Displaying all 19 publications

  1. Hansdak R, Arora J, Sharma M, Mehta V, Suri RK, Das S
    Clin Ter, 2015;166(2):65-7.
    PMID: 25945432 DOI: 10.7417/CT.2015.1817
    Variations in the arterial pattern of upper limb are of colossal importance to the surgeons as they are liable to iatrogenic injuries. During routine dissection for undergraduate medical students, an anomaly of brachial artery was discovered. The brachial artery terminated at higher level into ulnar and radial artery. The common interosseus artery took origin arising from radial artery. The ulnar artery did not give any branches in the forearm. Both radial and ulnar artery displayed a superficial course in the forearm. The anatomical knowledge of these variations may be of great help for the clinicians in planning and conducting flap harvesting during reconstructive surgeries and in arteriography.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brachial Artery/abnormalities*
  2. Dharap AS
    Surg Radiol Anat, 1994;16(1):97-9.
    PMID: 8047976
    During dissection an anomalous muscle was found on the medial aspect in the distal half of one left upper extremity. This muscle arose from the humerus between the m. coracobrachialis and the m. brachialis, passed obliquely across the front of the brachial artery and median nerve and blended with the common origin of the forearm flexor muscles. It does not appear to be an additional head of the biceps brachii or the brachialis muscles. The existence of this anomalous muscle should be kept in mind in a patient presenting with a high median nerve palsy together with symptoms of brachial artery compression.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brachial Artery/pathology
  3. Naveen K, Jyothsna P, Nayak SB, Mohandas RK, Swamy RS, Deepthinath R, et al.
    Ethiop J Health Sci, 2014 Jan;24(1):93-6.
    PMID: 24591805
    BACKGROUND: Axillary artery is known to show different variations mostly in its branching pattern. Similarly, the origin of profunda brachii is often encountered with abnormality. Therefore, when the vascular variations in the upper limb persist, mostly it is confined to its branching pattern followed by its variant origin. But, among all the reported variations of profunda brachii, its variant origin from the 3rd part of the axillary artery with common trunk for the branches of axillary artery is unique.

    CASE DETAILS: We report here an anomalous origin of profunda brachii as continuation of an arterial trunk arising from 3rd part of the axillary artery. This common trunk at its commencement passed between 2 roots of median nerve and gave branches of 3rd part of axillary artery before it continued as profunda brachii artery. The further course and branching pattern of profunda brachii were normal.

    CONCLUSION: Since the axillary artery is next choice of artery for arterial cannulation in cardiopulmonary bypass procedures, prior knowledge of existence of such variation in its branching pattern helps in avoiding possible diagnostic or interventional therapeutic errors.

    Matched MeSH terms: Brachial Artery/abnormalities*
  4. Vollala VR, Nagabhooshana S, Bhat SM
    Anat Sci Int, 2008 Dec;83(4):307-9.
    PMID: 19159366 DOI: 10.1111/j.1447-073X.2008.00235.x
    Variations in the arterial pattern of the upper limb have been observed frequently, either in the routine dissections or in clinical practice. The aim of the present study was to describe the anatomical, surgical and embryological importance of major arteries of upper limbs of human beings. The present article is the report of low division and trifurcation of brachial artery and abnormal course of radial artery (passing deep to the pronator teres muscle) found in a 45-year-old embalmed male cadaver. Knowledge of the arterial variations in the upper limb is of considerable importance during invasive and non-invasive investigative procedures or orthopedic, reconstructive, or surgical procedures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brachial Artery/abnormalities*; Brachial Artery/anatomy & histology
  5. Yvonne-Tee GB, Rasool AH, Halim AS, Rahman AR
    J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods, 2005 Sep-Oct;52(2):286-92.
    PMID: 16125628
    Postocclusive reactive hyperemia in forearm skin is a commonly used model for studying microvascular reactivity function, particularly in the assessment of vascular effect of topically applied pharmacological substances. In this study, we investigated the reproducibility of several different laser-Doppler-derived parameters in the measurement of postocclusive reactive hyperemia at forearm skin in healthy subjects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brachial Artery/injuries; Brachial Artery/physiopathology
  6. Vickash K, Amer A, Naeem A, Falak S
    Malays Orthop J, 2016 Nov;10(3):36-38.
    PMID: 28553446 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1611.001
    Elbow dislocation, though a common orthopaedic emergency is rare with brachial artery injury and is even more uncommon in the paediatric age group. We present the case of a child who sustained trauma resulting in closed elbow dislocation with brachial artery injury. Elbow dislocation with brachial artery injury can present with palpable distal pulses and good capillary refill because of rich collaterals at the elbow. But this patient presented with signs of frank ischemia distally, and was managed with ipsilateral reverse cephalic vein graft. He had good volume pulses at one year follow-up. Patients with such presentation should have careful clinical and radiological assessment to exclude complicated elbow dislocation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brachial Artery
  7. Vollala VR, Nagabhooshana S, Bhat SM, Potu BK, Rakesh V
    Singapore Med J, 2008 Sep;49(9):e254-8.
    PMID: 18830534
    The arterial and muscular variations of the upper limbs are common but important with regard to surgical approaches. Even though anomalies of the coracobrachialis muscle are rare, anatomical variations of the biceps brachii, existence of the accessory muscles in the forearm and persistent median artery are known and well documented. During routine dissection, we observed some important anatomical variations in a 50-year-old male cadaver. The variations were unilateral. The anomalies were: third head for biceps brachii muscle, an accessory belly for coracobrachialis muscle crossing the median nerve and brachial vessels and continuing with the medial head of triceps brachii muscle to be inserted to the olecranon process (coracoulnaris), a persistent median artery and an additional muscle in the anterior compartment of forearm. Although there are individual reports about these variations, the combination of these variations in one cadaver has not previously been described in the literature. Awareness of these variations is necessary to avoid complications during radiodiagnostic procedures or surgeries in the upper limb.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brachial Artery/pathology
  8. Das S, Othman F, Suhaimi FH, Latiff AA
    Rom J Morphol Embryol, 2008;49(3):421-3.
    PMID: 18758652
    An abnormal communication between an artery and a vein is known as arteriovenous malformation (AVM) or arteriovenous fistula (AVF). The AVM or the AVF might be congenital in origin or even acquired. The arteriovenous communications are usually surgically made in patients undergoing repeated hemodialysis, while suffering from any chronic renal disease. The abnormal arteriovenous communications may be asymptomatic in nature. The arteriovenous communications might be an incidental finding during any anatomical dissections or medico-legal autopsies. The present study reports the presence of BBC on both sides of a 54-year-old male cadaver who died of road traffic accident. There was a communication between the brachial artery and the brachial vein, 11.5 cm above the medial epicondyle. The oblique communicating channel measured 1.5 cm in length and connected the brachial artery to the brachial vein. A detailed histological study of the communication showed the presence of thick tunica media. Knowledge of arteriovenous communications may be beneficial for any academic studies and equally important for vascular surgeons and radiologists performing angiographic studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brachial Artery/abnormalities*
  9. Tunku-Naziha TZ, Wan-Yuhana W, Hadizie D, Muhammad-Paiman, Abdul-Nawfar S, Wan-Azman WS, et al.
    Malays Orthop J, 2017 Mar;11(1):12-17.
    PMID: 28435568 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1703.005
    The management of pink pulseless limbs in supracondylar fractures has remained controversial, especially with regards to the indication for exploration in a clinically well-perfused hand. We reviewed a series of seven patients who underwent surgical exploration of the brachial artery following supracondylar fracture. All patients had a non-palpable radial artery, which was confirmed by Doppler ultrasound. CT angiography revealed complete blockage of the artery with good collateral and distal run-off. Two patients were more complicated with peripheral nerve injuries, one median nerve and one ulnar nerve. Only one patient had persistent arterial constriction which required reverse saphenous graft. The brachial arteries were found to be compressed by fracture fragments, but were in continuity. The vessels were patent after the release of obstruction and the stabilization of the fracture. There was no transection of major nerves. The radial pulse was persistently present after 12 weeks, and the nerve activity returned to full function.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brachial Artery
  10. Kurnaz R, Ikizler M, Ozbayburtlu M, Gunes T
    Malays Orthop J, 2018 Mar;12(1):51-53.
    PMID: 29725515 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1803.012
    Proximal humerus fracture is a common arm trauma and rarely occurs with vascular injury which however is a serious complication. In this case report, we present a long segment dissection of the axillary and brachial arteries as a rare complication due to fragmented proximal humerus fracture and shoulder dislocation. An 80-year old female patient was seen at the emergency department. Radiograph examination has revealed a fragmented proximal humerus fracture besides dislocation of the head of humerus towards the axillary area. On vascular examination, acute arterial occlusion such as absence of radial and ulnar pulses were observed in her left hand. The patient was immediately taken to the operating room. The dissection included the entire segment approximately 20cm between the distal subclavian artery and the distal brachial artery. This injured segment was removed and a 6mm Polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE) graft with rings was interpositoned between subclavian and brachial arteries. This case is a rarity because of such a significant complication after a small injury. Axillary artery injuries caused by humeral neck fractures are rare but should not be missed by the physician.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brachial Artery
  11. Lim SM, Chua GG, Asrul F, Yazid M
    Malays Orthop J, 2017 Nov;11(3):63-65.
    PMID: 29326772 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1711.008
    The brachial artery is rarely injured in closed posterior dislocation of the elbow, unlike the high rate of vascular injury seen after dislocation of the knee. Despite the anatomical proximity of the brachial artery to the elbow joint, most cases of brachial artery injury after dislocation of the elbow are related to an associated fracture, an open injury or high-energy trauma. A high index of suspicion should be maintained as well as a thorough neurovascular examination with regards this potentially disastrous complication. We describe an unusual case of complete thrombosis of the brachial artery presenting with a posterior elbow dislocation following a fall (low energy trauma) that was treated nonoperatively. At three months follow-up, patient had good circulation over the affected limb, no complaints of ischemic pain or cold intolerance, no signs of Volkmann's ischemic contracture, and a range of motion that was comparable to the contralateral limb.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brachial Artery
  12. Kow RY, Yuen JC, Low CL, Mohd-Daud KN
    Malays Orthop J, 2019 Nov;13(3):77-79.
    PMID: 31890116 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1911.014
    Supracondylar humeral fracture is the most common elbow injury in children. It may be associated with a vascular injury in nearly 20% of the cases with a pink pulseless limb. We present a unique case of a paediatric pink pulseless supracondylar humeral fracture, seen late, on the 16th-day post-trauma. Open reduction, cross Kirschner wiring, and brachial artery exploration and repair were performed, and the patient recovered well. Early open reduction and exploration of the brachial artery with or without prior CT angiography was a safe approach in treating patients who presented at 16 days.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brachial Artery
  13. Beh ZY, Hasan MS
    J Vasc Access, 2017 Sep 11;18(5):e57-e61.
    PMID: 28478621 DOI: 10.5301/jva.5000720
    INTRODUCTION: We report the use of a newly described regional technique, ultrasound-guided costoclavicular approach infraclavicular brachial plexus block for surgical anesthesia in two high-risk patients undergoing 2nd stage transposition of basilic vein fistula.

    METHODS: Both patients had features of difficult airway, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status class III and central venous occlusive disease. The common approach, i.e., ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block was technically difficult with inherent risk of vascular puncture due to dilated venous collaterals at the supraclavicular area possibly compromising block quality. The risk of general anesthesia (GA) was significant as patients were morbidly obese with possible risk of obstructive sleep apnea postoperatively. As an alternative, we performed the ultrasound-guided costoclavicular approach infraclavicular brachial plexus block with 20 mL local anesthetic (LA) ropivacaine 0.5% delivered at the identified costoclavicular space using in-plane needling technique. Another 10 mL of LA was infiltrated along the subcutaneous fascia of the proximal medial aspect of arm.

    RESULTS: Both surgeries of >2 hours' duration were successful, without the need of further local infiltration at surgical site or conversion to GA.

    CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound-guided costoclavicular approach can be an alternative way of providing effective analgesia and safe anesthesia for vascular access surgery of the upper limb.

    Matched MeSH terms: Brachial Artery/physiopathology; Brachial Artery/surgery*
  14. Phang ZH, Miskon MFB, Ibrahim SB
    J Med Case Rep, 2018 Jul 18;12(1):211.
    PMID: 30016981 DOI: 10.1186/s13256-018-1751-7
    BACKGROUND: Blunt trauma causing brachial artery injury in a young patient is very rare. Cases of brachial artery injury may be associated with closed elbow dislocation or instability. Elbow dislocation may not be evident clinically and radiologically on initial presentation.

    CASE PRESENTATION: This is a case of a 37-year-old, right-hand dominant, Malay man who fell approximately 6 meters from a rambutan tree and his left arm hit the tree trunk on his way down. He was an active tobacco smoker with a 20 pack year smoking history. On clinical examination, Doppler signals over his radial and ulnar arteries were poor. He proceeded with emergency computed tomography angiogram of his left upper limb which showed non-opacification of contrast at the distal left brachial artery just before the bifurcation of the left brachial artery at his left elbow joint. Radiographs and computed tomography scan also showed undisplaced fracture of left lateral epicondyle and radial head with no evidence of elbow dislocation. He subsequently underwent left brachial to brachial artery bypass which was done using reversed saphenous vein graft and recovered well. His fractures were treated using 90 degree long posterior splint for 2 weeks and he was then allowed early range of motion of the left elbow. This patient developed left elbow dislocation 6 weeks postoperatively. Closed manipulative reduction of his left elbow resulted in incomplete reduction. The functional outcome of his left elbow was limited with a range of motion of left elbow of 0-45 degrees. However, he was not keen for surgery to stabilize his elbow joint during his last follow-up 6 months post injury.

    CONCLUSIONS: This is an uncommon case of brachial artery injury in a civilian caused by blunt trauma associated with occult elbow instability/dislocation and minor fractures around the elbow joint. The treatment of brachial artery injury with clinical evidence of distal ischemia is surgical revascularization. The possibility of elbow instability and dislocation need to be considered in all cases of brachial artery injury because early radiographs and computed tomography scans may be normal. Short-term posterior splint immobilization is not sufficient to prevent recurrent dislocations.

    Matched MeSH terms: Brachial Artery/injuries*; Brachial Artery/surgery
  15. Tang WJ, Mat Saad AZ
    J Vasc Access, 2018 Mar;19(2):191-194.
    PMID: 29148006 DOI: 10.5301/jva.5000801
    INTRODUCTION: Arteriovenous fistula is a lifeline for end-stage kidney disease patients on dialysis. The quality of the vein and artery to be used plays a crucial role in attaining a functioning, reliable and long-lasting arteriovenous fistula. The aim of the study is to present an alternative for haemodialysis access to preserve the upper arm vasculature for future use - the forearm loop arteriovenous fistula.

    METHODS: From October 2015 to September 2016, 202 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), stages 4 and 5, underwent arteriovenous fistula creation at the Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital, Malaysia. Nine patients, with severe atherosclerosis of the distal artery, but with satisfactory veins, underwent forearm loop arteriovenous fistula creation. Maturation of the fistula was based on the classification by the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF KDOQI).

    RESULTS: All nine patients who underwent forearm loop arteriovenous fistula have had diabetes mellitus for more than 10 years. Only one fistula failed to mature within 6 weeks. Two arteriovenous fistulas thrombosed at 3 and 5 months, respectively, after the commencement of haemodialysis. However, the other six matured fistulas are still functioning well after a year of regular usage.

    CONCLUSIONS: Distal forearm arteries in diabetics may be severely atherosclerotic. Forearm loop arteriovenous fistula can be considered as the primary access for cases decided as inconvenient for fistula creation due to severe occlusive atherosclerotic disease of the forearm arteries; in order to preserve upper arm veins for future access procedures.

    Matched MeSH terms: Brachial Artery/physiopathology; Brachial Artery/surgery*
  16. Jagdish K, Paiman M, Nawfar A, Yusof M, Zulmi W, Azman W, et al.
    Malays Orthop J, 2014 Mar;8(1):14-20.
    PMID: 25279079 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1403.012
    A seven years retrospective study was performed in 45 consecutive vascular injuries in the extremities to investigate the pattern of injuries, managements and outcomes. Motor-vehicle accidents were the leading cause of injuries (80%), followed by industrial injuries (11.1%) and iatrogenic injuries (4.4%). Popliteal and brachial artery injuries were commonly involved (20%). Fifteen (33.3%) patients had fractures, dislocation or fracture dislocation around the knee joint and 6 (13.3%) patients had soft tissue injuries without fracture. Traumatic arterial transection accounted for 34 (75.6%) cases, followed by laceration in 7 (15.6%) and 9 (6.7%) contusions. Associated nerve injuries were seen in 8 (17.8 %) patients using intra-operative findings as the gold standard, both conventional angiogram (CA) and computerized tomography angiogram (CTA) had 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity in determining the site of arterial injuries. The mean ischemic time was 25.31 hours (4 - 278 hours). Thirty-three (73.3 %) patients were treated more than 6 hours after injury and 6 patients underwent revascularization after 24 hours; all had good collateral circulation without distal pulses or evidence of ischemic neurological deficit. The mean ischemic time in 39 patients who underwent revascularization within 24 hours was 13.2 hours. Delayed amputation was performed in 5 patients (11.1%). Of the 6 patients who underwent delayed revascularization, one patient had early amputation, one -had delayed amputation following infection and multiple flap procedures while the rest of the patients' limbs survived. Joint stiffness was noted in 10 patients (22.2%) involving the knee joint, elbow and shoulder in two patients each. Infection was also noted in 5 patients (11.1%) with two of them were due to infected implants. Other complications encountered included nonunion (2 patients, 4.4%), delayed union (1 patient, 2.2%),limb length discrepancy (1 patient, 2.2%), hematoma (1 patient, 2.2%) and leaking anastomosis in one patient (2.2%). Volkmann's ischemic contracture occurred in 3 (6.7%) patients. There was no complication noted in 8 (17.8%) patients Three patients (6.7%) died of whom two were not due to vascular causes. We conclude that early detection and revascularization of traumatic vascular injuries is important but delayed revascularization also produced acceptable results.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brachial Artery
  17. Thuhairah Rahman, Radzi Ahmad, Suhaila Muid, Tengku Saifudin Tengku Ismail, Buravkova, Ludmila B., Hapizah Nawawi
    Inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are key components in atherogenesis. Should the status of these pro-atherogenesis factors be enhanced during prolonged confined space travel, specific countermeasures need to be instituted to prevent these processes to ensure safe outcome for astronauts during space expeditions. Six crew members were exposed to prolonged, confined isolation for 520 days. Standard exercise and diet regime were instituted throughout isolation phase. Age and gender-matched healthy, free living controls were recruited in parallel. Serial serum and whole blood were analysed for biomarkers of inflammation (hsCRP and IL-6) and endothelial activation (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and E-selectin). Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the artery was performed following the standard protocols set by the International Brachial Artery Reactivity Task Force by trained personnel. There was decreased sVCAM-1 concentration in crew members compared to baseline. However, there was significant decrease in percentage dilatation from baseline in FMD of the brachial artery in the crew members. Percent change increment was observed in hsCRP while percent change reduction was seen in sVCAM-1. The enhanced inflammation and reduced endothelial function could possibly be attributed to the rigorous exercise instituted throughout the confinement period. Furthermore, possible haemoconcentration as a result of psychosocial stress and/ or exercise-induced physiological response could further explain elevations in hsCRP, and unlikely pathological. Furthermore, endothelial activation was attenuated during isolation, suggesting that the diet and exercise program instated throughout the period improved endothelial function.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brachial Artery
  18. Omar KZ, Ariffin H, Abdullah WA, Chan LL, Lin HP
    Med. Pediatr. Oncol., 2000 May;34(5):377-8.
    PMID: 10797367
    Matched MeSH terms: Brachial Artery
  19. Lee WS, Chong LA, Begum S, Abdullah WA, Koh MT, Lim EJ
    J Pediatr Hematol Oncol, 2001 May;23(4):244-6.
    PMID: 11846304
    We report a newborn infant girl, born to consanguineous parents, with recurrent intracranial hemorrhage secondary to congenital factor V deficiency with factor V inhibitor. Repeated transfusions of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) and platelet concentrates, administrations of immunosuppressive therapy (prednisolone and cyclophosphamide), and intravenous immunoglobulin failed to normalize the coagulation profiles. Exchange transfusion followed-up by administrations of activated prothrombin complex and transfusions of FFP and platelet concentrates caused a temporary normalization of coagulation profile, enabling an insertion of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt for progressive hydrocephalus. The treatment was complicated by thrombosis of left brachial artery and ischemia of left middle finger. The child finally died from another episode of intracranial hemorrhage 10 days after insertion of the VP shunt.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brachial Artery
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