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  1. Lim VK, Halijah MY
    Malays J Pathol, 1993 Jun;15(1):65-8.
    PMID: 8277793
    Cefepime is a new cephalosporin antibiotic which is highly active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. The purpose of this study was to establish the in-vitro activity of cefepime and three other cephalosporins against recent clinical isolates from patients at the General Hospital Kuala Lumpur. A total of 334 strains comprising Enterobacteriaceae, non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli and Staphylococcus aureus were tested for their sensitivity to cefepime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone and ceftazidime. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the antibiotics were established using an agar dilution method. With the exception of some strains of Flavobacterium meningosepticum, Xanthomonas maltophilia and other non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli, cefepime was found to be active against a wide range of Gram-negative organisms. Cefepime was as or more active than the other cephalosporins against Acinetobacter, Enterobacteriaceae and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Strains of Klebsiella and Salmonella that were resistant to the third generation cephalosporins were sensitive to cefepime. Cefepime could be a valuable alternative for the treatment of nosocomial infections due to multiply resistant organisms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cephalosporins/pharmacology*
  2. Cheong YM, Joseph PG, Koay AS
    PMID: 3477872
    The current drugs recommended for treatment of melioidosis are tetracycline, chloramphenicol and cotrimoxazole. Unfortunately these drugs are not the drug of choice in an acutely ill patient with septicaemia prior to the availability of laboratory results. With the discovery of the new cephalosporins which have a broad spectrum of activity clinicians are using them either alone or in combination with other antibiotics in such critical situations. Hence, an in-vitro study was carried out on the susceptibility of 41 strains of P. pseudomallei isolated in Malaysia, to these new cephalosporins and a new quinolone. The results showed that all the cephalosporins tested had some activity on the strains tested, with ceftazidime being the most active drug. Pefloxacin had very poor activity. However, further clinical studies are required to determine the duration, dosage and in-vivo activity of the antibiotics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cephalosporins/pharmacology*
  3. Biedenbach DJ, Lewis MT, Jones RN
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis, 1999 Dec;35(4):277-83.
    PMID: 10668586
    The degree of activity of several beta-lactam antimicrobial agents was assessed in Malaysia (four medical centers) and Singapore (two medical centers) tested against 570 clinical isolates. The organisms were tested locally by the Etest (AB BIODISK, Solna, Sweden) method, validated by concurrent use of quality assurance strains (94.1% accurate performance overall). Ten groups of bacteria were tested against cefepime, cefpirome, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, piperacillin/tazobactam, oxacillin, and imipenem. Among the tested Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp., the occurrence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing phenotypes was 5.6-7.0% and 36.7-38.0%, respectively. These strains remained most susceptible (97.5-100.0%) to cefepime and imipenem. Ceftazidime-resistant Enterobacter spp. (21.4% resistant), Citrobacter spp. (15.0%), indole-positive Proteus spp. (6.0%), and Serratia spp. (9.7%) were not resistant to cefepime, and only one strain was resistant to imipenem. Imipenem was generally most potent against non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli such as Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All tested beta-lactams were active against the oxacillin-susceptible staphylococci, except ceftazidime (MIC90, 12 micrograms/mL; 63.2-84.8% susceptibility rates). Overall spectrums of activity (rank by % resistance) favored imipenem (3.5%) > cefepime (7.7%) > cefpirome (8.9%) > piperacillin/tazobactam (13.2%) > ceftriaxone (14.7%) > ceftazidime (16.9%). No significant differences in resistance patterns were noted between monitored nations, and these results indicate emerging, elevated rates of resistance versus the studied broad-spectrum beta-lactams in Malaysia and Singapore. Results provide benchmark data for future studies using quantitative methods to determine antimicrobial resistance in these geographic areas.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cephalosporins/pharmacology*
  4. Palasubramaniam S, Parasakthi N
    Malays J Pathol, 2001 Dec;23(2):73-8.
    PMID: 12166595
    Twenty-eight (28) strains of ceftazidime-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae were isolated from blood cultures of in-patients from University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur between March 1995 and August 1996. Three methods were used to detect the production of ESBL enzymes by these strains. These three methods include the double-disc synergy test (DDST), inhibitor-potentiated disc-diffusion test (IPDD) and the E-test ESBL method. All strains could be identified as ESBL producers using the DDST method by a minimum of two beta-lactams and these included either a combination of ceftazidime and ceftriaxone with clavulanate respectively or cefotaxime and aztreonam with clavulanate respectively. Similarly using a combination of either cefotaxime and ceftriaxone with clavulanate or ceftriaxone and aztreonam with clavulanate respectively would have detected all strains as ESBL producers. The IPDD method could also detect for ESBL activity based on combinations of beta-lactam antibiotics with clavulanate respectively. All combinations of beta-lactam antibiotics could detect for ESBL activity in all the strains except a combination of either ceftazidime and aztreonam or cefotaxime and ceftriaxone with clavulanate respectively. The E-Test method using ceftazidime alone and in combination with clavulanate was found to be the most effective method in the presumptive identification of ESBL activity in all the strains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cephalosporins/pharmacology*
  5. Ngeow YS, Puthucheary SD, Lai PS
    Med J Malaysia, 1985 Sep;40(3):196-201.
    PMID: 3939567
    170 clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were tested for in vitro susceptibility to gentamicin, amikacin, tobramycin, netilmicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefoperazone, ceftazidime, moxalactam, azlocillin, piperacillin and ticarcillin. Against 93 gentamicin-sensitive strains, the most active antibiotics were in descending order, ceftazidime, tobramycin, gentamicin, amikacin, and the ureidopenicillins. Against 77 gentamicin-resistant strains, only ceftazidime, amikacin and moxalactam had mode minimum inhibitory concentrations within achievable peak serum levels after standard therapeutic dosage. There was no correlation between cephalosporin resistance and aminoglycoside resistance except for cefoperazone, which, together with the ureidopenicillins and ticarcillin, showed marked decrease in activity against gentamicin-resistant strains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cephalosporins/pharmacology*
  6. Veldman K, Kant A, Dierikx C, van Essen-Zandbergen A, Wit B, Mevius D
    Int J Food Microbiol, 2014 May 2;177:72-7.
    PMID: 24607424 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2014.02.014
    Since multidrug resistant bacteria are frequently reported from Southeast Asia, our study focused on the occurrence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in fresh imported herbs from Thailand, Vietnam and Malaysia. Samples were collected from fresh culinary herbs imported from Southeast Asia in which ESBL-suspected isolates were obtained by selective culturing. Analysis included identification by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, susceptibility testing, XbaI-PFGE, microarray, PCR and sequencing of specific ESBL genes, PCR based replicon typing (PBRT) of plasmids and Southern blot hybridization. In addition, the quinolone resistance genotype was characterized by screening for plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes and mutations in the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) of gyrA and parC. The study encompassed fifty samples of ten batches of culinary herbs (5 samples per batch) comprising nine different herb variants. The herbs originated from Thailand (Water morning glory, Acacia and Betel leaf), Vietnam (Parsley, Asian pennywort, Houttuynia leaf and Mint) and Malaysia (Holy basil and Parsley). By selective culturing 21 cefotaxime resistant Enterobacteriaceae were retrieved. Array analysis revealed 18 isolates with ESBL genes and one isolate with solely non-ESBL beta-lactamase genes. Mutations in the ampC promoter region were determined in two isolates with PCR and sequencing. The isolates were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=9), Escherichia coli (n=6), Enterobacter cloacae complex (n=5) and Enterobacter spp. (n=1). All isolates tested were multidrug resistant. Variants of CTX-M enzymes were predominantly found followed by SHV enzymes. PMQR genes (including aac(6')-1b-cr, qnrB and qnrS) were also frequently detected. In almost all cases ESBL and quinolone resistance genes were located on the same plasmid. Imported fresh culinary herbs from Southeast Asia are a potential source for contamination of food with multidrug resistant bacteria. Because these herbs are consumed without appropriate heating, transfer to human bacteria cannot be excluded.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cephalosporins/pharmacology*
  7. Palillo ES, Salleh MA
    Microbiol. Immunol., 1992;36(11):1195-200.
    PMID: 1491621
    Four hundred and ninety-eight predominantly pyocin-type 10 clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were analyzed for resistance to carbenicillin, cefoperazone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, gentamicin, amikacin and netilmicin. Based on NCCLS-recommended MIC breakpoints, 245 strains were found to be resistant, of which 41.6% were resistant to carbenicillin, 38% to gentamicin, 37.8% to netilmicin, 26.3% to cefoperazone, 17.9% to cefotaxime, 0.6% to amikacin and none to ceftazidime. Quadruple resistance to carbenicillin, cefoperazone, gentamicin and netilmicin was the most frequent pattern observed. Resistance to older antibiotics (kanamycin, streptomycin and tetracycline) and to mercuric chloride were also common. Conjugation experiments suggested that self-transmissible and non-transmissible plasmids occurred in at least 66 strains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cephalosporins/pharmacology
  8. Ariffin H, Navaratnam P, Mohamed M, Arasu A, Abdullah WA, Lee CL, et al.
    Int J Infect Dis, 2000;4(1):21-5.
    PMID: 10689210
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate prevalence of ceftazidime-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) in the pediatric oncology unit of University Hospital, Kuala, Lumpur, and to identify differences between febrile neutropenic pediatric patients with CRKP and ceftazidime-sensitive K. pneumoniae (CSKP) bacteremia.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Febrile neutropenic patients treated between January 1996 and December 1997 at the pediatric oncology unit of University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, were prospectively studied. Empirical antibiotic therapy consisted of ceftazidime and amikacin. Those who developed K. pneumoniae bacteremia were identified, and clinical features analyzed. Ceftazidime-resistance was documented via disk-diffusion testing. Production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) was inferred on the basis of synergy between ceftazidime and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. The different features between the two groups and variables associated with the development of CRKP bacteremia were analyzed using chi-square and t-tests and calculation of odds ratios. A multivariate analysis was used to identify independent factors for CRKP development.

    RESULTS: Ceftazidime-resistance was seen in 51.6% of all K. pneumoniae isolates, and all these isolates were inferred to be ESBL producers. All isolates were sensitive to imipenem. Susceptibility to gentamicin was 90.5%. The mean continuous hospital stay prior to the detection of bacteremia was 13.7 days overall, but significantly longer in the CRKP group (21.9 d) compared to the CSKP group (4.3 d) (P = 0.003). Children with CRKP were more likely to have received antibiotics in the 2 weeks prior to detection of bacteremia (87.5% of cases) than the CSKP group (20.0% of cases) (P = 0.0008). Sepsis-related mortality was higher in those with CRKP (50.0%) than in the CSKP group (13.3%) (P = 0.02). Patients who did not receive CRKP-directed antibiotics within 48 hours of admission were more likely to have a fatal outcome than those who did (P = 0.009). Logistic regression analysis identified use of third-generation cephalosporins 2 weeks prior to presentation and a hospital stay of 2 weeks or more as independent risk factors for development of CRKP.

    CONCLUSIONS: More than half of total K. pneumoniae isolated from blood cultures in the unit were ceftazidime-resistant. Children with febrile neutropenia with prolonged hospital stay and recent prior antibiotic exposure are at high risk of developing CRKP bacteremia. Mortality was significantly higher in this group. Early commencement of appropriate antibiotics (e.g., imipenem with or without gentamicin), according to susceptibility study results, may be beneficial in such circumstances.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cephalosporins/pharmacology*
  9. Commun. Dis. Intell., 1998 Dec 24;22(13):288-91.
    PMID: 9893340
    The World Health Organization Western Pacific Region Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (WHO WPR GASP) is a multicentric long term programme of continuous surveillance of the antibiotic susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. In 1997 the programme examined the susceptibility of 8,594 isolates of gonococci to various antimicrobials in 15 focal points. The trend toward increased antimicrobial resistance noted in earlier years continued. The proportion of quinolone resistant gonococci reported from most centres was either maintained or else increased. More than half of the isolates tested in China-Hong Kong, China, Japan, Korea, and the Philippines had altered quinolone susceptibility and increases in the number and percentage of quinolone resistant strains were noted in most, but not all, of the other centres. Resistance to the penicillins was again widespread, and chromosomally mediated resistance was a significant factor. Penicillinase-producing Niesseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG) were present in all centres. All isolates were sensitive to the third generation cephalosporins and only a very few isolates in China were spectinomycin resistant. High level tetracycline resistance was concentrated in a number of centres including Singapore, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam. The proportion of tetracycline resistant Neiserria gonorrhoeae (TRNG) in most of the remaining centres was less than 10 per cent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cephalosporins/pharmacology
  10. Phoon HYP, Hussin H, Hussain BM, Thong KL
    Microb Drug Resist, 2018 Oct;24(8):1108-1116.
    PMID: 29437541 DOI: 10.1089/mdr.2017.0258
    Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections account for high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Increasing resistance toward β-lactams, especially carbapenems, poses a serious therapeutic challenge. However, the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of extended-spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL)- and carbapenemase-producing clinical P. aeruginosa has not been reported in Malaysia. This study aimed to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profiles, resistance genes, pulsotypes, and sequence types (STs) of clinical P. aeruginosa from a Malaysian tertiary hospital. These characteristics were analyzed by disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, polymerase chain reaction, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and MLST for 199 nonreplicate clinical strains. The susceptibility of the strains toward the carbapenems and piperacillin-tazobactam was the lowest (≤90%), while ≥90% of the strains remained susceptible to all other classes of antimicrobial agents tested. The multidrug-resistant strains displayed high level resistance to cephalosporins (48 to ≥256 mg/L) and carbapenems (4-32 mg/L). Eleven strains harbored class 1 integrons containing blaGES-13, blaVIM-2, blaVIM-6, blaOXA-10, aacA(6')-Ib, aacA(6')-II, aadA6, and gcuD gene cassettes. Extra-integron genes, blaGES-20, blaIMP-4, blaVIM-2, and blaVIM-11, were also found. Overall, the maximum likelihood tree showed concordance in the clustering of strains having the same STs and PFGE clusters. ST708 was the predominant antibiotic-susceptible clone detected from the neonatal intensive care unit. The STs 235, 809, and 1076 clonal clusters consisted of multidrug resistant strains. ST235 is a recognized international high-risk clone. This is the first report of blaGES-13 and blaGES-20 ESBL-encoding gene variants and novel STs (STs 2329, 2335, 2337, 2338, 2340, and 2341) of P. aeruginosa in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cephalosporins/pharmacology
  11. Biglari S, Alfizah H, Ramliza R, Rahman MM
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2015 Jan;64(Pt 1):53-8.
    PMID: 25381148 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.082263-0
    Antimicrobial resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii is a growing public health concern and an important pathogen in nosocomial infections. We investigated the genes involved in resistance to carbapenems and cephalosporins in clinical A. baumannii isolates from a tertiary medical centre in Malaysia. A. baumannii was isolated from 167 clinical specimens and identified by sequencing of the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes. The MIC for imipenem, meropenem, ceftazidime and cefepime were determined by the E-test method. The presence of carbapenemase and cephalosporinase genes was investigated by PCR. The isolates were predominantly nonsusceptible to carbapenems and cephalosporins (>70 %) with high MIC values. ISAba1 was detected in all carbapenem-nonsusceptible A. baumannii harbouring the blaOXA-23-like gene. The presence of blaOXA-51-like and ISAba1 upstream of blaOXA-51 was not associated with nonsusceptibility to carbapenems. A. baumannii isolates harbouring ISAba1-blaADC (85.8 %) were significantly associated with nonsusceptibility to cephalosporins (P<0.0001). However, ISAba1-blaADC was not detected in a minority (<10 %) of the isolates which were nonsusceptible to cephalosporins. The acquired OXA-23 enzymes were responsible for nonsusceptibility to carbapenems in our clinical A. baumannii isolates and warrant continuous surveillance to prevent further dissemination of this antibiotic resistance gene. The presence of ISAba1 upstream of the blaADC was a determinant for cephalosporin resistance. However, the absence of this ISAba1-blaADC in some of the isolates may suggest other resistance mechanisms and need further investigation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cephalosporins/pharmacology
  12. Idris SN, Desa MN, Aziz MN, Taib NM
    PMID: 23082561
    This study was conducted to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern and distribution of exoU and exoS among 44 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa collected from different patients over a 3-month period in 2010 at a major Malaysian hospital. Susceptibility data by disk diffusion method for cefepime (30 microg), ceftazidime (30 microg), gentamicin (10 microg), piperacillin-tazobactam (100/10 microg) and ciprofloxacin (5 microg) were available for 38 isolates. Resistance to ceftazidime and piperacillin-tazobactam was the most common (74%) with five isolates not susceptible to three or more different antibiotics. PCR detection of exoU and exoS of all 44 isolates showed the former gene to be present in 18 and exoS in 41. In analyzing the two genes together, 17 isolates were detected for exoU and exoS with only two being negative for both genes. Only one isolate was detected for exoU alone whereas 24 for exoS alone. Distribution of the genes in relation to antibiotic susceptibility was inapplicable due to the majority of the isolates having similar susceptibility patterns, but the tendency of exoU-carrying isolates to be present in male patients (83%) and respiratory sites (61%) was observed (p < 0.050). The finding warrants further investigation in a larger sample of isolates.\

    Study site: Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL)
    Matched MeSH terms: Cephalosporins/pharmacology
  13. Ho WS, Balan G, Puthucheary S, Kong BH, Lim KT, Tan LK, et al.
    Microb Drug Resist, 2012 Aug;18(4):408-16.
    PMID: 22394084 DOI: 10.1089/mdr.2011.0222
    The emergence of Escherichia coli resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) is of concern as ESC is often used to treat infections by Gram-negative bacteria. One-hundred and ten E. coli strains isolated in 2009-2010 from children warded in a Malaysian tertiary hospital were analyzed for their antibiograms, carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC genes, possible inclusion of the beta-lactamase genes on an integron platform, and their genetic relatedness. All E. coli strains were sensitive to carbapenems. About 46% of strains were multidrug resistant (MDR; i.e., resistant to ≥3 antibiotic classes) and almost half (45%) were nonsusceptible to ESCs. Among the MDR strains, high resistance rates were observed for ampicillin (98%), tetracycline (75%), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (73%). Out of 110 strains, bla(TEM-1) (49.1%), bla(CTX-M) (11.8%), and bla(CMY-2) (6.4%) were detected. Twenty-one strains were ESBL producers. CTX-M-15 was the predominant CTX-M variant found and this is the first report of a CTX-M-27-producing E. coli strain from Malaysia. Majority (3.1%) of the strains harbored class 1 integron-encoded integrases with a predominance of aadA and dfr genes within the integron variable region. No gene cassette encoding ESBL genes was found and integrons were not significantly associated with ESBL or non-ESBL producers. Possible clonal expansion was observed for few CTX-M-15-positive strains but the O25-ST131 E. coli clone known to harbor CTX-M-15 was not detected while CMY-2-positive strains were genetically diverse.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cephalosporins/pharmacology
  14. Biglari S, Hanafiah A, Mohd Puzi S, Ramli R, Rahman M, Lopes BS
    Microb Drug Resist, 2017 Jul;23(5):545-555.
    PMID: 27854165 DOI: 10.1089/mdr.2016.0130
    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii has increasingly emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen. The aim of this study was to determine the resistance profiles and genetic diversity in A. baumannii clinical isolates in a tertiary medical center in Malaysia. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem), cephalosporins (ceftazidime and cefepime), and ciprofloxacin were determined by E-test. PCR and sequencing were carried out for the detection of antibiotic resistance genes and mutations. Clonal relatedness among A. baumannii isolates was determined by REP-PCR. Sequence-based typing of OXA-51 and multilocus sequence typing were performed. One hundred twenty-five of 162 (77.2%) A. baumannii isolates had MDR phenotype. From the 162 A. baumannii isolates, 20 strain types were identified and majority of A. baumannii isolates (66%, n = 107) were classified as strain type 1 and were positive for ISAba1-blaOXA-23and ISAba1-blaADCand had mutations in both gyrA and parC genes at positions, 83 and 80, resulting in serine-to-leucine conversion. REP-PCR analysis showed 129 REP types that generated 31 clones with a 90% similarity cutoff value. OXA-66 variant of the blaOXA-51-likegenes was predominantly detected among our A. baumannii clinical isolates belonging to ST195 (found in six clones: 1, 8, 9, 19, 27, and 30) and ST208 (found in clone 21). The study helps us in understanding the genetic diversity of A. baumannii isolates in our setting and confirms that international clone II is the most widely distributed clone in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cephalosporins/pharmacology
  15. Yap PSX, Ahmad Kamar A, Chong CW, Ngoi ST, Teh CSJ
    Microb Drug Resist, 2020 Mar;26(3):190-203.
    PMID: 31545116 DOI: 10.1089/mdr.2019.0199
    Background:
    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a major opportunistic pathogen frequently associated with nosocomial infections, and often poses a major threat to immunocompromised patients. In our previous study, two K. pneumoniae (K36 and B13), which displayed resistance to almost all major antibiotics, including colistin, were isolated. Both isolates were not associated with infection and isolated from the stools of two preterm neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) during their first week of life.
    Materials and Methods:
    In this study, whole genome sequencing was performed on these two clinical multidrug resistant K. pneumoniae. We aimed to determine the genetic factors that underline the antibiotic-resistance phenotypes of these isolates.
    Results:
    The strains harbored blaSHV-27, blaSHV-71, and oqxAB genes conferring resistance to cephalosporins, carbapenems, and fluoroquinolones, respectively, but not harboring any known plasmid-borne colistin resistance determinants such as mcr-1. However, genome analysis discovered interruption of mgrB gene by insertion sequences gaining insight into the development of colistin resistance.
    Conclusion:
    The observed finding that points to a scenario of potential gut-associated resistance genes to Gram negative (K. pneumoniae) host in the NICU environment warrants attention and further investigation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cephalosporins/pharmacology
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