Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 162 in total

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  1. OGAKI M
    Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 1949 Jul;29(4):459-62.
    PMID: 18153046
    Matched MeSH terms: Birds*
  2. Ruslan R, Saidi S
    Enferm Clin, 2019 Sep;29 Suppl 2:665-673.
    PMID: 31324543 DOI: 10.1016/j.enfcli.2019.04.102
    OBJECTIVE: To identify the existing simulation session and the impact of simulation on novice nurse.

    METHOD: The articles were searched through CINAHL, Scopus, Proquest, and OVID online database. Articles published from 2000, in English and among novice nurses were selected for review. Then, a narrative review was conducted guided by what are the existing simulation session been used and the impact on novice nurse.

    RESULT: Total of 19 articles been selected for review out of 272 articles. The findings of the reviewed were divided into 3 main themes. The themes are the existing simulation session, simulation as a support tool in the transition program and the impact of simulation on novice nurses.

    CONCLUSION: In summary, each simulation type has its learning domain. The effectiveness of the simulation will much depend on the appropriate simulation type selection.

    Matched MeSH terms: Birds
  3. Wong PL, Poon SK, Anderson RC
    Can. J. Zool., 1980 Jun;58(6):1212-3.
    PMID: 7427819
    Matched MeSH terms: Birds/parasitology*
  4. SANDOSHAM AA, BENNETT GF, FONG YL, OMAR EI
    Singapore Med J, 1965 Mar;6(1):47-8.
    PMID: 14306412
    An immature Glossy Tree-Starling (Aplonis panayensis strigatus), also known as ‘burong perling’ in Malay, was captured in the vicinity of the Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur. It was found to harbour a small malaria parasite which showed the characteristics of the sub-genus Novyella (Corradetti et al, 1963) viz:
    1. Trophozoites small with little cytoplasm, relatively large nuclear elements, the parasite usually applied to the host-cell nucleus.
    2. Schizonts with usually less than eight merozoites. 3. Pigment small and difficult to see except in the schizonts and in the gametocytes where the pigment granules are large and usually clustered at one end.
    4. The parasite rarely distorts the host erythrocyte. Unfortunately the bird died a few days later before detailed work on duration of the schizogonic cycle and experimental transmission could be done. The parasite has the following morphological features and most of the larger forms, asexual and sexual, assume the characteristic position proximal to the nucleus of the avian erythrocyte. Trophozoites: The earliest forms are ‘rings’ with a fairly marked vacuole. As the organism grows older, it produces a grain or two of pigment. The parasite at this stage tends to occupy a polar position in the host erythrocyte. Schizonts: The segmenting forms are usually attached to the pole end of the host-cell nucleus. The number of chromatin segments varies from 3 to 8, with a prevalent range of 4 to 6. The cytoplasm is scanty and pale with a prominent little mass of blackish-brown pigment or a close collection of granules. A rare mature schizont with 8 merozoites was seen in which the nucleus of the parasitised erythrocyte was displaced somewhat similar to figure 20 of Plate I portrayed in the original paper by Manwell (1935). Gametocytes: The sexual forms are often narrow and elongate, and are closely applied to the nucleus of the host erythrocyte. The outline of the parasite is frequently irregular. The cytoplasm is pale and vacuolated with coarse conspicuous granules of blackish-brown pigment usually collected at one end; sometimes either one or both ends curved around the host-cell nucleus. Although this parasite has some affinites to both P. nucleophiltim and P. hexamerium the lack of adequate study of the avian malarias of South-East Asia precludes even provisional identification of this parasite. On two occasions numerous gametocytes were seen in the peripheral blood of the bird and four species of laboratory-reared culicines (three indigenous to Malaya) were allowed to feed on it. Ten Andes togoi, 19 Culex sitiens and seven Culex fatigans were completely refractory to development of the parasite. Two of 17 Aedes aegypti had a single small oocyst each; both oocysts appeared to be degenerating. A Giemsa-stained thin blood film together with drawings made from the microscope showing the different forms of the parasite were demonstrated. REFERENCES
    Corradetti, A., Garnham, P. C. & Laird, M. (i963). Parassitologia, 5, 1-4.
    Manwell, R. D. (l935). Amer. J. Trop. Med 15, 265-283.
    ...(1938). Ibid., 18, 565-575
    Matched MeSH terms: Birds*
  5. Allwinn R, Doerr HW
    Med. Klin. (Munich), 2005 Nov 15;100(11):710-3.
    PMID: 16328178
    Avian influenza, an infectious disease of birds, is caused by type A strain of the influenza virus. The disease, which was first identified in Italy more than 100 years ago, occurs worldwide. Avian influenza viruses are mainly distributed by migratory birds. Various animals like birds, pigs, horses, sea mammals and, finally, humans are susceptible to influenza A viruses. The high possibility of genomic changes like gene shift and drift are caused by the segmented RNA genome.
    Matched MeSH terms: Birds; Influenza in Birds/mortality; Influenza in Birds/epidemiology; Influenza in Birds/prevention & control; Influenza in Birds/transmission*; Influenza in Birds/virology
  6. Shojaei TR, Tabatabaei M, Shawky S, Salleh MA, Bald D
    Mol. Biol. Rep., 2015 Jan;42(1):187-99.
    PMID: 25245956 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-014-3758-5
    Biotechnology-based detection systems and sensors are in use for a wide range of applications in biomedicine, including the diagnostics of viral pathogens. In this review, emerging detection systems and their applicability for diagnostics of viruses, exemplified by the case of avian influenza virus, are discussed. In particular, nano-diagnostic assays presently under development or available as prototype and their potentials for sensitive and rapid virus detection are highlighted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Birds/virology; Influenza in Birds/diagnosis; Influenza in Birds/virology*
  7. Looi QH, Amin H, Aini I, Zuki M, Omar AR
    BMC Genomics, 2017 07 03;18(1):504.
    PMID: 28673247 DOI: 10.1186/s12864-017-3861-9
    BACKGROUND: Edible bird's nest (EBN), produced from solidified saliva secretions of specific swiftlet species during the breeding season, is one of the most valuable animal by-products in the world. The composition and medicinal benefits of EBN have been extensively studied, however, genomic and transcriptomic studies of the salivary glands of these birds have not been conducted.

    RESULTS: The study described the transcriptomes of salivary glands from three swiftlet species (28 samples) generated by RNASeq. A total of 14,835 annotated genes and 428 unmapped genes were cataloged. The current study investigated the genes and pathways that are associated with the development of salivary gland and EBN composition. Differential expression and pathway enrichment analysis indicated that the expression of CREB3L2 and several signaling pathways involved in salivary gland development, namely, the EGFR, BMP, and MAPK signaling pathways, were up-regulated in swiftlets producing white EBN (Aerodramus fuciphagus) and black EBN (Aerodramus maximus) compared with non-EBN-producing swiftlets (Apus affinis). Furthermore, MGAT, an essential gene for the biosynthesis of N-acetylneuraminic acid (sialic acid), was highly expressed in both white- and black-nest swiftlets compared to non-EBN-producing swiftlets. Interspecies comparison between Aerodramus fuciphagus and Aerodramus maximus indicated that the genes involved in N-acetylneuraminic and fatty acid synthesis were up-regulated in Aerodramus fuciphagus, while alanine and aspartate synthesis pathways were up-regulated in Aerodramus maximus. Furthermore, gender-based analysis revealed that N-glycan trimming pathway was significantly up-regulated in male Aerodramus fuciphagus from its natural habitat (cave) compared to their female counterpart.

    CONCLUSIONS: Transcriptomic analysis of salivary glands of different swiftlet species reveal differential expressions of candidate genes that are involved in salivary gland development and in the biosynthesis of various bioactive compounds found in EBN.

    Matched MeSH terms: Birds/genetics; Birds/metabolism*
  8. Wong RS
    Chin J Integr Med, 2013 Sep;19(9):643-9.
    PMID: 23975128 DOI: 10.1007/s11655-013-1563-y
    Edible bird's nest (EBN) is derived from the saliva of certain types of swiftlets. It is consumed in many parts of the world for its nutritional and medicinal values. Although many claims have been made on the therapeutic and health-promoting effects of EBN, scientific documentations regarding these effects are very limited in published literature. It is not until recently that the biological effects of EBN are being investigated and evidence-based studies are being conducted. Several studies have found that EBN may enhance cell proliferation and differentiation and various beneficial effects have been reported in vitro as well as in vivo. While these studies point towards the potential use of EBN in the treatment or even prevention of several diseases, the mechanisms of action of EBN remain largely unknown and more explorations are needed. This review is one of the very few scientific reviews on EBN which focuses on recent evidence-based discoveries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Birds*
  9. Shriwas SR
    Trop Doct, 1993 Jul;23(3):140.
    PMID: 8356755
    Matched MeSH terms: Birds*
  10. Sinriah B, Poopalachelvam M
    PMID: 7403946
    Matched MeSH terms: Birds/parasitology*
  11. Sutter E
    Rev. Suisse Zool., 1974 Oct;81(3):684-9.
    PMID: 4445815
    Matched MeSH terms: Birds/anatomy & histology*
  12. Dissanaike AS, Poopalachelvam M
    PMID: 607436
    Matched MeSH terms: Birds/parasitology
  13. Wang S, Loreau M, Arnoldi JF, Fang J, Rahman KA, Tao S, et al.
    Nat Commun, 2017 05 19;8:15211.
    PMID: 28524860 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms15211
    The spatial scaling of stability is key to understanding ecological sustainability across scales and the sensitivity of ecosystems to habitat destruction. Here we propose the invariability-area relationship (IAR) as a novel approach to investigate the spatial scaling of stability. The shape and slope of IAR are largely determined by patterns of spatial synchrony across scales. When synchrony decays exponentially with distance, IARs exhibit three phases, characterized by steeper increases in invariability at both small and large scales. Such triphasic IARs are observed for primary productivity from plot to continental scales. When synchrony decays as a power law with distance, IARs are quasilinear on a log-log scale. Such quasilinear IARs are observed for North American bird biomass at both species and community levels. The IAR provides a quantitative tool to predict the effects of habitat loss on population and ecosystem stability and to detect regime shifts in spatial ecological systems, which are goals of relevance to conservation and policy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Birds/physiology*
  14. Chen YJ, Liu WJ, Chen DN, Chieng SH, Jiang L
    Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, 2017 Dec;42(23):4593-4597.
    PMID: 29376257 DOI: 10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20171030.018
    To provide theoretical basis for the traceability and quality evaluation of edible bird's nests (EBNs), the Cytb sequence was applied to identify the origin of EBNs. A total of 39 experiment samples were collected from Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam and Thailand. Genomic DNA was extracted for the PCR reaction. The amplified products were sequenced. 36 sequences were downloaded from Gen Bank including edible nest swiftlet, black nest swiftlet, mascarene swiftlet, pacific swiftlet and germain's swiftlet. MEGA 7.0 was used to analyze the distinction of sequences by the method of calculating the distances in intraspecific and interspecific divergences and constructing NJ and UPMGA phylogenetic tree based on Kimera-2-parameter model. The results showed that 39 samples were from three kinds of EBNs. Interspecific divergences were significantly greater than the intraspecific one. Samples could be successfully distinguished by NJ and UPMGA phylogenetic tree. In conclusion, Cytb sequence could be used to distinguish the origin of EBNs and it is efficient for tracing the origin species of EBNs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Birds/classification*
  15. Han Y, Bai J, Zhang Z, Wu T, Chen P, Sun G, et al.
    Sci. Total Environ., 2019 Nov 10;690:748-759.
    PMID: 31302540 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.06.508
    Many species of birds gradually adapt to urbanization and colonize cities successfully. However, their nest site selection and competitive relationship in an urban community remain little known. Understanding the impact of urbanization on birds and the competitive relationship has important implications for the conservation and management of wildlife in urban ecosystems. Here, we undertook a systematic study to quantify nests in all species of birds in an urbanizing area of Nanchang, China. A total of 363 nests were detected in surveys including 340 nests of 16 bird species and 23 unidentified species nests. We mainly analyzed 5 dominant breeding birds with a sample size of >10 during the two breeding seasons (From April to July in 2016 and 2017), which included the light-vented bulbul, Chinese blackbird, scaly-breasted munia, spotted dove and grey-capped greenfinch. Most birds (93.66%) nested in the tree of artificial green belts, which seems to be the best breeding habitat for urban birds. Our results suggested that birds' breeding success relies on the trade-off between the benefit and the expense of specific stresses from habitats. The nest site selection of birds is also affected by the life habit of urban predators. Furthermore, competition among species can influence their distributions and utilization of environmental resources when birds nest in cities. We confirmed that the niche differentiation of five bird species in an urban environment makes them coexist successfully by utilizing various resources.
    Matched MeSH terms: Birds/physiology*
  16. Cosset CCP, Edwards DP
    Ecol Appl, 2017 09;27(6):1932-1945.
    PMID: 28543995 DOI: 10.1002/eap.1578
    Selective logging is the most prevalent land-use change in the tropics. Despite the resulting degradation of forest structure, selectively logged forests still harbor a substantial amount of biodiversity leading to suggestions that their protection is the next best alternative to conserving primary, old-growth forests. Restoring carbon stocks under Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) schemes is a potential method for obtaining funding to protect logged forests, via enrichment planting and liberation cutting of vines. This study investigates the impacts of restoring logged forests in Borneo on avian phylogenetic diversity, the total evolutionary history shared across all species within a community, and on functional diversity, with important implications for the protection of evolutionarily unique species and the provision of many ecosystem services. Overall and understorey avifaunal communities were studied using point count and mist netting surveys, respectively. Restoration caused a significant loss in phylogenetic diversity and MPD (mean pairwise distance) leaving an overall bird community of less total evolutionary history and more closely related species compared to unlogged forests, while the understorey bird community had MNTD (mean nearest taxon distance) that returned toward the lower levels found in a primary forest, indicating more closely related species pairs. The overall bird community experienced a significant loss of functional strategies and species with more specialized traits in restored forests compared to that of unlogged forests, which led to functional clustering in the community. Restoration also led to a reduction in functional richness and thus niches occupied in the understorey bird community compared to unlogged forests. While there are additional benefits of restoration for forest regeneration, carbon sequestration, future timber harvests, and potentially reduced threat of forest conversion, this must be weighed against the apparent loss of phylogenetic and functional diversity from unlogged forest levels, making the biodiversity-friendliness of carbon sequestration schemes questionable under future REDD+ agreements. To reduce perverse biodiversity outcomes, it is important to focus restoration only on the most degraded areas or at reduced intensity where breaks between regimes are incorporated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Birds*
  17. Chong NS, Dionne B, Smith R
    J Math Biol, 2016 09;73(3):751-84.
    PMID: 26865385 DOI: 10.1007/s00285-016-0971-y
    Depopulation of birds has always been an effective method not only to control the transmission of avian influenza in bird populations but also to eliminate influenza viruses. We introduce a Filippov avian-only model with culling of susceptible and/or infected birds. For each susceptible threshold level [Formula: see text], we derive the phase portrait for the dynamical system as we vary the infected threshold level [Formula: see text], focusing on the existence of endemic states; the endemic states are represented by real equilibria, pseudoequilibria and pseudo-attractors. We show generically that all solutions of this model will approach one of the endemic states. Our results suggest that the spread of avian influenza in bird populations is tolerable if the trajectories converge to the equilibrium point that lies in the region below the threshold level [Formula: see text] or if they converge to one of the pseudoequilibria or a pseudo-attractor on the surface of discontinuity. However, we have to cull birds whenever the solution of this model converges to an equilibrium point that lies in the region above the threshold level [Formula: see text] in order to control the outbreak. Hence a good threshold policy is required to combat bird flu successfully and to prevent overkilling birds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Birds; Influenza in Birds/prevention & control*; Influenza in Birds/transmission
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