The Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak are global hotspots of forest loss and degradation due to timber and oil palm industries; however, the rates and patterns of change have remained poorly measured by conventional field or satellite approaches. Using 30 m resolution optical imagery acquired since 1990, forest cover and logging roads were mapped throughout Malaysian Borneo and Brunei using the Carnegie Landsat Analysis System. We uncovered ∼364,000 km of roads constructed through the forests of this region. We estimated that in 2009 there were at most 45,400 km(2) of intact forest ecosystems in Malaysian Borneo and Brunei. Critically, we found that nearly 80% of the land surface of Sabah and Sarawak was impacted by previously undocumented, high-impact logging or clearing operations from 1990 to 2009. This contrasted strongly with neighbouring Brunei, where 54% of the land area remained covered by unlogged forest. Overall, only 8% and 3% of land area in Sabah and Sarawak, respectively, was covered by intact forests under designated protected areas. Our assessment shows that very few forest ecosystems remain intact in Sabah or Sarawak, but that Brunei, by largely excluding industrial logging from its borders, has been comparatively successful in protecting its forests.
Thismia kelabitiana, a new unique species from the Sarawak state of Malaysia in the island of Borneo is described and illustrated. This new species is not similar to any species of Thismia described so far especially by having a unique form of mitre and outer perianth lobes deeply divided into 8-10 acute lobes and forming striking fringe around perianth tube opening. The species appears to be critically endangered due to ongoing logging activities in the region. It may potentially become a surrogate species for lower montane forests of the region and thus help protect them against further destruction.
The original version of this Article contained an error in the third sentence of the abstract and incorrectly read "Here, using long-term plot monitoring records of up to half a century, we find that intact forests in Borneo gained 0.43 Mg C ha-1 year-1 (95% CI 0.14-0.72, mean period 1988-2010) above-ground live biomass", rather than the correct "Here, using long-term plot monitoring records of up to half a century, we find that intact forests in Borneo gained 0.43 Mg C ha-1 year-1 (95% CI 0.14-0.72, mean period 1988-2010) in above-ground live biomass carbon". This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.
A new silvanid genus Borneophanusgen. n. is described based on specimens collected from Malaysian Borneo. A new species, B.spinosussp. n., is described herein. Digitiform sensilla on the apical maxillary palpomere is reported in Silvanidae for the first time.
Two replacement names of the genus group in Micronoctuini (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Hypenodinae), Tentaxus nom. nov. pro Tentax Fibiger 2011 (unavailable name) and Flaxus nom. nov. pro Flax Fibiger 2011 (unavailable name) are proposed; 43 new conbinations (comb. nov.) are stated. A new species T. zhangweiweii Han & Kononenko, sp. nov. is described from Borneo (Sabah, East Malaysia).
The Bornean representatives of the genus Georissa (Hydrocenidae) have small, dextral, conical, calcareous shells consisting of ca. three teleoconch whorls. Our recent study on the Georissa of Malaysian Borneo has revealed high intra- and inter-specific variation in the "scaly" group (a group of species with striking scale-like surface sculpture). The present study on the "non-scaly" Georissa is the continuation of the species revision for the genus. The "non-scaly" species are also diverse in shell sculptures. This informal group comprises Georissa with subtle spiral and/or radial sculpture. The combination of detailed conchological assessment and molecular analyses provides clear distinctions for each of the species. Conchological, molecular, and biogeographic details are presented for 16 species of "non-scaly" Georissa. Three of these are new to science, namely Georissacorrugatasp. n., Georissainsulaesp. n., and Georissatrusmadisp. n.
This study was carried out to identify the pigment extracted from Malaysian brown seaweed, Sargassum binderi and its stability in various conditions. Pigments were extracted using methanol:chloroform:water (4:2:1, v/v/v), which is part of fucoidan extraction process, where the pigments were waste. Carotenoid and chlorophyll were found in the extract using UV-vis spectrophotometer (420 and 672 nm, respectively). Fucoxanthin was identified as the carotenoid present using HPLC, while its functional groups and structure were determined using FTIR and 1H NMR, respectively. The fucoxanthin-rich extract stability was tested on different pH (pH1-13), light exposure (dark and light) and storage temperature (4ºC, 25ºC and 50ºC). The stability tests showed that it was most stable at pH5-7, stored in dark condition and at the storage temperature of 4ºC and 25ºC. The fucoxanthin-rich extract from Sargassum binderi has potential to be applied as bioingredient and functional food as it is stable in normal storage conditions.
Fauna of Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) of Sabah state of Malaysia, Borneo Island, was evaluated for the first time. Samples from 40 locations were studied, and 31 species of Cladocera were revealed, including three species of Sididae, one species of Daphnidae, one species of Moinidae, four species of Macrothricidae, two species of Ilyocryptidae, and 20 species of Chydoridae. One species of Ilyocryptidae, Ilyocryptus yooni Jeong, Kotov and Lee, 2012, is recorded for Malaysia for the first time, and one more, Anthalona sp., is probably new for science. Of 31 species recorded for Sabah, only three are true planktonic species and 28 are substrate-associated species. Absence of large natural lakes, habitats with most rich cladoceran fauna, can be an important factor limiting diversity of Cladocera in Sabah.
Tropical beta diversity, and particularly that of herbivorous insects in rainforests, is often considered to be enormous, but this notion has recently been challenged. Because tropical beta diversity is highly relevant to our view on biodiversity, it is important to gain more insights and to resolve methodological problems that may lead to contradictions in different studies. We used data on two ecologically distinct moth families from Southeast Asia and analyzed separately the contribution of beta components to overall species richness at three spatial scales. Observed diversity partitions were compared under different types of null models. We found that alpha diversity was lower than expected on the basis of null models, whereas hierarchical beta components were larger than expected. Beta components played a significant role in shaping gamma diversity, and their contribution can be high (multiplicative beta >5). We found a reduction in beta components when comparing primary forests to agricultural sites (cf. "biotic homogenization"), but even in these habitats, beta components were still substantial. Our analyses show that beta components do play an important role in our data on tropical herbivorous insects and that these results are not attributable to lumping different habitats when sampling environmental gradients.
Homalomena galbana Baharuddin S. & P.C. Boyce is described from the Maliau Basin Conservation Area, Sabah, representing the first species of the Homalomena Supergroup to be recorded from Sabah, and the first mesophytic species of the Supergroup to be described from Borneo. The species is illustrated and a brief discussion on the pollination role of interpistillar staminodes is presented.
The effects of commercial logging on tree diversity in tropical rainforest are largely unknown. In this study, selectively logged tropical rainforest in Indonesian Borneo is shown to contain high tree species richness, despite severe structural damage. Plots logged 8 years before sampling contained fewer species of trees greater than 20 centimeters in diameter than did similar-sized unlogged plots. However, in samples of the same numbers of trees (requiring a 50 percent larger area), logged forest contained as many tree species as unlogged forest. These findings warrant reassessment of the conservation potential of large tracts of commercially logged tropical rainforest.
Although dengue haemorrhagic fever is widely established in South-East Asia, no cases have been reported from Borneo. In order to help to assess whether the infection could become established in Borneo, a survey was made, using the single-larva collection method, of the distribution and prevalence of the principal vector, Aedes aegypti, in Sabah and in a few towns and villages of Brunei and Sarawak. In addition, the prevalence of Ae. aegypti was compared with that of certain other species of Aedes.Ae. aegypti was found to be well established in the north, east, and south-west of Sabah but to be absent from almost all of the west coast. It was either uncommon in, or absent from, several small coastal villages; in others, very high Breteau indices were recorded. No reasonable explanation for this discontinuous distribution can be suggested. Large numbers of potential larval habitats were found, giving reason to believe that Ae. aegypti will spread further within these territories.
The sarawakensis species group of the termitophilous carabid genus Orthogonius MacLeay, 1825 is defined and reviewed. Members of this species group are distributed in Southeast Asia and represented by four species, including two new species: Orthogonius sabahicus sp. n. (Sabah, northern Borneo, Malaysia) and Orthogonius morvanianus sp. n. (southern Thailand). A key to all species of the species group is also provided.