CASE DETAILS: We report here an anomalous origin of profunda brachii as continuation of an arterial trunk arising from 3rd part of the axillary artery. This common trunk at its commencement passed between 2 roots of median nerve and gave branches of 3rd part of axillary artery before it continued as profunda brachii artery. The further course and branching pattern of profunda brachii were normal.
CONCLUSION: Since the axillary artery is next choice of artery for arterial cannulation in cardiopulmonary bypass procedures, prior knowledge of existence of such variation in its branching pattern helps in avoiding possible diagnostic or interventional therapeutic errors.
METHODS: Both patients had features of difficult airway, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status class III and central venous occlusive disease. The common approach, i.e., ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block was technically difficult with inherent risk of vascular puncture due to dilated venous collaterals at the supraclavicular area possibly compromising block quality. The risk of general anesthesia (GA) was significant as patients were morbidly obese with possible risk of obstructive sleep apnea postoperatively. As an alternative, we performed the ultrasound-guided costoclavicular approach infraclavicular brachial plexus block with 20 mL local anesthetic (LA) ropivacaine 0.5% delivered at the identified costoclavicular space using in-plane needling technique. Another 10 mL of LA was infiltrated along the subcutaneous fascia of the proximal medial aspect of arm.
RESULTS: Both surgeries of >2 hours' duration were successful, without the need of further local infiltration at surgical site or conversion to GA.
CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound-guided costoclavicular approach can be an alternative way of providing effective analgesia and safe anesthesia for vascular access surgery of the upper limb.
CASE PRESENTATION: This is a case of a 37-year-old, right-hand dominant, Malay man who fell approximately 6 meters from a rambutan tree and his left arm hit the tree trunk on his way down. He was an active tobacco smoker with a 20 pack year smoking history. On clinical examination, Doppler signals over his radial and ulnar arteries were poor. He proceeded with emergency computed tomography angiogram of his left upper limb which showed non-opacification of contrast at the distal left brachial artery just before the bifurcation of the left brachial artery at his left elbow joint. Radiographs and computed tomography scan also showed undisplaced fracture of left lateral epicondyle and radial head with no evidence of elbow dislocation. He subsequently underwent left brachial to brachial artery bypass which was done using reversed saphenous vein graft and recovered well. His fractures were treated using 90 degree long posterior splint for 2 weeks and he was then allowed early range of motion of the left elbow. This patient developed left elbow dislocation 6 weeks postoperatively. Closed manipulative reduction of his left elbow resulted in incomplete reduction. The functional outcome of his left elbow was limited with a range of motion of left elbow of 0-45 degrees. However, he was not keen for surgery to stabilize his elbow joint during his last follow-up 6 months post injury.
CONCLUSIONS: This is an uncommon case of brachial artery injury in a civilian caused by blunt trauma associated with occult elbow instability/dislocation and minor fractures around the elbow joint. The treatment of brachial artery injury with clinical evidence of distal ischemia is surgical revascularization. The possibility of elbow instability and dislocation need to be considered in all cases of brachial artery injury because early radiographs and computed tomography scans may be normal. Short-term posterior splint immobilization is not sufficient to prevent recurrent dislocations.
METHODS: From October 2015 to September 2016, 202 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), stages 4 and 5, underwent arteriovenous fistula creation at the Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital, Malaysia. Nine patients, with severe atherosclerosis of the distal artery, but with satisfactory veins, underwent forearm loop arteriovenous fistula creation. Maturation of the fistula was based on the classification by the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF KDOQI).
RESULTS: All nine patients who underwent forearm loop arteriovenous fistula have had diabetes mellitus for more than 10 years. Only one fistula failed to mature within 6 weeks. Two arteriovenous fistulas thrombosed at 3 and 5 months, respectively, after the commencement of haemodialysis. However, the other six matured fistulas are still functioning well after a year of regular usage.
CONCLUSIONS: Distal forearm arteries in diabetics may be severely atherosclerotic. Forearm loop arteriovenous fistula can be considered as the primary access for cases decided as inconvenient for fistula creation due to severe occlusive atherosclerotic disease of the forearm arteries; in order to preserve upper arm veins for future access procedures.