The aim of present study was to determine if the radiological features noticed on dental panoramic radiographs can ascertain the different variants of ameloblastomas. Methods: A total number of 177 cases of ameloblastoma diagnosed in 5 centers in Malaysia were reviewed. The clinical records of these cases were analyzed with respect to age, sex, ethnicity, diagnosis of the lesions, anatomic site, size, side, year of diagnosis, status of the lesion, and characteristics of the lesions. Detailed radiographic features such as septation, calcification, effect on adjacent structures, periosteal reactions, demarcation and cortication of the border of the lesions were recorded. Results: The unicystic, plexiform and acanthomatous ameloblastomas tend to have unilocular radiolucencies as opposed to the follicular ameloblastoma, which demonstrated commonly multilocular radiolucency with soap-bubble appearance. The well-demarcated borders with thin condensed sclerotic border of the lesions appeared to be more significant in unicystic ameloblastoms. Moderately and poorly demarcated lesions are commonly found in follicular and acanthomatous ameloblastomas. Multiplanar pattern of root resorptions, protrusion of roots into lesions and cortical expansions with intact visible margins are commonly seen in ameloblastomas. Conclusion: The various histopathological patterns are not closely related to any specific radiological appearances in the jaws and there seems to be no direct or obvious correlation between the histopathological patterns of the tumours and the radiological appearance of ameloblastomas.
Published data on oxalate poisoning in domestic animals are reviewed, with a focus on tolerance and performance. Oxalic acid is one of a number of anti-nutrients found in forage. It can bind with dietary calcium (Ca) or magnesium (Mg) to form insoluble Ca or Mg oxalate, which then may lead to low serum Ca or Mg levels as well as to renal failure because of precipitation of these salts in the kidneys. Dietary oxalate plays an important role in the formation of Ca oxalate, and a high dietary intake of Ca may decrease oxalate absorption and its subsequent urinary excretion. Oxalate-rich plants can be supplemented with other plants as forage for domestic animals, which may help to reduce the overall intake of oxalate-rich plants. Non-ruminants appear to be more sensitive to oxalate than ruminants because in the latter, rumen bacteria help to degrade oxalate. If ruminants are slowly exposed to a diet high in oxalate, the population of oxalate-degrading bacteria in the rumen increases sufficiently to prevent oxalate poisoning. However, if large quantities of oxalate-rich plants are eaten, the rumen is overwhelmed and unable to metabolize the oxalate and oxalate-poisoning results. Based on published data, we consider that <2.0% soluble oxalate would be an appropriate level to avoid oxalate poisoning in ruminants, although blood Ca level may decrease. In the case of non-ruminants, <0.5% soluble oxalate may be acceptable. However, these proposed safe levels of soluble oxalate should be regarded as preliminary. Further studies, especially long-term studies, are needed to validate and improve the recommended safe levels in animals. This review will encourage further research on the relationships between dietary oxalate, other dietary factors and renal failure in domestic animals.
The prevalence of hypercalcemia in patients with untreated tuberculosis (TB) varies widely between countries. Since the vitamin D status and calcium intake are important determinants of hypercalcemia in TB, these two factors were compared among four populations (U.K., Hong Kong, Malaysia, Thailand) with a low prevalence (<3%) and two populations (Sweden, Australia) with a high prevalence (>25%). In the three Asian countries, the circulating vitamin D levels are abundant, but the calcium intakes are low. Subjects from the U.K. have the lowest circulating vitamin D level of all, although their calcium intake is high. In Sweden and Australia, both the circulating vitamin D levels and calcium intakes are high. Since serum 1,25(OH)2D concentration will only be raised if its substance for extrarenal conversion, 25(OH)D, is plentiful and the effect of a given serum 1,25 (OH)2D concentration on serum calcium is determined by the calcium intake, it is postulated that the regional variation in the prevalence of hypercalcemia in TB may be due to differences in the circulating vitamin D levels and calcium intakes in these populations.
Global shrimp aquaculture farmers have suffered major economic losses due to disease outbreaks. A notable shrimp disease is Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND), which is caused by a new strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus bacteria (VpAHPND) that mainly inhabits the shrimp gut and damages the hepatopancreas. Fewer studies have investigated whether this disease will affect shrimp muscle functioning or cause any muscle damage. We challenged Penaeus monodon shrimp with VpAHPND bacteria using an immersion method. Expression of Dystrophin gene, an important regulatory gene for maintenance of muscle integrity, was quantified from muscle samples using qRT-PCR. Additional verification was conducted by determining calcium concentration and bta-miR-4286 and dre-miR-107b miRNAs expression. P. monodon dystrophin gene demonstrated the highest expression level during AHPND infection when muscle calcium concentration was detected at its lowest level at 6 h post-infection (hpi). The highest muscle calcium concentration, determined at 36 hpi, was supported by higher bta-miR-4286 miRNA expression and lower dre-miR-107b miRNA expression in VpAHPND-infected samples compared to uninfected samples at the same time point. We deduced an interactive relationship between dystrophin gene expression, calcium concentration, and miRNA expression in P. monodon muscle tissues triggered by the invading VpAHPND bacterium.
Gallic acid has been suggested as a potential antimicrobial for the control of Campylobacter but its effectiveness is poorly studied. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of gallic acid against Campylobacter jejuni (n = 8) and Campylobacter coli (n = 4) strains was determined. Gallic acid inhibited the growth of five C. jejuni strains and three C. coli strains (MIC: 15.63-250 μg mL(-1)). Gallic acid was only bactericidal to two C. coli strains (MBC: 125 and 62.5 μg mL(-1)). The mechanism of the bactericidal effect against these two strains (and selected non-susceptible controls) was investigated by determining decimal reduction times and by monitoring the loss of cellular content and calcium ions, and changes in cell morphology. Gallic acid did not result in a loss of cellular content or morphological changes in the susceptible strains as compared to the controls. Gallic acid resulted in a loss of calcium ions (0.58-1.53 μg mL(-1) and 0.54-1.17 μg mL(-1), respectively, over a 180 min period) from the susceptible strains but not the controls. Gallic acid is unlikely to be an effective antimicrobial against Campylobacter in a practical sense unless further interventions to ensure an effective bactericidal mode of action against all strains are developed.
Six weed species (Leptochola chinensis, Echinochloa crus-galli, Echinochloa colona, Jussiaea linifolia, Oryza sativa (weedy rice) and Cyperus iria) were tested for their salt tolerant traits in terms of chlorophyll, proline and mineral nutrients accumulation against different salinity levels (0, 4, 8, 16, 24, 32, and 40 dS m(-1)). Chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll content, proline and mineral nutrients accumulation were determined. Salt stress showed prominent effect on all the parameters investigated and there were significant variations between the all weed species. Chlorophyll content, K+, Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions in both shoots and roots significantly decreased; while proline and Na+ accumulation significantly increased with increasing salinity up to 40 dS m(-1). In terms of overall performance, Cyperus iria and E. crus-galliwere relatively more tolerant; E. colona and J. linifolia were tolerant; L. chinensis and O. sativa L were salt sensitive, respectively.
Schistosomiasis is a major parasitic disease of humans, second only to malaria in its global impact. The disease is caused by digenean trematodes that infest the vasculature of their human hosts. These flukes are limited externally by a body wall composed of a syncytial epithelium, the apical surface membrane of which is a parasitism-adapted dual membrane complex. Annexins are thought to be of integral importance for the stability of this apical membrane system. Here, we present the first structural and immunobiochemical characterization of an annexin from Schistosoma mansoni. The crystal structure of annexin B22 confirms the presence of the previously predicted α-helical segment in the II/III linker and reveals a covalently linked head-to-head dimer. From the calcium-bound crystal structure of this protein, canonical type II, type III and B site positions are occupied, and a novel binding site has been identified. The dimer arrangement observed in the crystal structure suggests the presence of two prominent features, a potential non-canonical membrane binding site and a potential binding groove opposite to the former. Results from transcriptional profiling during development show that annexin B22 expression is correlated with life stages of the parasite that possess the syncytial tegument layer, and ultrastructural localization by immuno-electron microscopy confirms the occurrence of annexins in the tegument of S. mansoni. Data from membrane binding and aggregation assays indicate the presence of differential molecular mechanisms and support the hypothesis of annexin B22 providing structural integrity in the tegument.
Studies related to the engineering of calcium binding sites of CGTase are limited. The calcium binding regions that are known for thermostability function were subjected to site-directed mutagenesis in this study. The starting gene-protein is a variant of CGTase Bacillus sp. G1, reported earlier and denoted as "parent CGTase" herein. Four CGTase variants (S182G, S182E, N132R and N28R) were constructed. The two variants with a mutation at residue 182, located adjacent to the Ca-I site and the active site cleft, possessed an enhanced thermostability characteristic. The activity half-life of variant S182G at 60 °C was increased to 94 min, while the parent CGTase was only 22 min. This improvement may be attributed to the formation of a shorter α-helix and the alleviation of unfavorable steric strains by glycine at the corresponding region. For the variant S182E, an extra ionic interaction at the A/B domain interface increased the half-life to 31 min, yet it reduced CGTase activity. The introduction of an ionic interaction at the Ca-I site via the mutation N132R disrupted CGTase catalytic activity. Conversely, the variant N28R, which has an additional ionic interaction at the Ca-II site, displayed increased cyclization activity. However, thermostability was not affected.
Various types of neurons exhibit subthreshold resonance oscillation (preferred frequency response) to fluctuating sinusoidal input currents. This phenomenon is well known to influence the synaptic plasticity and frequency of neural network oscillation. This study evaluates the resonant properties of pacemaker pyloric dilator (PD) neurons in the central pattern generator network through mathematical modeling. From the pharmacological point of view, calcium currents cannot be blocked in PD neurons without removing the calcium-dependent potassium current. Thus, the effects of calcium (I(Ca)) and calcium-dependent potassium (I(KCa)) currents on resonant properties remain unclear. By taking advantage of Hodgkin-Huxley-type model of neuron and its equivalent RLC circuit, we examine the effects of changing resting membrane potential and those ionic currents on the resonance. Results show that changing the resting membrane potential influences the amplitude and frequency of resonance so that the strength of resonance (Q-value) increases by both depolarization and hyperpolarization of the resting membrane potential. Moreover, hyperpolarization-activated inward current (I(h)) and I(Ca) (in association with I(KCa)) are dominant factors on resonant properties at hyperpolarized and depolarized potentials, respectively. Through mathematical analysis, results indicate that I h and I(KCa) affect the resonant properties of PD neurons. However, I(Ca) only has an amplifying effect on the resonance amplitude of these neurons.
Photobiomodulation relies on the transfer of energy from incident photons to a cell photoacceptor. For many years the concept of photobiomodulation and its outcome has been based upon a belief that the sole receptor within the cell was the mitochondrion. Recently, it has become apparent that there are other photoacceptors operating in different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Alternative photoacceptors would appear to be water and mechanisms regulating calcium homeostasis, despite a direct effect of laser photonic energy on intracellular calcium concentration outwith mitochondrial activity or influence, have not been clearly demonstrated. Therefore, to increase the knowledge of intracellular‑calcium and laser photon interaction, as well as to demonstrate differences in irradiation profiles with modern hand-pieces, we tested and compared the photobiomodulatory effect of 808 nm and 980 nm diode laser light by low- and higher-energy (60s, 100 mW/cm2, 100 mW/cm2, 500 mW/cm2, 1000 mW/cm2, 1500 mW/cm2, 2000 mW/cm2) irradiated with a "standard" (Gaussian fluence distribution) hand-piece or with a "flat-top" (uniform fluence) hand-piece. For this purpose, we used the eukaryote unicellular-model Dictyostelium discoideum. The 808 nm and 980 nm infrared laser light, at the energy tested directly affect the stored Ca2+ homeostasis, independent of the mitochondrial respiratory chain activities. From an organism perspective, the effect on Ca2+-dependent signal transduction as the regulator of spore germination in Dictyostelium, demonstrates how a cell can respond quickly to the correct laser photonic stimulus through a different cellular pathway than the known light-chromophore(mitochondria) interaction. Additionally, both hand-piece designs tested were able to photobiomodulate the D. discoideum cell; however, the hand-piece with a flat-top profile, through uniform fluence levels allows more effective and reproducible effects.
Vietnamese coriander (Polygonum odoratum Lour.) is a plant native to northern Thailand. The biological activities of P. odoratum Lour. extract (POE) include antibacterial, antiviral, and expectorant. However, the effect of POE on intestinal smooth muscle motility is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relaxant effects of POE on isolated rat ileum. Propranolol (1 μM), calcium chloride (1-20 mM), and Nω-nitro-l-arginine methylester (l-NAME, 100 μM) were used to investigate the mechanisms of action. The results showed that POE (0.01-5 mg/mL) reduced KCl-induced contraction. In addition, POE (1 mg/mL) reduced the contraction by propranolol and l-NAME and attenuated CaCl2-induced contractions. Our results indicate that the relaxation effect of POE on ileum contractions seems to involve nitric oxide and β-adrenergic pathways, and blockade of calcium influx. These findings provide a pharmacological basis for the traditional use of POE to treat gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome or diarrhea.
Vitamin K is a cofactor of γ-glutamyl carboxylase, which plays an important role in the activation of γ-carboxyglutamate (gla)-containing proteins that negatively regulate calcification. Thus, vitamin K status might be associated with osteoarthritis (OA), in which cartilage calcification plays a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. This review collates the evidence on the relationship between vitamin K status (circulating or dietary intake level of vitamin K, or circulating uncarboxylated gla proteins) and OA from human observational studies and clinical trial, to examine its potential as an agent in preventing OA. The current literature generally agrees that a sufficient level of vitamin K is associated with a lower risk of OA and pathological joint features. However, evidence from clinical trials is limited. Mechanistic study shows that vitamin K activates matrix gla proteins that inhibit bone morphogenetic protein-mediated cartilage calcification. Gla-rich proteins also inhibit inflammatory cascade in monocytic cell lines, but this function might be independent of vitamin K-carboxylation. Although the current data are insufficient to establish the optimal dose of vitamin K to prevent OA, ensuring sufficient dietary intake seems to protect the elderly from OA.
Hypoxia (HYPX) in several eye diseases such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy causes oxidative cell death and inflammation. TRPM2 cation channel is activated by HYPX-induced ADP-ribose (ADPR) and oxidative stress. The protective role of selenium via inhibition of TRPM2 on the HYPX-induced oxidative cytotoxicity and inflammation values in the human kidney cell line was recently reported. However, the protective role of selenium nanoparticles (SeNP) on the values in the retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells has not been clarified yet. In the current study, we investigated two subjects. First, we investigated the involvement of TRPM2 channel on the HYPX-induced oxidative injury, inflammation, and apoptosis in the ARPE-19 cells. Second, we investigated the protective role of SeNP via inhibition of TRPM2 channel on the HYPX-induced oxidative injury and apoptosis in the ARPE-19 cells. For the aims, the ARPE-19 cells were divided into four main groups as follows: Control (Ctr), SeNP (2.5 μg/ml for 24 h), HYPX (200 μM CoCl2 for 24 h), and HYPX+SeNP. The TRPM2 current density and Ca2+ fluorescence intensity with an increase of mitochondrial membrane depolarization and oxygen free radical (OFR) generations were increased in the ARPE-19 cells by the treatment of HYPX. There was no increase of Ca2+ fluorescence intensity in the pre-treated cells with PARP-1 inhibitors (DPQ and PJ34) or in the presence of Ca2+-free extracellular buffer. When HYPX-induced TRPM2 activity was treated by SeNP and TRPM2 (2-APB and ACA) blockers, the increases of OFR generation, cytokine (TNF-α and IL-1β) levels, TRPM2, and PARP-1 expressions were restored. In conclusion, the exposure of HYPX caused mitochondrial oxidative cell cytotoxicity and cell death via TRPM2-mediated Ca2+ signaling and may provide an avenue for treating HYPX-induced retinal diseases associated with the excessive OFR and Ca2+ influx.
A truncated form of an α-amylase, GTA, from thermophilic Geobacillus thermoleovorans CCB_US3_UF5 was biochemically and structurally characterized. The recombinant GTA, which lacked both the N- and C-terminal transmembrane regions, functioned optimally at 70°C and pH 6.0. While enzyme activity was not enhanced by the addition of CaCl2, GTA's thermostability was significantly improved in the presence of CaCl2. The structure, in complex with an acarbose-derived pseudo-hexasaccharide, consists of the typical three domains and binds one Ca(2+) ion. This Ca(2+) ion was strongly bound and not chelated by EDTA. A predicted second Ca(2+)-binding site, however, was disordered. With limited subsites, two novel substrate-binding residues, Y147 and Y182, may help increase substrate affinity. No distinct starch-binding domain is present, although two regions rich in aromatic residues have been observed. GTA, with a smaller domain B and several shorter loops compared to other α-amylases, has one of the most compact α-amylase folds that may contribute greatly to its tight Ca(2+) binding and thermostability.
Ixotrophy is a process that enables certain microbes to prey on other cells. The ability of cells to aggregate or adhere is thought to be a significant initial step in ixotrophy. The gliding, multicellular filamentous bacterium Aureispira sp. CCB-QB1 belongs to the family Saprospiraceae and preys on bacteria such as Vibrio sp. in seawater. Adhesion and cell aggregation were coincident with preying and were hypothesized to play an important role in the ixotrophy in this bacterium. To test this hypothesis, experiments to elucidate the mechanisms of aggregation or adhesion in this bacterium were performed. The ability of Aureispira QB1 to adhere and aggregate to prey bacterium, Vibrio sp., required divalent cations, especially calcium ions. In the presence of calcium, Aureispira QB1 cells captured 99 % of Vibrio sp. cells after 60 min of incubation. Toluidine blue O, which binds acidic polysaccharides, bound to Aureispira QB1 and inhibited adhesion of Aureispira QB1. These results suggest that acidic polysaccharides are needed for aggregation or adhesion of Aureispira and that calcium ions play a significant role in these phenomena.
Over the recent decades, a number of new pathogens have emerged within specific and diverse populations across the globe, namely, the Nipah virus, the Ebola virus, the Zika virus, and coronaviruses (CoVs) to name a few. Recently, a new form of coronavirus was identified in the city of Wuhan, China. Interestingly, the genomic architecture of the virus did not match with any of the existing genomic sequencing data of previously sequenced CoVs. This had led scientists to confirm the emergence of a new CoV strain. Originally, named as 2019-nCoV, the strain is now called as SARS-CoV-2. High serum levels of proinflammatory mediators, namely, interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-1β, IL-6, interferon-gamma (IFNγ), chemoattractant protein-1, and IFN-inducible protein, have been repeatedly observed in subjects who were infected with this virus. In addition, the virus demonstrated strong coagulation activation properties, leading to further the understanding on the SARS-CoV2. To our understanding, these findings are unique to the published literature. Numerous studies have reported anomalies, namely, decline in the number of lymphocytes, platelets and albumins; and a rise in neutrophil count, aspartate transaminase, alanine aminotransaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, troponins, creatinine, complete bilirubin, D-dimers, and procalcitonin. Supplementation of calcium during the SARS CoV-2 associated hyperactive stage of calcium-sensing receptors (CaSR) may be harmful to the cardio-renal system. Thus, pharmacological inhibition of CaSR may prevent the increase in the levels of intracellular calcium, oxidative, inflammatory stress, and cardio-renal cellular apoptosis induced by high cytokines level in COVID-19 infection.
Two-pore channel proteins, TPC1 and TPC2, are calcium permeable ion channels found localized to the membranes of endolysosomal calcium stores. There is increasing interest in the role of TPC-mediated intracellular signaling in various pathologies; however their role in breast cancer has not been extensively evaluated. TPC1 and TPC2 mRNA was present in all non-tumorigenic and tumorigenic breast cell lines assessed. Silencing of TPC2 but not TPC1 attenuated epidermal growth factor-induced vimentin expression in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells. This effect was not due to a general inhibition of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) as TPC2 silencing had no effect on epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced changes on E-cadherin expression. TPC1 and TPC2 were also shown to differentially regulate cyclopiazonic acid (CPA)-mediated changes in cytosolic free Ca(2+). These findings indicate potential differential regulation of signaling processes by TPC1 and TPC2 in breast cancer cells.
In the last decade, the view of circadian oscillators has expanded from transcriptional feedback to incorporate post-transcriptional, post-translational, metabolic processes and ionic signalling. In plants and animals, there are circadian oscillations in the concentration of cytosolic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyt), though their purpose has not been fully characterized. We investigated whether circadian oscillations of [Ca2+]cyt regulate the circadian oscillator of Arabidopsis thaliana. We report that in Arabidopsis, [Ca2+]cyt circadian oscillations can regulate circadian clock function through the Ca2+-dependent action of CALMODULIN-LIKE24 (CML24). Genetic analyses demonstrate a linkage between CML24 and the circadian oscillator, through pathways involving the circadian oscillator gene TIMING OF CAB2 EXPRESSION1 (TOC1).
Fish movements between aquatic habitats of different salinity ranges (fresh, estuarine, marine) by the tropical catadromous eels Anguilla bicolor bicolor and A. bicolor pacifica were examined by analysing the otolith strontium and calcium concentrations of yellow (immature) and silver (mature) stage eels collected in south-east Asian (Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam) waters. The ratios suggest that all migratory-type eels, including freshwater, brackish water and marine residents, pass the river mouth. However, the habitat preference was different among the sites (countries). In Indonesia and Vietnam, most A. bicolor bicolor and A. bicolor pacifica were either marine or brackish water residents in this study. Alternatively, most A. bicolor bicolor were freshwater residents in Malaysia; such a typical catadromous migration pattern in these eels has not been found in previous studies. The wide range of otolith Sr:Ca in both subspecies indicates that the habitat use of these tropical eels was opportunistic among fresh, brackish and marine waters during their growth phases following recruitment to coastal areas. The geographical variability of migratory histories suggests that habitat use might be determined by the inter and intraspecific competition and environmental conditions at each site.
In this report we have evaluated radiation effective dose received by patients during ECG-gated CCTA examinations based on gender, heart rate, tube voltage protocol and body mass index (BMI). A total of 1,824 patients were retrospectively recruited (1,139 men and 685 women) and they were divided into Group 1 (CCTA with calcium scoring), Group 2 (CCTA without calcium scoring) and Group 3 (only calcium scoring), where the association between gender, heart rate, tube voltage protocol and body mass index (BMI) were analysed. Examinations were performed using a retrospective ECG-gated CCTA protocol and the effective doses were calculated from the dose length product with a conversion coefficient of 0.026 mSv.mGy-1cm-1. No significant differences were observed in the mean effective dose between gender in all groups. The mean estimated dose was significantly higher when the heart rate was lower in Group 1 (p