Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 402 in total

  1. Balasundaram R
    Family Practitioner, 1976;2(4):5-12.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases
  2. Amudha K, Tan KH, Choy AM, Mohd Rais M, Lang CC
    JUMMEC, 2000;5:59-66.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases
  3. Fong AY, Sim KH
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2010 Sep;65(3):165.
    PMID: 21939161
    The rising epidemic of established modifiable cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF), such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes and cigarette smoking, to a large part, are responsible for the clinical events such as acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and cerebrovascular events (strokes, CVE). In our National ACS and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) Registries, it has been documented that over 90% of patients have at least one identifiable CVRF.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases*
  4. Suan AE
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1990 Dec;45(4):272-4.
    PMID: 2152045
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control
  5. George CF, Challoner VF, Waller DG
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1988 Mar;43(1):14-20.
    PMID: 3244314
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy*
  6. Alvarez MF, Bolívar-Mejía A, Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Ramirez-Vallejo E
    F1000Res, 2017;6:390.
    PMID: 28503297 DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.11078.2
    BACKGROUND: In the last three years, chikungunya virus disease has been spreading, affecting particularly the Americas, producing more than two million cases. In this setting, not only new disease-related epidemiological patterns have been found, but also new clinical findings have been reported by different research groups. These include findings on the cardiovascular system, including clinical, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic alterations. No previous systemic reviews have been found in major databases about it.

    METHODS: We performed a systematic review looking for reports about cardiovascular compromise during chikungunya disease. Cardiac compromise is not so common in isolated episodes; but countries where chikungunya virus is an epidemic should be well informed about this condition. We used 6 bibliographical databases as resources: Medline/Pubmed, Embase, ScienceDirect, ClinicalKey, Ovid and SciELO. Dengue reports on cardiovascular compromise were included as well, to compare both arbovirus' organic compromises. Articles that delved mainly into the rheumatic articular and cutaneous complications were not considered, as they were not in line with the purpose of this study. The type of articles included were reviews, meta-analyses, case-controls, cohort studies, case reports and case series. This systematic review does not reach or performed a meta-analysis.

    RESULTS: Originally based on 737 articles, our reviewed selected 40 articles with 54.2% at least mentioning CHIKV cardiovascular compromise within the systemic compromise. Cardiovascular manifestations can be considered common and have been reported in France, India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Colombia, Venezuela and USA, including mainly, but no limited to: hypotension, shock and circulatory collapse, Raynaud phenomenon, arrhythmias, murmurs, myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy, congestive insufficiency, heart failure and altered function profile (Troponins, CPK).

    CONCLUSIONS: Physicians should be encouraged to keep divulgating reports on the cardiovascular involvement of chikungunya virus disease, to raise awareness and ultimately encourage suitable diagnosis and intervention worldwide. More research about cardiovascular involvement and manifestations of systemic Chikungunya virus infection is urgently needed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases*
  7. Cheong AT, Chinna K, Khoo EM, Liew SM
    PLoS ONE, 2017;12(11):e0188259.
    PMID: 29145513 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188259
    BACKGROUND: To improve individuals' participation in cardiovascular disease (CVD) screening, it is necessary to understand factors that influence their intention to undergo health checks. This study aimed to develop and validate an instrument that assess determinants that influence individuals' intention to undergo CVD health checks.

    METHODS: The concepts and items were developed based on findings from our prior exploratory qualitative study on factors influencing individuals' intention to undergo CVD health checks. Content validity of the questionnaire was assessed by a panel of six experts and the item-level content validity index (I-CVI) was determined. After pretesting the questionnaire was pilot tested to check reliability of the items. Exploratory factor analysis was used to test for dimensionality using a sample of 240 participants.

    RESULTS: The finalized questionnaire consists of 36 items, covering nine concepts. The I-CVI for all items was satisfactory with values ranging from 0.83 to 1.00. The exploratory factor analysis showed that the number of factors extracted was consistent with the theoretical concepts. Correlations values between items ranged from 0.30 to 0.85 and all the factor loadings were more than 0.40, indicating satisfactory structural validity. All concepts showed good internal consistency, Cronbach's alpha values ranged 0.66-0.85.

    CONCLUSIONS: The determinants for CVD health check questionnaire has good content and structural validity, and its reliability was established. It can be used to assess determinants influencing individuals' intention to undergo CVD health checks.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis*
  8. Liam CK
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1999 Mar;54(1):155-9; quiz 160.
    PMID: 10972023
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology; Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality
  9. Sharma PA, Maheshwari R, Tekade M, Tekade RK
    Curr. Pharm. Des., 2015;21(30):4465-78.
    PMID: 26354926
    The increasing prevalence and complexity of cardiovascular diseases demand innovative strategies for diagnostic and therapeutic applications to improve patient care/prognoses. Additionally, various factors constrain present cardiovascular therapies, including low aqueous drug solubility, early metabolism, short half-life and drug delivery limitations. The efficient treatment of cardiovascular diseases requires improvement of traditional drug delivery systems. This can be accomplished by using novel nanomaterial that can incorporate diverse bio-actives along with diagnostic agents in a single carrier, referred to as theranostics. This review discusses the state of the art in the applications to diagnosis and therapy of innovative, nanomaterial- based strategies such as lipid based carriers, nanocapsules, magnetic nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, protein conjugated nanoparticles, dendrimers and carbon-based nanoformulations with a special emphasis on how they can contribute to improving the management of cardiovascular disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis*; Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy*
  10. Yusuf S, Rangarajan S, Teo K, Islam S, Li W, Liu L, et al.
    N. Engl. J. Med., 2014 08 28;371(9):818-27.
    PMID: 25162888 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1311890
    BACKGROUND: More than 80% of deaths from cardiovascular disease are estimated to occur in low-income and middle-income countries, but the reasons are unknown.
    METHODS: We enrolled 156,424 persons from 628 urban and rural communities in 17 countries (3 high-income, 10 middle-income, and 4 low-income countries) and assessed their cardiovascular risk using the INTERHEART Risk Score, a validated score for quantifying risk-factor burden without the use of laboratory testing (with higher scores indicating greater risk-factor burden). Participants were followed for incident cardiovascular disease and death for a mean of 4.1 years.
    RESULTS: The mean INTERHEART Risk Score was highest in high-income countries, intermediate in middle-income countries, and lowest in low-income countries (P<0.001). However, the rates of major cardiovascular events (death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, stroke, or heart failure) were lower in high-income countries than in middle- and low-income countries (3.99 events per 1000 person-years vs. 5.38 and 6.43 events per 1000 person-years, respectively; P<0.001). Case fatality rates were also lowest in high-income countries (6.5%, 15.9%, and 17.3% in high-, middle-, and low-income countries, respectively; P=0.01). Urban communities had a higher risk-factor burden than rural communities but lower rates of cardiovascular events (4.83 vs. 6.25 events per 1000 person-years, P<0.001) and case fatality rates (13.52% vs. 17.25%, P<0.001). The use of preventive medications and revascularization procedures was significantly more common in high-income countries than in middle- or low-income countries (P<0.001).
    CONCLUSIONS: Although the risk-factor burden was lowest in low-income countries, the rates of major cardiovascular disease and death were substantially higher in low-income countries than in high-income countries. The high burden of risk factors in high-income countries may have been mitigated by better control of risk factors and more frequent use of proven pharmacologic therapies and revascularization. (Funded by the Population Health Research Institute and others.).
    Note: Malaysia is a study site (Author: Yusoff K)
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality*; Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology
  11. Balakumar P, Maung-U K, Jagadeesh G
    Pharmacol. Res., 2016 11;113(Pt A):600-609.
    PMID: 27697647 DOI: 10.1016/j.phrs.2016.09.040
    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have become important causes of mortality on a global scale. According to the report of World Health Organization (WHO), NCDs killed 38 million people (out of 56 million deaths that occurred worldwide) during 2012. Cardiovascular diseases accounted for most NCD deaths (17.5 million NCD deaths), followed by cancers (8.2 million NCD deaths), respiratory diseases (4.0 million NCD deaths) and diabetes mellitus (1.5 million NCD deaths). Globally, the leading cause of death is cardiovascular diseases; their prevalence is incessantly progressing in both developed and developing nations. Diabetic patients with insulin resistance are even at a greater risk of cardiovascular disease. Obesity, high cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia and elevated blood pressure are mainly considered as major risk factors for diabetic patients afflicted with cardiovascular disease. The present review sheds light on the global incidence of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Additionally, measures to be taken to reduce the global encumbrance of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus are highlighted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology*; Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control*
  12. Ong HT, Ong LM, Tan TE, Chean KY
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2013 Apr;68(2):189-94.
    PMID: 23629578 MyJurnal
    The clycoxygenase (COX) enzyme forms locally active prostaglandins responsible for producing inflammation and pain. Classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) inhibit the COX-2 enzyme that produces inflammatory prostaglandins as well as the COX-1 enzyme that produces gastric mucosa protecting prostaglandins. By specifically inhibiting only the COX-2 enzyme, coxibs thus reduce pain but do not damage the gastric mucosa. However, COX-2 at the vascular endothelium produces antithrombotic prostaglandins, and so by inhibiting COX-2 enzyme, the coxibs promote thrombosis. Rofecoxib and valdecoxib have been withdrawn because of the adverse cardiovascular events they induce. Amongst presently available coxibs cardiovascular risk is highest with enterocoxib and lowest with celecoxib. NSAIDS also increase cardiovascular events, the risk is highest with diclofenac and lowest with naproxen. Paracetamol and corticosteroids induce hypertension, while steroids also adversely affect the heart from metabolic change as well as fluid retention. Aspirin is an anti-thrombotic agent because of its ability to inhibit the COX-1 enzyme that produces the pro-aggregatory thromboxane. However, it increases gastrointestinal bleeding, can promote fluid retention and is nephrotoxic, all of which may lead to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Patients at especially high risk of cardiovascular events from analgesic use include the elderly, and those with heart failure, hypertension, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic renal disease, chronic obstructive airway disease and previous myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease or peripheral vascular disease. Adverse cardiovascular events can occur within a week of initiation of analgesic treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases*
  13. Nuur Amalina AG, Jamaiyah H, Selvarajah S, NHMS Cohort Study Group
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2012 Feb;67(1):31-8.
    PMID: 22582546 MyJurnal
    The purpose of this study was to describe differences in cardiovascular risk factor prevalences and clustering patterns among the states and federal territories of Malaysia. Risk factors considered were abdominal obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and smoking. Using data from the third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NMHS III) in 2006, we estimated the states and federal territories risk factor prevalences and clustering patterns to map the cardiovascular burden distribution in Malaysia. There was a clear geographical variation in the distribution of the individual risk factors as well as in its clustering with remarkable impact seen in Peninsular Malaysia. Perlis, Kedah and Kelantan were the most affected states overall.
    Study name: National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-2006)
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology*
  14. Yvonne-Tee GB, Rasool AH, Halim AS, Rahman AR
    Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc., 2006;34(4):457-73.
    PMID: 16687786
    Given that functional abnormalities of the microcirculation are one of the primary abnormalities in cardiovascular disease pathogenesis, various noninvasive clinical tools have been developed recently to assess the microvascular function, particularly at the skin. The common techniques used to assess cutaneous microvascular function in vivo include capillaroscopy, venous occlusion plethysmography, and laser-Doppler instruments (laser-Doppler fluximetry and laser-Doppler imaging). These noninvasive techniques can be used as an early measure of functional abnormalities within the microvascular tree, predominantly in population at high risk for cardiovascular events. This review discusses some underlying application principle of these techniques, including its clinical significance, method reproducibility and limitations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology
  15. Lim TO, Ngah BA, Suppiah A, Ismail F, Abdul Rahman R
    Singapore Med J, 1991 Aug;32(4):245-8.
    PMID: 1776003
    Consecutive hypertensives admitted with cardiovascular complications were studied. One hundred and eight complicated hypertensives (10%) out of 1,066 medical admissions were seen in the three month study. Thirty three per cent had cerebrovascular disease, 30% ischaemic heart disease, 2% had malignant hypertension and 85% had hypertensive heart disease. All patients had uncontrolled hypertension at admission (mean blood pressure 184/115 mmHg). Twenty-four patients (22%) were newly diagnosed; of the rest of previously diagnosed hypertensives (78%), 3% had never been on treatment and 56% had dropped out of treatment, which explained their ineffective blood pressure control. However, 18% of patients had apparently been on regular follow up and treatment, and yet their blood pressure control was poor. Many patients had evidence of renal disease. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was also high; 56% had hypercholesterolaemia; 46% had hypertriglyceridaemia; 44% smoked, 38% were overweight or obese, and 18% were diabetic. This indicates that hypertension is best regarded as an ingredient of a cardiovascular risk profile and its management requires multifactorial correction of all risk factors identified.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases/complications*
  16. Ong HT, Ong LM, Ho JJ
    ISRN Cardiol, 2013;2013:478597.
    PMID: 24307952 DOI: 10.1155/2013/478597
    Context. Whether angiotensin converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARB) are useful in high risk patients without heart failure is unclear. We perform a meta-analysis of prospective randomized placebo-controlled ACEI or ARB trials studying patients with a combination of risk factors to assess treatment impact on all cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Method. A PubMed search was made for placebo-controlled trials recruiting at least 1,200 high risk patients randomized to either ACEI or ARB, with follow-up of at least 2 years. Meta-analysis was performed using the RevMan 5 program and Mantel-Haenszel analysis was done with a fixed effects model. Results. Ten trials recruiting 77,633 patients were reviewed. All cause mortality was significantly reduced by ACEI (RR 0.89; P = 0.0008), but not by ARB treatment (RR 1.00; P = 0.89). Cardiovascular mortality and nonfatal MI were also reduced in the ACEI trials but not with ARB therapy. Stroke was significantly reduced in the ACEI trials (RR 0.75; P < 0.00001) and more modestly reduced in the ARB trials (RR 0.90; P = 0.01). Conclusion. ACEI treatment reduced stroke, nonfatal MI, cardiovascular and total mortality in high risk patients, while ARB modestly reduced stroke with no effect on nonfatal MI, cardiovascular and total mortality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases*
  17. Cabrera-Fuentes HA, Aragones J, Bernhagen J, Boening A, Boisvert WA, Bøtker HE, et al.
    Basic Res. Cardiol., 2016 11;111(6):69.
    PMID: 27743118
    In this meeting report, particularly addressing the topic of protection of the cardiovascular system from ischemia/reperfusion injury, highlights are presented that relate to conditioning strategies of the heart with respect to molecular mechanisms and outcome in patients' cohorts, the influence of co-morbidities and medications, as well as the contribution of innate immune reactions in cardioprotection. Moreover, developmental or systems biology approaches bear great potential in systematically uncovering unexpected components involved in ischemia-reperfusion injury or heart regeneration. Based on the characterization of particular platelet integrins, mitochondrial redox-linked proteins, or lipid-diol compounds in cardiovascular diseases, their targeting by newly developed theranostics and technologies opens new avenues for diagnosis and therapy of myocardial infarction to improve the patients' outcome.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases*
  18. Jalil NJ, Bannur Z, Derahman A, Maskon O, Darinah N, Hamidi H, et al.
    J Pharm Pharm Sci, 2015;18(3):474-83.
    PMID: 26517138
    PURPOSE: Enzymes potentially responsible for the pharmacokinetic variations of aspirin include cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A6) and P450 (CYP) (CYP2C9). We therefore aimed to determine the types and frequencies of variants of COX-1 (A-842G), UGT1A6 (UGT1A6*2; A541G and UGT1A6*3; A522C) and CYP2C9 (CYP2C9*3; A1075C) in the three major ethnic groups in Malaysia. In addition, the role of these polymorphisms on aspirin-induced gastritis among the patients was investigated.
    METHODS: A total of 165 patients with cardiovascular disease who were treated with 75-150 mg daily dose of aspirin and 300 healthy volunteers were recruited. DNA was extracted from the blood samples and genotyped for COX-1 (A-842G), UGT1A6 (UGT1A6*2 and UGT1A6*3) and CYP2C9 (CYP2C9*3; A1075C) using allele specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR).
    RESULTS: Variants UGT1A6*2,*3 and CYP2C9*3 were detected in relatively high percentage of 22.83%, 30.0% and 6.50%, respectively; while COX-1 (A-842G) was absent. The genotype frequencies for UGT1A6*2 and *3 were significantly different between Indians and Malays or Chinese. The level of bilirubin among patients with different genotypes of UGT1A6 was significantly different (p-value < 0.05). In addition, CYP2C9*3 was found to be associated with gastritis with an odd ratio of 6.8 (95 % Cl OR: 1.39 - 33.19; P = 0.033).
    CONCLUSION: Screening of patients with defective genetic variants of UGT1A6 and CYP2C9*3 helps in identifying patients at risk of aspirin induced gastritis. However, a randomised clinical study of bigger sample size would be needed before it is translated to clinical use.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases
  19. Samsuddin N, Rampal KG, Ismail NH, Abdullah NZ, Nasreen HE
    Am. J. Hypertens., 2016 Feb;29(2):226-33.
    PMID: 26112865 DOI: 10.1093/ajh/hpv093
    Research findings have linked exposure to pesticides to an increased risk of cardiovascular (CVS) diseases. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the impact of chronic mix-pesticides exposure on CVS hemodynamic parameters.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiovascular Diseases
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