Displaying all 14 publications

  1. Merican I
    Med J Malaysia, 1996 Mar;51(1):12-7.
    PMID: 10967973
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the commonest cancers in Asian males. In Malaysia, it is one of the ten most common cancers amongst the male population. Most of our patients with HCC present to us rather late and almost all die within 4 months of diagnosis. HCC occurs more commonly in patients with cirrhosis associated with hepatitis B and C infections. Screening for HCC can lead to early detection of small tumours (< 5 cm) that are more amenable to surgical resection, resulting in improved survival rates. The average 5-year survival rate for those who have undergone surgical resection is 68% (range, 22-73%). Better results are obtained with the smaller tumours (< 2 cm in diameter). Patients with chronic hepatitis B and C infection especially those who are > 45 years of age, who have concomitant cirrhosis or have a family history of HCC should be examined every 3-6 months with periodic serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) measurements and abdominal ultrasound examinations. Abdominal ultrasound is useful in the detection of small tumours. While mass screening for HCC is not cost-effective in countries of low incidence of HCC, screening of high risk groups may be justified in countries with a high endemicity of HBV infection. Screening for HCC in Japan, Taiwan and China appears to yield better results than those in the West. Nonetheless, primary prevention with mass hepatitis B vaccination and blood donor screening for anti-HCV is expected to make a much greater impact in the control of HCC in the years to come.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnosis*
  2. Adeshina AM, Hashim R, Khalid NE
    Interdiscip Sci, 2014 Sep;6(3):222-34.
    PMID: 25205500 DOI: 10.1007/s12539-013-0204-7
    Hepatocellular Carcinoma is the most common type of liver cancer having a strong relation with cirrhosis. Undoubtedly, cirrhosis may be caused by the virus infection of hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HBC) or through alchoholism. However, even when cirrhosis has not been developed, patients with hepatitis viral infections are still at the risk of liver cancer. Apparently, among the numerous medical imaging techniques, Computed Tomography (CT) is the best in defining liver tumor borders. Unfortunately, these imaging techniques, including the CT procedures, usually rely on an appended application to reconstruct the generated 2-D slices to 3-D model. This may involve high performance computation, may be time-consuming or costly. Moreover, even with the outstanding performances of CT in defining the liver tumor boundaries, contrast between tumor tissues and the surrounding liver parenchyma is too low in CT slices. With such a close proxity in the tumor and the surrounding liver tissues, accurate characterization of liver tumor is a challenge. Previously, algorithms were developed to reveal abnormalities in brain's MRI datasets and CT abdominal pelvic, however, introducing a framework that could accurately characterize liver tumor and its surrounding tissues in CT datasets would go a long way in contributing to medical diagnosis and therapy planning of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. This paper proposes an Hepatocellular Carcinoma framework by extending the functionalities of SurLens Visualization System with an automatic liver tumor localization technique using Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA). The study was evaluated with liver CT datasets from the Imaging Science and Information Systems (ISIS) Center, the Georgetown University Medical Center. Significantly, visualization of liver CT datasets and the localization of the entangled tumor was achieved without prior datasets segmentation. Interestingly, the framework achieved remarkably good processing speed at a reasonably cheaper cost with an immediate reconstruction of the datasets and mapping of the tumor tissues within the surrounding liver parenchyma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnosis*
  3. Cheah PL, Looi LM
    Malays J Pathol, 2007 Jun;29(1):37-40.
    PMID: 19105327 MyJurnal
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranks as the fifth most common cancer with an increasing frequency worldwide. "Nuclear atypia", one of the critical features in histological diagnosis of malignancy and grading of the tumour, is generally ascertained through eyeballing. A study was conducted at the Department of Pathology, University of Malaya Medical Centre to assess whether nuclear area, (surrogate measure for nuclear size) and standard deviation (surrogate measure for nuclear pleomorphism) when objectively measured via computer-linked image analysis differs between (1) benign and malignant liver cells and (2) different grades of HCC. A 4-microm thick H&E stained section of 52 histologically re-confirmed HCC with 36 having benign, non-dysplastic surrounding liver were analysed using the Leica Q550 CW system. 10 consecutive non-overlapping, non-mitotic and non-apoptotic nuclei of HCC and surrounding benign hepatocytes respectively were manually traced at 400x magnification on the computer monitor and the nuclear area for the particular cell computed in arbitrary units by the Leica QWIN software. A total of 360 benign hepatocytic nuclei, 240 low grade HCC and 280 high grade HCC nuclei were traced. The mean nuclear area of the benign hepatocytes (37.3) was significantly smaller (p < 0.05) than that of both low grade (65.2) and high grade HCC (80.0). In addition, the mean nuclear area of high grade HCC was significantly larger (p < 0.05) than the low grade HCC. SD of the nuclear areas was lowest in benign hepatocytes (9.3), intermediate in low grade HCC (25.0) and highest in high grade HCC (25.6). These findings indicate that computer-linked nuclear measurement may be a useful adjunct in differentiating benign from malignant hepatocytes, in particular in small biopsies of well-differentiated tumours, and in predicting survival after surgical resection and transplant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnosis*
  4. Zainol H, Sumithran E
    Histopathology, 1993 Jun;22(6):581-6.
    PMID: 7689070
    This study evaluates the usefulness of a combined cytological and histological approach to the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) when applied to fine needle biopsy specimens obtained under ultrasonic guidance. The material, aspirated from 51 focal liver lesions, was handled in such a way that there was sufficient material for both cytological and histological (cell block) assessment. Of the 29 cases of HCC studied, a confident cytological diagnosis was made in 23 (79%). In the remaining six cases, the cytological features were considered to be suspicious but not diagnostic of HCC. Examination of cell blocks in the six cases enabled a confident diagnosis of HCC to be made in all cases. This was due to the supplementary visual information provided by the histological features, particularly the pattern of arrangement of the tumour cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnosis*
  5. Lopez JB, Balasegaram M, Thambyrajah V, Timor J
    Malays J Pathol, 1996 Dec;18(2):95-9.
    PMID: 10879229
    This study was undertaken to see if liver function tests (LFT) served a worthwhile purpose in the investigation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Sera from 80 HCC, 76 benign liver disease (BLD) and 152 healthy adult (HA) subjects were assayed for alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase, bilirubin and albumin. Cut-off values were determined from the HA. ALP, GGT, AST and albumin were abnormal in about 90% of the HCC. With the exception of bilirubin, the LFT were abnormal more frequently in HCC than in chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis, the conditions which preceed it. Raised ALP in the presence of normal bilirubin was more often a feature of HCC than BLD although this relationship was not statistically significant. It seems unlikely that LFT serve a useful function in HCC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnosis*
  6. Pour AM, Masir N, Rose IM
    Malays J Pathol, 2016 Dec;38(3):229-233.
    PMID: 28028292 MyJurnal
    To assess the diagnostic utility of glypican-3 (GPC-3) in comparison to Hep Par 1 in the diagnosis of liver tumours, a cross-sectional study involving 66 resected liver tumours were tested for the protein expression of these markers by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies. Of the 66 cases, 26 (39.4%) were hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 4 (6.1%) were intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and 36 (54.5%) were metastatic tumours. Hep Par 1 and GPC-3 expressions in HCC were 24/26 (92.3%) and 19/26 (73.1%) respectively. In contrast, of non-HCC cases, only 2/40 cases (5.0%) expressed Hep Par 1, including a metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma and a metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma. GPC-3 was expressed in 3/40 cases (7.5%), i.e. a metastatic adenocarcinoma of unknown origin, a metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma and an intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. The sensitivity and specificity for Hep Par 1 were 92.3% and 95% respectively while that of GPC-3 was 73.1% and 92.5% respectively. GPC-3 is a useful marker in the diagnosis of HCC. However it is not superior to Hep Par 1 in its sensitivity and specificity. We recommend that it is utilized together with Hep Par 1 as a panel in the diagnosis of HCC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnosis*
  7. Chia CS, Ban K, Ithnin H, Singh H, Krishnan R, Mokhtar S, et al.
    Immunol Lett, 2002 Dec 03;84(3):163-72.
    PMID: 12413732
    This is the first report on the detection of IL-18, IFN-gamma and IL-10 proteins in hepatocelllular carcinoma. In the apparently normal surrounding tissue, 13 out of 17 paired specimens showed positive immunoreactivity to IL-18 (76.5%) compared with six out of 17 in the tumour portion (35.3% of specimens). Thus, a significantly higher number of IL-18 positive specimens was found in the hepatocytes of apparently normal surrounding tissue compared with the tumour (P=0.018). In contrast, the number of specimens with positive immunoreactivity to the antibody against the Th1 cytokine, IFN-gamma expression in the hepatocytes was lower. Only one specimen from the apparently normal surrounding tissue (one out of 17; 5.9%) and three other specimens from the tumour portion (three out of 17; 17.6%) had positive immunoreactivity. Similarly, the expression of the Th2 cytokine, IL-10 in normal (four out of 17; 23.5%) and tumour portions (five out of 17; 29.4%) was also low. Thus, there did not appear to be predominant Th2 immune response as denoted by IL-10 expression. Using the Spearman correlation rank test, a significant correlation between IL-18 expression in the apparently normal surrounding tissue and high alpha-foetoprotein (AFP) levels of >350 IU/l. No correlation between IL-18 expression in the tumour portion and clinicopathological factors was found. There was also no correlation found between IL-18 and the other cytokines, namely, IFN-gamma and IL-10 expression These new findings provide additional information on the type of cytokines expressed in the tumour microenvironment and give a further insight into the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of cancer which is critical for the development of effective immunotherapeutic approaches for cancer therapy in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnosis
  8. Stepien M, Keski-Rahkonen P, Kiss A, Robinot N, Duarte-Salles T, Murphy N, et al.
    Int J Cancer, 2021 Feb 01;148(3):609-625.
    PMID: 32734650 DOI: 10.1002/ijc.33236
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development entails changes in liver metabolism. Current knowledge on metabolic perturbations in HCC is derived mostly from case-control designs, with sparse information from prospective cohorts. Our objective was to apply comprehensive metabolite profiling to detect metabolites whose serum concentrations are associated with HCC development, using biological samples from within the prospective European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort (>520 000 participants), where we identified 129 HCC cases matched 1:1 to controls. We conducted high-resolution untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics on serum samples collected at recruitment prior to cancer diagnosis. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was applied controlling for dietary habits, alcohol consumption, smoking, body size, hepatitis infection and liver dysfunction. Corrections for multiple comparisons were applied. Of 9206 molecular features detected, 220 discriminated HCC cases from controls. Detailed feature annotation revealed 92 metabolites associated with HCC risk, of which 14 were unambiguously identified using pure reference standards. Positive HCC-risk associations were observed for N1-acetylspermidine, isatin, p-hydroxyphenyllactic acid, tyrosine, sphingosine, l,l-cyclo(leucylprolyl), glycochenodeoxycholic acid, glycocholic acid and 7-methylguanine. Inverse risk associations were observed for retinol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, glycerophosphocholine, γ-carboxyethyl hydroxychroman and creatine. Discernible differences for these metabolites were observed between cases and controls up to 10 years prior to diagnosis. Our observations highlight the diversity of metabolic perturbations involved in HCC development and replicate previous observations (metabolism of bile acids, amino acids and phospholipids) made in Asian and Scandinavian populations. These findings emphasize the role of metabolic pathways associated with steroid metabolism and immunity and specific dietary and environmental exposures in HCC development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnosis*
  9. Yasmin Anum MY, Looi ML, Nor Aini AH, Merican I, Wahidah A, Mohd Radzi AH, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2009 Sep;64(3):223-7.
    PMID: 20527273 MyJurnal
    Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1) is a multifunctional cytokine involved in the regulation of growth and differentiation of both normal and transformed cells. The main aim of this study was to determine whether TGF-beta-1 or alpha fetoprotein (AFP) or the combination of the two is a better indicator for hepatocellularcarcinoma (HCC). Serum TGF-beta-1 and AFP were measured by ELISA in 40 healthy subjects, 23 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 70 patients with hepatitis B, 26 patients with hepatitis C and 16 patients with liver cirrhosis (LC). Patients with liver diseases showed significantly higher serum TGF-beta-1 values (> 3 fold) compared to control subjects. As for serum AFP, significant elevation was only observed for HCC cases. Serum TGF-beta-1 exhibited higher percent sensitivity compared to serum AFP in all liver diseases. Combination of serum TGF-beta-1 and AFP increased specificities in all cases studied. In conclusion, serum TGF-beta-1 is a more sensitive marker for HCC when compared to serum AFP and its specificity is increased when combined with serum AFP.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnosis*
  10. Shiran MS, Isa MR, Mohd Sidik S, Rampal L, Hairuszah I, Sabariah AR
    Malays J Pathol, 2006 Dec;28(2):87-92.
    PMID: 18376797 MyJurnal
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer and its diagnosis on routine stains is usually straightforward, except in some cases where there may be difficulty in distinguishing HCCs from metastatic carcinomas (MC) and cholangiocarcinomas (CC). Hepatocyte Paraffin 1 antibody (Hep Par 1) is a new monoclonal antibody which reacts with normal and neoplastic hepatocytes, and this study aims to determine its specificity and sensitivity in distinguishing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from cholangiocarcinoma (CC) and metastatic carcinomas (MC). Hep Par 1 antibody was applied to 28 cases of HCC, 22 cases of MC from varying sites and 8 CCs, and produced a strong, diffuse, granular, cytoplasmic staining of all benign hepatocytes. 23 out of 28 cases of HCC showed heterogeneously positive staining for Hep Par 1 irrespective of their degree of differentiation, while 2 out of 8 cases of cholangiocarcinoma were positive for Hep Par 1, and all 22 cases of metastatic carcinoma were negative. The sensitivity and specificity of Hep Par 1 for HCC was 82.1% and 93.3% respectively; whereby the antibody was noted to show occasional false positivity in cases of cholangiocarcinoma and non-neoplastic bowel mucosa, while its variable staining in HCC produced false negative results in some small biopsies. Thus, Hep Par 1 should be used in a panel with other antibodies to obtain useful information in distinguishing HCC from CC and MC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnosis*
  11. Joishy SK, Bennett JM, Balasegaram M, MacIntyre JM, Falkson G, Moertel C, et al.
    Cancer, 1982 Sep 15;50(6):1065-9.
    PMID: 6286085
    Twenty Malaysian patients with unresectable primary liver cell cancer were prospectively studied at the General Hospital, Kuala Lampur, and were compared for clinical features with an equal number each of African and American patients being studied by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. The patients received intravenous 5-FU and oral MeCCNU which was used for the first time in an Asian country. Most of the Malaysian patients were Chinese, belonged to younger age groups, and presented with massive hepatomegaly, jaundice, and fever. Toxicity to MeCCNU invariably occurred in the form of leukopenia or thrombocytopenia, but none life threatening. Partial response was seen in 20% of Malaysians as compared to 16% in Americans and none in Africans. Malaysians achieved a median survival of 16 weeks compared to 28 weeks in Americans and only eight weeks in Africans. Malaysian Chinese patients were all HBc Ab + ve. Other factors which may have played an etiologic role in the induction of primary liver cancer included alcohol, Chinese herbal medicines, aflatoxin and habitual use of medicated rubbing oils.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnosis
  12. Goh KL, Razlan H, Hartono JL, Qua CS, Yoong BK, Koh PS, et al.
    J Dig Dis, 2015 Mar;16(3):152-8.
    PMID: 25512092 DOI: 10.1111/1751-2980.12223
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an important cancer in Malaysia. This study aimed to determine the epidemiological characteristics and clinical presentations of patients in a multiracial population consisting of three major Asian races: Malays, Chinese and Indians.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnosis
  13. Omar H, Lim CR, Chao S, Lee MM, Bong CW, Ooi EJ, et al.
    J Clin Gastroenterol, 2015 Feb;49(2):150-7.
    PMID: 25569223 DOI: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000000112
    Up to 25% of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients eventually develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a disease with poor prognosis unless detected early. This study identifies a blood-based RNA biomarker panel for early HCC detection in CHB.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnosis*
  14. Qi Qi C, Ajit Singh V
    BMJ Case Rep, 2012;2012.
    PMID: 22892228 DOI: 10.1136/bcr.01.2012.5518
    The authors present an interesting case under our follow-up who has had five different forms of tumours with different pathologies throughout his lifetime. He started off with hepatoma, followed by pleomorphic sarcoma of the thigh, adenocarcinoma of the prostate, meningioma and finally schwanoma. He is still alive to this date.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnosis
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (afdal@afpm.org.my)

External Links