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  1. Che Ahmad Tantowi NA, Lau SF, Mohamed S
    Calcif. Tissue Int., 2018 10;103(4):388-399.
    PMID: 29808374 DOI: 10.1007/s00223-018-0433-1
    Osteoporosis (OP) and osteoarthritis (OA) are debilitating musculoskeletal diseases of the elderly. Ficus deltoidea (FD) or mistletoe fig, a medicinal plant, was pre-clinically evaluated against OP- and OA-related bone alterations, in postmenopausal OA rat model. Thirty twelfth-week-old female rats were divided into groups (n = 6). Four groups were bilateral ovariectomized (OVX) and OA-induced by intra-articular monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) injection into the right knee joints. The Sham control and OVX-OA non-treated groups were given deionized water. The three other OVX-OA groups were orally administered daily with FD extract (200, 400 mg/kg) or diclofenac (5 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. The rats' bones and blood were evaluated for protein and mRNA expressions of osteoporosis and inflammatory indicators, and micro-CT computed tomography for bone microstructure. The non-treated OVX-OA rats developed severe OP bone loss and bone microstructural damage in the subchondral and metaphyseal regions, supported by reduced serum bone formation markers (osteocalcin, osteoprotegerin) and increased bone resorption markers (RANKL and CTX-I). The FD extract significantly (p bone microstructural and biomarker changes by dose-dependently down-regulating pro-inflammatory NF-κβ, TNF-α, and IL-6 mRNA expressions. The FD extract demonstrated good anti-osteoporotic properties in this OP/OA preclinical model by stimulating bone formation and suppressing bone resorption via anti-inflammatory pathways. This is among the few reports relating the subchondral bone plate and trabecular thickening with the metaphyseal trabecular osteopenic bone loss under osteoporotic-osteoarthritis conditions, providing some insights on the debated inverse relationship between osteoporosis and osteoarthritis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Remodeling/drug effects
  2. Pang KL, Low NY, Chin KY
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2020;14:4029-4051.
    PMID: 33061307 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S270829
    Denosumab is a receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand inhibitor, which suppresses the bone resorption process to preserve bone mass. It is usually recommended to postmenopausal women and men with high fracture risk. With the recent publication of the results from FREEDOM study and its extension, the long-term effect of denosumab in preventing fragility fractures has been put forward. This review aims at summarising the evidence of denosumab in reducing fracture risk and its safety derived from clinical studies. Most of the evidence are derived from FREEDOM trials up to 10 years of exposure. Denosumab is reported to prevent vertebral and non-vertebral fractures. It is also proven effective in Japanese women, patients with chronic kidney diseases and breast cancer patients receiving antineoplastic therapy. Denosumab discontinuation leads to high remodeling, loss of bone mineral density and increased fracture risk. These negative effects might be preventable by bisphosphonate treatment. The safety profile of denosumab is consistent with increased years of exposure. In conclusion, denosumab is a safe and effective option for reducing fracture risk among patients with osteoporosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Remodeling/drug effects
  3. Jayusman PA, Mohamed IN, Alias E, Mohamed N, Shuid AN
    Nutrients, 2018 Jun 21;10(7).
    PMID: 29933617 DOI: 10.3390/nu10070799
    Male osteoporosis is associated with higher rates of disability and mortality. Hence the search for suitable intervention and treatment to prevent the degeneration of skeletal health in men is necessary. Eurycoma longifolia (EL), a traditional plant with aphrodisiac potential may be used to treat and prevent male osteoporosis. The skeletal protective effect of quassinoid-rich EL extract, which has a high content of eurycomanone, has not been studied. This study aimed to determine whether EL could prevent skeletal deteriorations in gonadal hormone-deficient male rats. Ninety-six male Sprague⁻Dawley rats were randomly assigned to baseline, sham-operated (Sham), orchidectomised or chemically castrated groups. Chemical castration was achieved via subcutaneous injection of degarelix at 2 mg/kg. The orchidectomised and degarelix-castrated rats were then divided into negative control groups (ORX, DGX), testosterone-treated groups (intramuscular injection at 7 mg/kg weekly) (ORX + TES, DGX + TES), and EL-supplemented groups receiving daily oral gavages at doses of 25 mg/kg (ORX + EL25, DGX + EL25), 50 mg/kg (ORX + EL50, DGX + EL50), and 100 mg/kg (ORX + EL100, DGX + EL100). Following 10 weeks of treatment, the rats were euthanized and their blood and femora were collected. Bone biochemical markers, serum testosterone, osteoprotegerin (OPG), and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa β-ligand (RANKL) levels and histomorphometric indices were evaluated. Quassinoid-rich EL supplementation was found to reduce degenerative changes of trabecular structure by improving bone volume, trabecular number, and separation. A reduction in the percentage of osteoclast and increase in percentage of osteoblast on bone surface were also seen with EL supplementation. Dynamic histomorphometric analysis showed that the single-labeled surface was significantly decreased while the double-labeled surface was significantly increased with EL supplementations. There was a marginal but significant increase in serum testosterone levels in the ORX + EL25, DGX + EL50, and DGX + EL100 groups compared to their negative control groups. Quassinoid-rich EL extract was effective in reducing skeletal deteriorations in the androgen-deficient osteoporosis rat model.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Remodeling/drug effects*
  4. Chin KY, Abdul-Majeed S, Fozi NF, Ima-Nirwana S
    Nutrients, 2014 Nov;6(11):4974-83.
    PMID: 25389899 DOI: 10.3390/nu6114974
    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of annatto tocotrienol on indices of bone static histomorphometry in orchidectomized rats. Forty male rats were randomized into baseline (BL), sham (SH), orchidectomized (ORX), annatto tocotrienol-treated (AnTT) and testosterone enanthate-treated (TE) groups. The BL group was sacrificed upon receipt. All rats except the SH group underwent bilateral orchidectomy. Annatto tocotrienol at 60 mg/kg body weight was administered orally daily to the AnTT group for eight weeks. Testosterone enanthate at 7 mg/kg body weight was administered intramuscularly once weekly for eight weeks to the TE group. The rat femurs were collected for static histomorphometric analysis upon necropsy. The results indicated that the ORX group had significantly higher osteoclast surface and eroded surface, and significantly lower osteoblast surface, osteoid surface and osteoid volume compared to the SH group (p < 0.05). Annatto tocotrienol and testosterone enanthate intervention prevented all these changes (p < 0.05). The efficacy of annatto tocotrienol was on par with testosterone enanthate. In conclusion, annatto tocotrienol at 60 mg/kg can prevent the imbalance in bone remodeling caused by increased osteoclast and bone resorption, and decreased osteoblast and bone formation. This serves as a basis for the application of annatto tocotrienol in hypogonadal men as an antiosteoporotic agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Remodeling/drug effects*
  5. Chin KY, Ima-Nirwana S
    Clin Interv Aging, 2014;9:1247-59.
    PMID: 25120355 DOI: 10.2147/CIA.S67016
    BACKGROUND: Previous animal models have demonstrated that tocotrienol is a potential treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis. This study evaluated the antiosteoporotic effects of annatto-derived tocotrienol (AnTT) using a testosterone-deficient osteoporotic rat model.
    METHODS: Forty rats were divided randomly into baseline, sham, orchidectomized, AnTT, and testosterone groups. The baseline group was euthanized without undergoing any surgical treatment or intervention. The remaining groups underwent orchidectomy, with the exception of the sham group. AnTT 60 mg/kg/day was given orally to the AnTT group, while the testosterone group received testosterone enanthate 7 mg/kg per week intramuscularly for 8 weeks. Structural changes in trabecular bone at the proximal tibia were examined using microcomputed tomography. Structural and dynamic changes at the distal femur were examined using histomorphometric methods. Serum osteocalcin and C-terminal of type 1 collagen crosslinks were measured. Bone-related gene expression in the distal femur was examined.
    RESULTS: There were significant degenerative changes in structural indices in the orchidectomized group (P<0.05), but no significant changes in dynamic indices, bone remodeling markers, or gene expression (P>0.05) when compared with the sham group. The AnTT group showed significant improvement in structural indices at the femur (P<0.05) and significantly increased expression of bone formation genes (P<0.05). Testosterone was more effective than AnTT in preventing degeneration of bone structural indices in the femur and tibia (P<0.05).
    CONCLUSION: AnTT supplementation improves bone health in testosterone-deficient rats by enhancing bone formation. Its potential should be evaluated further by varying the dosage and treatment duration.
    KEYWORDS: bone remodeling; osteoporosis; testosterone; tocotrienol
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Remodeling/drug effects*
  6. Mohamed N, Yin CM, Shuid AN, Muhammad N, Babji AS, Soelaiman IN
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2013 Sep;26(5):1027-31.
    PMID: 24035963
    Cosmos caudatus (ulam raja) contains high mineral content and possesses high antioxidant activity which may be beneficial in bone disorder such as postmenopausal osteoporosis. The effects of C. caudatus on bone metabolism biomarkers in ovariectomized rats were studied. 48 Sprague-Dawley rats aged three months were divided into 6 groups. One group of rats was sham-operated while the remaining rats were ovariectomized. The ovariectomized rats were further divided into 5 groups: the control, three groups force-fed with C. caudatus at the doses of 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg or 300mg/kg and another group supplemented with calcium 1% ad libitum. Treatments were given 6 days per week for a period of eight weeks. Blood samples were collected twice; before and after treatment. Parameters measured were bone resorbing cytokine; interleukin-1 and the bone biomarkers; osteocalcin and pyridinoline. Serum IL-1 and pyridinoline levels were significantly increased in ovariectomized rats. Supplementation of C. caudatus was able to prevent the increase of IL-1 and pyridinoline in ovariectomized rats. Besides that, C. caudatus showed the same effect as calcium 1% on biochemical parameters of bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats. In conclusion, Cosmos caudatus was as effective as calcium in preventing the increase in bone resorption in ovariectomized rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Remodeling/drug effects*
  7. Chin KY, Mo H, Soelaiman IN
    Curr Drug Targets, 2013 Dec;14(13):1533-41.
    PMID: 23859472
    Osteoporosis is posing a tremendous healthcare problem globally. Much effort has been invested in finding novel antiosteoporotic agents to stop the progression of this disease. Tocotrienol, one of the isoforms of vitamin E, is poised as a potential antiosteoporotic agent. Previous studies showed that tocotrienol as a single isomer or as a mixture demonstrated both anabolic and antiresorptive effects in various rodent models of osteoporosis. In vitro experiments further demonstrated that tocotrienol could up-regulate genes related to osteoblastogenesis and modify receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B signaling against osteoclastogenesis. Additionally, tocotrienol was also shown to be a strong 3- hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase down-regulator with a mechanism different from that of statins. Inhibition of the mevalonate pathway affects both osteoblast and osteoclast formation in favor of the former. Tocopherol, a more commonly used isoform of vitamin E does not possess similar effects. Tocotrienol is also a potent antioxidant. It can scavenge free radicals and prevent oxidative damage on osteoblast thus promoting its survival. It may also up-regulate the antioxidant defense network in osteoclast and indirectly act against free radical signaling essential in osteoclastogenesis. The effects of tocotrienol on Wnt/β-catenin signaling essential in osteoblastogenesis have not been determined. More mechanistic studies need to be conducted to illustrate the antiosteoporotic effects of tocotrienol. Clinical trials are also required to confirm its effects in humans. In conclusion, tocotrienol demonstrates great potential as an antiosteoporotic agent and much research effort should be invested to develop it as an agent to curb osteoporosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Remodeling/drug effects
  8. Hapidin H, Othman F, Soelaiman IN, Shuid AN, Mohamed N
    Calcif. Tissue Int., 2011 Jan;88(1):41-7.
    PMID: 20953592 DOI: 10.1007/s00223-010-9426-4
    Nicotine is a major alkaloid of tobacco, which can increase free radical formation, leading to osteoporosis. The effects of nicotine administration and cessation on bone histomorphometry and biomarkers were studied in 28 Sprague-Dawley male rats. Rats aged 3 months and weighing 250-300 g were divided into four groups: control (C, normal saline for 4 months), nicotine for 2 months (N2), nicotine for 4 months (N4), and nicotine cessation (NC). The NC group was given nicotine for the first 2 months and then allowed to recover for the following 2 months without nicotine. Histomorphometric analysis was done using an image analyzer. ELISA kits were used to measure serum osteocalcin (bone formation marker) and pyridinoline (PYD, bone resorption marker) levels at month 0, month 2, and month 4. All test groups showed a significant decrease in BV/TV, Ob.S/BS, dLS/BS, MAR, BFR/BS, and osteocalcin levels and an increase in sLS/BS and PYD levels compared to group C. No significant differences were observed in all parameters measured among the test groups, except for MAR and BFR/BS. In conclusion, nicotine administration at a dose of 7 mg/kg for 2 and 4 months has detrimental effects on bone metabolism. Nicotine administration at 7 mg/kg for 2 months is sufficient to produce significant effects on bone histomorphometric parameters and biomarkers. In addition, prolonging the treatment for another 2 months did not show any significant differences. Cessation of nicotine for 2 months did not reverse the effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Remodeling/drug effects
  9. Mohamad NV, Soelaiman IN, Chin KY
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2018 Jul;103:453-462.
    PMID: 29674281 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.04.083
    INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis is a debilitating skeletal side effect of androgen deprivation therapy based on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist in men. Tocotrienol from Bixa orellana (annatto) has been demonstrated to offer protection against osteoporosis by exerting anabolic effects on bone. Thus, it may prevent osteoporosis among GnRH agonist users.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of annatto-tocotrienol on the bone turnover markers and bone histomorphometry in a model of male osteoporosis induced by buserelin (a GnRH agonist).

    METHODS: Forty-six three-months-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (three months old; 300-350 g) were randomly divided into six groups. The baseline control group (n = 6) was sacrificed at the onset of the study. The normal control group (n = 8) received corn oil (the vehicle of tocotrienol) orally daily and normal saline (the vehicle of buserelin) subcutaneously daily. The buserelin control (n = 8) received corn oil orally daily and subcutaneous buserelin injection 75 μg/kg/day daily. The calcium control (n = 8) received 1% calcium in drinking water and subcutaneous buserelin injection 75 μg/kg/day. The remaining rats were treated with two different treatments, i.e., (1) oral annatto tocotrienol at 60 mg/kg/day plus subcutaneous buserelin injection 75 μg/kg/day (n = 8); (2) oral annatto tocotrienol at 100 mg/kg/day plus subcutaneous buserelin injection 75 μg/kg/day (n = 8). The rats were injected with calcein twice before being sacrificed to label the bones. The rats were euthanized, and their blood and right femur were harvested at the end of the treatment for bone turnover markers and bone histomorphometry examination.

    RESULTS: Both serum osteocalcin and C-telopeptide of type 1 collagen were not significantly different between treated groups and buserelin control (P > 0.05). The buserelin control group had a significantly lower bone volume and higher eroded surface compared with the normal control group (P bone volume, trabecular thickness and osteoblast number, as well as a significantly lower single-labelled surface compared with the buserelin control (P bone loss by increasing the mineralising surface and osteoblasts number. Thus, it has a potential role in preventing bone loss in men using GnRH agonist.

    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Remodeling/drug effects*
  10. Parvaneh M, Karimi G, Jamaluddin R, Ng MH, Zuriati I, Muhammad SI
    Clin Interv Aging, 2018;13:1555-1564.
    PMID: 30214175 DOI: 10.2147/CIA.S169223
    Purpose: Osteoporosis is one of the major health concerns among the elderly population, especially in postmenopausal women. Many menopausal women over 50 years of age lose their bone density and suffer bone fractures. In addition, many mortality and morbidity cases among the elderly are related to hip fracture. This study aims to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus helveticus (L. helveticus) on bone health status among ovariectomized (OVX) bone loss-induced rats.

    Methods: The rats were either OVX or sham OVX (sham), then were randomly assigned into three groups, G1: sham, G2: OVX and G3: OVX+L. helveticus (1 mL of 108-109 colony forming units). The supplementation was force-fed to the rats once a day for 16 weeks while control groups were force-fed with demineralized water.

    Results: L. helveticus upregulated the expression of Runx2 and Bmp2, increased serum osteocalcin, bone volume/total volume and trabecular thickness, and decreased serum C-terminal telopeptide and total porosity percentage. It also altered bone microstructure, as a result increasing bone mineral density and bone strength.

    Conclusion: Our results indicate that L. helveticus attenuates bone remodeling and consequently improves bone health in OVX rats by increasing bone formation along with bone resorption reduction. This study suggests a potential therapeutic effect of L. helveticus (ATCC 27558) on postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Remodeling/drug effects
  11. Hasan WNW, Chin KY, Jolly JJ, Ghafar NA, Soelaiman IN
    PMID: 29683099 DOI: 10.2174/1871530318666180423122409
    BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a silent skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass and destruction of skeletal microarchitecture, leading to an increased fracture risk. This occurs due to an imbalance in bone remodelling, whereby the rate of bone resorption is greater than bone formation. Mevalonate pathway, previously known to involve in cholesterol synthesis, is an important regulatory pathway for bone remodelling.

    OBJECTIVE: This review aimed to provide an overview of the relationship between mevalonate pathway and bone metabolism, as well as agents which act through this pathway to achieve their therapeutic potential.

    DISCUSSION: Mevalonate pathway produces farnesyl pyrophosphate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate essential in protein prenylation. An increase in protein prenylation favours bone resorption over bone formation. Non-nitrogen containing bisphosphonates inhibit farnesyl diphosphate synthase which produces farnesyl pyrophosphate. They are used as the first line therapy for osteoporosis. Statins, a well-known class of cholesterol-lowering agents, inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, the rate-determining enzyme in the mevalonate pathway. It was shown to increase bone mineral density and prevent fracture in humans. Tocotrienol is a group of vitamin E commonly found in palm oil, rice bran and annatto bean. It causes degradation of HMG-CoA reductase. Many studies demonstrated that tocotrienol prevented bone loss in animal studies but its efficacy has not been tested in humans.

    CONCLUSION: Mevalonate pathway can be exploited to develop effective antiosteoporosis agents.

    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Remodeling/drug effects*
  12. Sakthiswary R, Das S
    Curr Drug Targets, 2013 Dec;14(13):1552-7.
    PMID: 23848441
    Osteoporosis is a common complication observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Accelerated bone loss is always a matter of concern. The pathogenesis of RA may be important for better understanding of the bone loss. The mechanism involved in the bone loss in RA is not well understood although cytokines such as interleukin 1 and tumour necrosis factor α (TNF α) have been strongly implicated. TNF α antagonists have revolutionised the treatment of RA in the recent years. Beyond the control of disease activity in RA, accumulating evidence suggests that this form of therapy may provide beneficial effects to the bone metabolism and remodeling. An extensive search of the literature was performed in the Medline, Scopus and EBSCO databases to evaluate the documented research on the effects of TNF α antagonists in RA on bone mineral density and bone turnover markers. The available data based on our systematic review, depict a significant association between TNF α antagonists treatment and suppression of bone resorption.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Remodeling/drug effects
  13. Parvaneh K, Ebrahimi M, Sabran MR, Karimi G, Hwei AN, Abdul-Majeed S, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:897639.
    PMID: 26366421 DOI: 10.1155/2015/897639
    Probiotics are live microorganisms that exert beneficial effects on the host, when administered in adequate amounts. Mostly, probiotics affect the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of the host and alter the composition of gut microbiota. Nowadays, the incidence of hip fractures due to osteoporosis is increasing worldwide. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats have fragile bone due to estrogen deficiency and mimic the menopausal conditions in women. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effects of Bifidobacterium longum (B. longum) on bone mass density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), bone remodeling, bone structure, and gene expression in OVX rats. The rats were randomly assigned into 3 groups (sham, OVX, and the OVX group supplemented with 1 mL of B. longum 10(8)-10(9) colony forming units (CFU)/mL). B. longum was given once daily for 16 weeks, starting from 2 weeks after the surgery. The B. longum supplementation increased (p < 0.05) serum osteocalcin (OC) and osteoblasts, bone formation parameters, and decreased serum C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and osteoclasts, bone resorption parameters. It also altered the microstructure of the femur. Consequently, it increased BMD by increasing (p < 0.05) the expression of Sparc and Bmp-2 genes. B. longum alleviated bone loss in OVX rats and enhanced BMD by decreasing bone resorption and increasing bone formation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Remodeling/drug effects
  14. Mansur SA, Mieczkowska A, Bouvard B, Flatt PR, Chappard D, Irwin N, et al.
    J Cell Physiol, 2015 Dec;230(12):3009-18.
    PMID: 26016732 DOI: 10.1002/jcp.25033
    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is associated with a high risk for bone fractures. Although bone mass is reduced, bone quality is also dramatically altered in this disorder. However, recent evidences suggest a beneficial effect of the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) pathways on bone quality. The aims of the present study were to conduct a comprehensive investigation of bone strength at the organ and tissue level; and to ascertain whether enzyme resistant GIP or GLP-1 mimetic could be beneficial in preventing bone fragility in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Streptozotocin-treated mice were used as a model of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Control and streptozotocin-diabetic animals were treated for 21 days with an enzymatic-resistant GIP peptide ([D-Ala(2) ]GIP) or with liraglutide (each at 25 nmol/kg bw, ip). Bone quality was assessed at the organ and tissue level by microCT, qXRI, 3-point bending, qBEI, nanoindentation, and Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy. [D-Ala2]GIP and liraglutide treatment did prevent loss of whole bone strength and cortical microstructure in the STZ-injected mice. However, tissue material properties were significantly improved in STZ-injected animals following treatment with [D-Ala2]GIP or liraglutide. Treatment of STZ-diabetic mice with [D-Ala(2) ]GIP or liraglutide was capable of significantly preventing deterioration of the quality of the bone matrix. Further studies are required to further elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved and to validate whether these findings can be translated to human patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone Remodeling/drug effects
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