ANTHROPOLOGISTS are again indebted to Mr. Ling Roth for presenting to them, in a convenient form, the results of wide reading and diligent compilation. It is by such well-directed enthusiasm that the labours of the student are materially lightened; for not only has the author, in this instance, marshalled a portentous array of accurately acknowledged quotations, but he has sedulously collected illustrations of objects preserved m numerous museums and private collections, in order to fully illustrate the descriptions that he quotes.
A general survey has been made of tuberculosis in the Jesselton – Tauran area. Climatical, living, and occupational conditions tend to favour the spread and advancement of the disease. The death rate is high, but has been influenced by conditions attributable to the war. The native population, due to their mode of life, succumbs more easily to the disease that do the Chinese. Cases are usually seen in the late stages, mainly due to ignorance.
The Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak are global hotspots of forest loss and degradation due to timber and oil palm industries; however, the rates and patterns of change have remained poorly measured by conventional field or satellite approaches. Using 30 m resolution optical imagery acquired since 1990, forest cover and logging roads were mapped throughout Malaysian Borneo and Brunei using the Carnegie Landsat Analysis System. We uncovered ∼364,000 km of roads constructed through the forests of this region. We estimated that in 2009 there were at most 45,400 km(2) of intact forest ecosystems in Malaysian Borneo and Brunei. Critically, we found that nearly 80% of the land surface of Sabah and Sarawak was impacted by previously undocumented, high-impact logging or clearing operations from 1990 to 2009. This contrasted strongly with neighbouring Brunei, where 54% of the land area remained covered by unlogged forest. Overall, only 8% and 3% of land area in Sabah and Sarawak, respectively, was covered by intact forests under designated protected areas. Our assessment shows that very few forest ecosystems remain intact in Sabah or Sarawak, but that Brunei, by largely excluding industrial logging from its borders, has been comparatively successful in protecting its forests.
Thismia kelabitiana, a new unique species from the Sarawak state of Malaysia in the island of Borneo is described and illustrated. This new species is not similar to any species of Thismia described so far especially by having a unique form of mitre and outer perianth lobes deeply divided into 8-10 acute lobes and forming striking fringe around perianth tube opening. The species appears to be critically endangered due to ongoing logging activities in the region. It may potentially become a surrogate species for lower montane forests of the region and thus help protect them against further destruction.
The original version of this Article contained an error in the third sentence of the abstract and incorrectly read "Here, using long-term plot monitoring records of up to half a century, we find that intact forests in Borneo gained 0.43 Mg C ha-1 year-1 (95% CI 0.14-0.72, mean period 1988-2010) above-ground live biomass", rather than the correct "Here, using long-term plot monitoring records of up to half a century, we find that intact forests in Borneo gained 0.43 Mg C ha-1 year-1 (95% CI 0.14-0.72, mean period 1988-2010) in above-ground live biomass carbon". This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.
Two replacement names of the genus group in Micronoctuini (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Hypenodinae), Tentaxus nom. nov. pro Tentax Fibiger 2011 (unavailable name) and Flaxus nom. nov. pro Flax Fibiger 2011 (unavailable name) are proposed; 43 new conbinations (comb. nov.) are stated. A new species T. zhangweiweii Han & Kononenko, sp. nov. is described from Borneo (Sabah, East Malaysia).
A new silvanid genus Borneophanusgen. n. is described based on specimens collected from Malaysian Borneo. A new species, B.spinosussp. n., is described herein. Digitiform sensilla on the apical maxillary palpomere is reported in Silvanidae for the first time.
The Bornean representatives of the genus Georissa (Hydrocenidae) have small, dextral, conical, calcareous shells consisting of ca. three teleoconch whorls. Our recent study on the Georissa of Malaysian Borneo has revealed high intra- and inter-specific variation in the "scaly" group (a group of species with striking scale-like surface sculpture). The present study on the "non-scaly" Georissa is the continuation of the species revision for the genus. The "non-scaly" species are also diverse in shell sculptures. This informal group comprises Georissa with subtle spiral and/or radial sculpture. The combination of detailed conchological assessment and molecular analyses provides clear distinctions for each of the species. Conchological, molecular, and biogeographic details are presented for 16 species of "non-scaly" Georissa. Three of these are new to science, namely Georissacorrugatasp. n., Georissainsulaesp. n., and Georissatrusmadisp. n.
This study was carried out to identify the pigment extracted from Malaysian brown seaweed, Sargassum binderi and its stability in various conditions. Pigments were extracted using methanol:chloroform:water (4:2:1, v/v/v), which is part of fucoidan extraction process, where the pigments were waste. Carotenoid and chlorophyll were found in the extract using UV-vis spectrophotometer (420 and 672 nm, respectively). Fucoxanthin was identified as the carotenoid present using HPLC, while its functional groups and structure were determined using FTIR and 1H NMR, respectively. The fucoxanthin-rich extract stability was tested on different pH (pH1-13), light exposure (dark and light) and storage temperature (4ºC, 25ºC and 50ºC). The stability tests showed that it was most stable at pH5-7, stored in dark condition and at the storage temperature of 4ºC and 25ºC. The fucoxanthin-rich extract from Sargassum binderi has potential to be applied as bioingredient and functional food as it is stable in normal storage conditions.
SIR,-I was glad to read a letter from Dr. Copeland (Dec. 6), a pioneer in bringing medical treatment to the Muruts of North Borneo.1 I feel that something should be said about the present malaria situation there. McArthur's control measures for the vector " Anopheles leucosphyrus " (now A. balabacensis), were in fact resumed by him under the new post-war Government. Clearing the undergrowth around seepages was tried during 1949-52, and showed some reduction in vector breeding and spleen-rates.2 However, more recent surveys have shown that McArthur's experimental villages no longer show any malariometric advantage over comparison villages, despite his hopes for the relative permanence of his methods. It was decided by the GovemmentjW.H.O.jUNlcEF Malaria Project to use house spraying with residual insecticide, which had proved highly effective in Sarawak against the virtually identical A. leucosphyrus. For Dr. Copeland's information, these mosquitoes do rest on walls during the night for periods sufficiently long to make them susceptible to effective attack by residual insecticides. It has been shown during the past three years that residual insecticides produce a very great decrease in the density of the vector. On Labuan Island house-spraying alone has been successful in interrupting transmission, and when combined with antimalarial drugs it has been shown capable of controlling transmission even in the most difficult parts of the interior. The complete eradication of malaria from British North Borneo now appears to be an attainable goal.
Megasybacodes brevitarsis Kakizoe, Maruyama Masumoto, a new genus and new species of the tribe Rhyparini, is described based on a single female from Borneo. It is allied to the genus Sybacodes Fairmaire, 1896, but easily distinguished by its short protarsi, broad flattened basal tarsomeres of the meso- and metatarsi, broad flattened tibiae, and wrinkled pronotal and elytral surfaces. Checklist of rhyparine species from Borneo is also provided.
Tropical beta diversity, and particularly that of herbivorous insects in rainforests, is often considered to be enormous, but this notion has recently been challenged. Because tropical beta diversity is highly relevant to our view on biodiversity, it is important to gain more insights and to resolve methodological problems that may lead to contradictions in different studies. We used data on two ecologically distinct moth families from Southeast Asia and analyzed separately the contribution of beta components to overall species richness at three spatial scales. Observed diversity partitions were compared under different types of null models. We found that alpha diversity was lower than expected on the basis of null models, whereas hierarchical beta components were larger than expected. Beta components played a significant role in shaping gamma diversity, and their contribution can be high (multiplicative beta >5). We found a reduction in beta components when comparing primary forests to agricultural sites (cf. "biotic homogenization"), but even in these habitats, beta components were still substantial. Our analyses show that beta components do play an important role in our data on tropical herbivorous insects and that these results are not attributable to lumping different habitats when sampling environmental gradients.