spent demarcating associated separations and transitions in the faunal assemblages of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Initially, sharp boundary lines were proposed, with the earliest dating from the mid-1800s. Notably, the one published by Alfred R. Wallace in 1863, based upon land-mammal and land-bird distributions, has since achieved iconic status and today its significance is recognized well beyond the confines of the biogeography community. Over the next four decades many such divides were engraved onto plates and inked onto charts of SE Asia using additional information, different organisms or other criteria. However, it became apparent that, as Wallace had noted, all such lines were to some degree permeable, and by the 1880s transition zones were being put forward instead; the label 'Wallacea' was introduced in 1924. Interestingly, the last decade has seen new divides and sub-regions being proposed, some departing markedly from earlier offerings. Although currently there is general agreement regarding much of the terminology associated with both the lines and the areas, the record of publication indicates that this consensus has emerged obliquely, and in some cases is weakly founded. This review does not present new data nor new analyses; rather it summarizes the development of ideas and reflects upon attendant issues that have emerged. After reviewing the key proposals, recommendations are presented that should in future alleviate perceived difficulties or inadequacies. Reference to specific divides must be true to their original definitions; there are many instances where the secondary literature has portrayed them incorrectly and with some this has rippled through into later publications. Moreover, Wallace's 1863 line is not the one that he finally settled upon (in 1910); its path around Sulawesi was transferred from the west to the east of the Island. Ideally, Huxley's divide (1868) should carry his name rather than Wallace's; the latter never accepted the proposition. Lydekker's Line (1896) ought to be labelled the Heilprin-Lydekker Line in recognition of Angelo Heilprin's 1887 contribution. Concerning transition zones, ideally Wallacea should correspond to its original 1924 description, which incorporated the Philippine islands bar the Palawan group. Notably, though, a smaller form (introduced by Darlington in 1957, used frequently from 1998 onwards) in which all of the Philippine islands are excluded is entrenched within the recent literature, but this is often without evident justification. It should also be recognized that the 'reduced' (=southern) Wallacea area was effectively defined by Heilprin in 1887, but was then labelled the 'Austro-Malaysian Transition Zone'. Finally, the application in recent years of modern analytical techniques has not led to a consensus view on where the lines/areas should run/be placed; with such a large, diverse set of organisms, each with differing histories, this is perhaps not surprising.
    Matched MeSH terms: Birds*
  4. Xing M, Liu F, Lin J, Xu D, Zhong J, Xia F, et al.
    Food Res Int, 2024 Jan;175:113780.
    PMID: 38129006 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2023.113780
    Edible bird's nest (EBN) is a high-value health food with various nutrients and bioactive components. With increasing demand for EBN, they are often adulterated with cheaper ingredients or falsely labeled by the origin information, thus harming consumer interests. In this study, high- and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (HF/LF-NMR) technology combined with multivariate statistical analysis was used to identify the geographical marker of EBN from different origins and authenticate the adulterated EBN with various adulterants at different adulteration rates. Authentic EBN samples from Malaysia were used to simulate adulteration using gelatin (GL), agar (AG) and starch (ST) at 10 %, 20 %, 40 %, 60 %, 80 %, and 100 % w/w, respectively. The results showed significant differences in composition among EBN from different origins, with isocaproate and citric acid serving as geographical markers for Malaysia and Vietnam, respectively. Leucine, glutamic acid, and N-acetylglycoprotein serving as geographical markers for Indonesia. In addition, PLS model further verified the accuracy of origin identification of EBN. The LF-NMR results of adulteration EBN showed a linear correlation between the transverse relaxation (T2, S2) and the adulterated ratio. The OPLS-DA based on T2 spectra could accurately identify authentic EBN from adulterated with GL, AG and ST at 40 %, 20 %, and 20 %, respectively. Fisher discrimination model was able to differentiate at 20 %, 20 %, and 40 %, respectively. These results show that the 1H NMR combined with multivariate statistical analysis method could be a potential tool for the detection of origin and adulteration of EBN.
    Matched MeSH terms: Birds*
  5. Leow BL, Shohaimi SA, Mohd Yusop FF, Sidik MR, Mohd Saeid FH
    Trop Biomed, 2023 Jun 01;40(2):220-235.
    PMID: 37650410 DOI: 10.47665/tb.40.2.014
    Wild aquatic birds are natural reservoirs of influenza A viruses and H3 subtype is one of the most prevalent subtypes in waterfowl. Two H3N8 viruses of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) were isolated via egg inoculation technique from the fecal swab specimens from imported barnacle goose and paradise shelduck in Veterinary Research Institute Ipoh, Malaysia. The full length of eight gene segments of the two viruses were amplified and sequenced with specific primers. The sequences were molecularly characterized, and the sequence identity were assessed with other published sequences. The two viruses are identical and they possess the same amino acid sequences for all the eight gene segments. The viruses were highly similar to the H3 virus from Netherlands and N8 virus from Belgium respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the eight gene segments were grouped in the Eurasian lineage, and genetic reassortment may occur between the internal genes of the H3 viruses and other AI subtypes. Though four amino acid substitutions were identified in the hemagglutinin gene, the viruses retained most of the avian-type receptor binding preference. Few amino acid substitutions were observed in all internal genes. Most of the neuraminidase inhibitors and adamantine resistance related mutation were not seen in the viruses. The replicative capacity, cross species transmissibility, and potential zoonotic risk of the viruses are worth further investigation. As H3 virus poses potential threats to both human and animals, and with the increase in the international trade of birds; strict quarantine practice at the entry point and good laboratory diagnostic capabilities is crucial to prevent the introduction of new AI virus into our country.
    Matched MeSH terms: Birds
  6. Wong PL, Poon SK, Anderson RC
    Can. J. Zool., 1980 Jun;58(6):1212-3.
    PMID: 7427819
    Matched MeSH terms: Birds/parasitology*
    Singapore Med J, 1965 Mar;6(1):47-8.
    PMID: 14306412
    An immature Glossy Tree-Starling (Aplonis panayensis strigatus), also known as ‘burong perling’ in Malay, was captured in the vicinity of the Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur. It was found to harbour a small malaria parasite which showed the characteristics of the sub-genus Novyella (Corradetti et al, 1963) viz:
    1. Trophozoites small with little cytoplasm, relatively large nuclear elements, the parasite usually applied to the host-cell nucleus.
    2. Schizonts with usually less than eight merozoites. 3. Pigment small and difficult to see except in the schizonts and in the gametocytes where the pigment granules are large and usually clustered at one end.
    4. The parasite rarely distorts the host erythrocyte. Unfortunately the bird died a few days later before detailed work on duration of the schizogonic cycle and experimental transmission could be done. The parasite has the following morphological features and most of the larger forms, asexual and sexual, assume the characteristic position proximal to the nucleus of the avian erythrocyte. Trophozoites: The earliest forms are ‘rings’ with a fairly marked vacuole. As the organism grows older, it produces a grain or two of pigment. The parasite at this stage tends to occupy a polar position in the host erythrocyte. Schizonts: The segmenting forms are usually attached to the pole end of the host-cell nucleus. The number of chromatin segments varies from 3 to 8, with a prevalent range of 4 to 6. The cytoplasm is scanty and pale with a prominent little mass of blackish-brown pigment or a close collection of granules. A rare mature schizont with 8 merozoites was seen in which the nucleus of the parasitised erythrocyte was displaced somewhat similar to figure 20 of Plate I portrayed in the original paper by Manwell (1935). Gametocytes: The sexual forms are often narrow and elongate, and are closely applied to the nucleus of the host erythrocyte. The outline of the parasite is frequently irregular. The cytoplasm is pale and vacuolated with coarse conspicuous granules of blackish-brown pigment usually collected at one end; sometimes either one or both ends curved around the host-cell nucleus. Although this parasite has some affinites to both P. nucleophiltim and P. hexamerium the lack of adequate study of the avian malarias of South-East Asia precludes even provisional identification of this parasite. On two occasions numerous gametocytes were seen in the peripheral blood of the bird and four species of laboratory-reared culicines (three indigenous to Malaya) were allowed to feed on it. Ten Andes togoi, 19 Culex sitiens and seven Culex fatigans were completely refractory to development of the parasite. Two of 17 Aedes aegypti had a single small oocyst each; both oocysts appeared to be degenerating. A Giemsa-stained thin blood film together with drawings made from the microscope showing the different forms of the parasite were demonstrated. REFERENCES
    Corradetti, A., Garnham, P. C. & Laird, M. (i963). Parassitologia, 5, 1-4.
    Manwell, R. D. (l935). Amer. J. Trop. Med 15, 265-283.
    ...(1938). Ibid., 18, 565-575
    Matched MeSH terms: Birds*
  8. Allwinn R, Doerr HW
    Med. Klin. (Munich), 2005 Nov 15;100(11):710-3.
    PMID: 16328178
    Avian influenza, an infectious disease of birds, is caused by type A strain of the influenza virus. The disease, which was first identified in Italy more than 100 years ago, occurs worldwide. Avian influenza viruses are mainly distributed by migratory birds. Various animals like birds, pigs, horses, sea mammals and, finally, humans are susceptible to influenza A viruses. The high possibility of genomic changes like gene shift and drift are caused by the segmented RNA genome.
    Matched MeSH terms: Birds; Influenza in Birds/mortality; Influenza in Birds/epidemiology; Influenza in Birds/prevention & control; Influenza in Birds/transmission*; Influenza in Birds/virology
  9. Shojaei TR, Tabatabaei M, Shawky S, Salleh MA, Bald D
    Mol Biol Rep, 2015 Jan;42(1):187-99.
    PMID: 25245956 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-014-3758-5
    Biotechnology-based detection systems and sensors are in use for a wide range of applications in biomedicine, including the diagnostics of viral pathogens. In this review, emerging detection systems and their applicability for diagnostics of viruses, exemplified by the case of avian influenza virus, are discussed. In particular, nano-diagnostic assays presently under development or available as prototype and their potentials for sensitive and rapid virus detection are highlighted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Birds/virology; Influenza in Birds/diagnosis; Influenza in Birds/virology*
  10. Looi QH, Amin H, Aini I, Zuki M, Omar AR
    BMC Genomics, 2017 07 03;18(1):504.
    PMID: 28673247 DOI: 10.1186/s12864-017-3861-9
    BACKGROUND: Edible bird's nest (EBN), produced from solidified saliva secretions of specific swiftlet species during the breeding season, is one of the most valuable animal by-products in the world. The composition and medicinal benefits of EBN have been extensively studied, however, genomic and transcriptomic studies of the salivary glands of these birds have not been conducted.

    RESULTS: The study described the transcriptomes of salivary glands from three swiftlet species (28 samples) generated by RNASeq. A total of 14,835 annotated genes and 428 unmapped genes were cataloged. The current study investigated the genes and pathways that are associated with the development of salivary gland and EBN composition. Differential expression and pathway enrichment analysis indicated that the expression of CREB3L2 and several signaling pathways involved in salivary gland development, namely, the EGFR, BMP, and MAPK signaling pathways, were up-regulated in swiftlets producing white EBN (Aerodramus fuciphagus) and black EBN (Aerodramus maximus) compared with non-EBN-producing swiftlets (Apus affinis). Furthermore, MGAT, an essential gene for the biosynthesis of N-acetylneuraminic acid (sialic acid), was highly expressed in both white- and black-nest swiftlets compared to non-EBN-producing swiftlets. Interspecies comparison between Aerodramus fuciphagus and Aerodramus maximus indicated that the genes involved in N-acetylneuraminic and fatty acid synthesis were up-regulated in Aerodramus fuciphagus, while alanine and aspartate synthesis pathways were up-regulated in Aerodramus maximus. Furthermore, gender-based analysis revealed that N-glycan trimming pathway was significantly up-regulated in male Aerodramus fuciphagus from its natural habitat (cave) compared to their female counterpart.

    CONCLUSIONS: Transcriptomic analysis of salivary glands of different swiftlet species reveal differential expressions of candidate genes that are involved in salivary gland development and in the biosynthesis of various bioactive compounds found in EBN.

    Matched MeSH terms: Birds/genetics; Birds/metabolism*
  11. Shriwas SR
    Trop Doct, 1993 Jul;23(3):140.
    PMID: 8356755
    Matched MeSH terms: Birds*
  12. Sinriah B, Poopalachelvam M
    PMID: 7403946
    Matched MeSH terms: Birds/parasitology*
  13. Sutter E
    Rev. Suisse Zool., 1974 Oct;81(3):684-9.
    PMID: 4445815
    Matched MeSH terms: Birds/anatomy & histology*
  14. Han Y, Bai J, Zhang Z, Wu T, Chen P, Sun G, et al.
    Sci Total Environ, 2019 Nov 10;690:748-759.
    PMID: 31302540 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.06.508
    Many species of birds gradually adapt to urbanization and colonize cities successfully. However, their nest site selection and competitive relationship in an urban community remain little known. Understanding the impact of urbanization on birds and the competitive relationship has important implications for the conservation and management of wildlife in urban ecosystems. Here, we undertook a systematic study to quantify nests in all species of birds in an urbanizing area of Nanchang, China. A total of 363 nests were detected in surveys including 340 nests of 16 bird species and 23 unidentified species nests. We mainly analyzed 5 dominant breeding birds with a sample size of >10 during the two breeding seasons (From April to July in 2016 and 2017), which included the light-vented bulbul, Chinese blackbird, scaly-breasted munia, spotted dove and grey-capped greenfinch. Most birds (93.66%) nested in the tree of artificial green belts, which seems to be the best breeding habitat for urban birds. Our results suggested that birds' breeding success relies on the trade-off between the benefit and the expense of specific stresses from habitats. The nest site selection of birds is also affected by the life habit of urban predators. Furthermore, competition among species can influence their distributions and utilization of environmental resources when birds nest in cities. We confirmed that the niche differentiation of five bird species in an urban environment makes them coexist successfully by utilizing various resources.
    Matched MeSH terms: Birds/physiology*
  15. Cosset CCP, Edwards DP
    Ecol Appl, 2017 09;27(6):1932-1945.
    PMID: 28543995 DOI: 10.1002/eap.1578
    Selective logging is the most prevalent land-use change in the tropics. Despite the resulting degradation of forest structure, selectively logged forests still harbor a substantial amount of biodiversity leading to suggestions that their protection is the next best alternative to conserving primary, old-growth forests. Restoring carbon stocks under Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) schemes is a potential method for obtaining funding to protect logged forests, via enrichment planting and liberation cutting of vines. This study investigates the impacts of restoring logged forests in Borneo on avian phylogenetic diversity, the total evolutionary history shared across all species within a community, and on functional diversity, with important implications for the protection of evolutionarily unique species and the provision of many ecosystem services. Overall and understorey avifaunal communities were studied using point count and mist netting surveys, respectively. Restoration caused a significant loss in phylogenetic diversity and MPD (mean pairwise distance) leaving an overall bird community of less total evolutionary history and more closely related species compared to unlogged forests, while the understorey bird community had MNTD (mean nearest taxon distance) that returned toward the lower levels found in a primary forest, indicating more closely related species pairs. The overall bird community experienced a significant loss of functional strategies and species with more specialized traits in restored forests compared to that of unlogged forests, which led to functional clustering in the community. Restoration also led to a reduction in functional richness and thus niches occupied in the understorey bird community compared to unlogged forests. While there are additional benefits of restoration for forest regeneration, carbon sequestration, future timber harvests, and potentially reduced threat of forest conversion, this must be weighed against the apparent loss of phylogenetic and functional diversity from unlogged forest levels, making the biodiversity-friendliness of carbon sequestration schemes questionable under future REDD+ agreements. To reduce perverse biodiversity outcomes, it is important to focus restoration only on the most degraded areas or at reduced intensity where breaks between regimes are incorporated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Birds*
  16. Ismail M, Alsalahi A, Aljaberi MA, Ibrahim RM, Bakar FA, Ideris A
    Nutrients, 2021 Mar 23;13(3).
    PMID: 33806762 DOI: 10.3390/nu13031028
    Edible bird's nest (EBN) is constructed from saliva of swiftlets birds and consumed largely by Southeast and East Asians for its nutritional value and anti-aging properties. Although the neuroprotection of EBN in animals has been reported, there has not been yet systemically summarized. Thus, this review systemically outlined the evidence of the neuroprotective activity of EBN in modulating the cognitive functions of either healthy or with induced-cognitive dysfunction animals as compared to placebos. The related records from 2010 to 2020 were retrieved from PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and ScienceDirect using pre-specified keywords. The relevant records to the effect of EBN on cognition were selected according to the eligibility criteria and these studies underwent appraisal for the risk of bias. EBN improved the cognitive functions of induced-cognitive dysfunction and enhanced the cognitive performance of healthy animals as well as attenuated the neuroinflammations and neuro-oxidative stress in the hippocampus of these animals. Malaysian EBN could improve the cognitive functions of experimental animals as a treatment in induced cognitive dysfunction, a nutritional cognitive-enhancing agent in offspring and a prophylactic conservative effect on cognition against exposure to subsequent noxious cerebral accidents in a dose-depended manner through attenuating neuroinflammation and neuro-oxidative stress. This systemic review did not proceed meta-analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Birds*
  17. Mahaq O, P Rameli MA, Jaoi Edward M, Mohd Hanafi N, Abdul Aziz S, Abu Hassim H, et al.
    Brain Behav, 2020 11;10(11):e01817.
    PMID: 32886435 DOI: 10.1002/brb3.1817
    INTRODUCTION: Edible bird nest (EBN) is a natural food product produced from edible nest swiftlet's saliva which consists of glycoproteins as one of its main components; these glycoproteins contain an abundant of sialic acid. The dietary EBN supplementation has been reported to enhance brain functions in mammals and that the bioactivities and nutritional value of EBN are important during periods of rapid brain growth particularly for preterm infant. However, the effects of EBN in maternal on multigeneration learning and memory function still remain unclear. Thus, the present study aimed to determine the effects of maternal EBN supplementation on learning and memory function of their first (F1)- and second (F2)-generation mice.

    METHODS: CJ57BL/6 breeder F0 mice were fed with EBN (10 mg/kg) from different sources. After 6 weeks of diet supplementations, the F0 animals were bred to produce F1 and F2 animals. At 6 weeks of age, the F1 and F2 animals were tested for spatial recognition memory using a Y-maze test. The sialic acid content from EBN and brain gene expression were analyzed using HPLC and PCR, respectively.

    RESULTS: All EBN samples contained glycoprotein with high level of sialic acid. Dietary EBN supplementation also showed an upregulation of GNE, ST8SiaIV, SLC17A5, and BDNF mRNA associated with an improvement in Y-maze cognitive performance in both generations of animal. Qualitatively, the densities of synaptic vesicles in the presynaptic terminal were higher in the F1 and F2 animals which might derive from maternal EBN supplementation.

    CONCLUSION: This study provided a solid foundation toward the growing research on nutritional intervention from dietary EBN supplementation on cognitive and neurological development in the generation of mammals.

    Matched MeSH terms: Birds*
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