Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 56 in total

  1. Finsterer J, Rettensteiner J, Stellamor V, Stöphasius E
    Med J Malaysia, 2013;68(1):86-7.
    PMID: 23466778
    Severe post-hemorrhaghic internal hydrocephalus with almost complete atrophy of the cerebral parenchyma, as in the following case, is rare.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cerebral Hemorrhage*
  2. Lee KF
    Med J Malaysia, 1995 Mar;50(1):110-3.
    PMID: 7752964
    Spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage is one of the cerebrovascular complications in beta-thalassaemia major patients. This is a report of 2 cases of fatal intracranial haemorrhage. Their ages were 12 and 7 years respectively, and they had been receiving regular blood transfusion for the past 3 and 2 years respectively. They developed acute onset of headache, loss of consciousness and convulsions at 5 and 2 days respectively after their last blood transfusion. C-T scan of the brain showed massive intracranial haemorrhage with extension into the ventricles. The spontaneous intracranial haemorrhages in these two cases was probably multi-factorial in origin. The predisposing factors included recent blood transfusion, prolonged prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time as well as reduced platelet count.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cerebral Hemorrhage/etiology*; Cerebral Hemorrhage/radiography
  3. Krieger AJ
    Med J Malaysia, 1976 Jun;30(4):312-5.
    PMID: 979735
    Matched MeSH terms: Cerebral Hemorrhage/etiology
  4. Cheah IG, Kasim MS, Shafie HM, Khoo TH
    Ann Trop Paediatr, 1994;14(4):325-8.
    PMID: 7880096
    Intracranial haemorrhage is a major cause of severe morbidity and mortality in child abuse cases in developed countries. However, similar data are not available in most developing countries. This study therefore aimed to determine the incidence of intracranial haemorrhage amongst all cases of child physical abuse, the nature of the injuries incurred, and the morbidity and mortality resulting therefrom. Among 369 cases of physical abuse seen over a 4-year period, 41 (11.4%) had intracranial haemorrhage, of whom 37 (90%) were 2 years old or less. A history of trauma was present in only eight (20%), of which only two were compatible with the injuries incurred. Subdural haemorrhages accounted for 80% of the cases, with skull fractures present in only nine cases. Fifty-four per cent of the 37 children aged 2 years of age or less had no external signs of trauma, but 11 of them had retinal haemorrhages. This is in contrast to the children older than 2 years of age who all had external signs of trauma. The overall prognosis was dismal with an early mortality of almost 30% (13 cases) and at least seven cases with severe neurological sequelae. These findings are comparable with studies from developed countries which have established that non-accidental injury must be considered as a cause of intracranial haemorrhage in any young child, despite the absence of external signs of trauma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cerebral Hemorrhage/complications; Cerebral Hemorrhage/etiology; Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology*
  5. Arumugam A, A Rahman NA, Theophilus SC, Shariffudin A, Abdullah JM
    The Malaysian journal of medical sciences : MJMS, 2015 Dec;22(Spec Issue):62-71.
    PMID: 27006639 MyJurnal
    Mortality and morbidity associated with intracerebral hemorrhage is still high. Up to now, there are no evidence-based effective treatments for acute ICH. This study is to assess the effect of tranexamic acid (TXA) on hematoma growth of patients with spontaneous ICH compared to a placebo.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cerebral Hemorrhage
  6. Ho, C.C.K., Benedict, M.S.
    Meningiomas with intracranial haemorrhage is a rare occurrence and carries a high mortality rate. We present here a case we encountered, where intratumoural, subdural and intraventricular haemorrhage occurred. The pathophysiology and mechanism of intracranial tumoural haemorrhage, is discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cerebral Hemorrhage
  7. Simpson D
    Aust N Z J Surg, 1994 Aug;64(8):525-6.
    PMID: 8048887
    Matched MeSH terms: Cerebral Hemorrhage/surgery
  8. Veerapen R
    Neurosurgery, 1989 Sep;25(3):451-3; discussion 453-4.
    PMID: 2771016
    Spontaneous hemorrhage into the lateral part of the pons with sequelae compatible with survival has been documented previously. The author describes an unusual case with spontaneous hemorrhage into the lateral pons, with intraneural extension into the right trigeminal nerve root. Radiological features were of an expanding mass of the cerebellopontine angle. The patient was treated surgically with success.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cerebral Hemorrhage/surgery*
  9. Muiz AJ, Abdullah J, Naing NN, Ghazaime G, Ariff AR
    Neuroepidemiology, 2003 May-Jun;22(3):184-95.
    PMID: 12711851
    The aim of this study was to compare nonsurgical versus stereotactic aspiration of intracerebral hematomas in relation to clinical aspects, computed tomographic imaging features of the brain, laboratory parameters and specific risk factors that may influence the outcome in southeast Asian Malay patients. Fifty-five of the patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) underwent stereotactic aspiration and 57 did not. Analysis was done on risk factors, locations and treatments of ICH, and the final outcomes measured by the Glasgow Outcome Scale. A total of 112 patients were evaluated. Mean age was 52 years with ages ranging from 12 to 80 years. Hypertension was seen in 60.7% of patients with ICH. The mortality rate was 25% by 3 months. 58.9% had a poor final outcome, while 41.1% had a good outcome. The selected variables were incorporated into models generated by multiple logistic regression method analysis to define the significant predictors of outcome. Significant predictors of outcome were the Glasgow Coma Scale score on admission, the duration of surgery and the total volume of the hematoma. Significant predictors of mortality were high total white blood cell differential count, low plasma protein, and high plasma lactate dehydrogenase and brain edema. The study suggests that stereotactic aspiration of patients with ICH does not offer any definite advantage over conservative treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cerebral Hemorrhage/blood; Cerebral Hemorrhage/mortality; Cerebral Hemorrhage/surgery*
  10. Sia SF, Tan KS, Waran V
    Med J Malaysia, 2007 Oct;62(4):308-12.
    PMID: 18551935 MyJurnal
    Primary intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) results in significant morbidity and mortality among patients. There is a paucity of epidemiological data on this condition in Malaysia. The purpose of this hospital based study was to define the clinical profile in patients with primary spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage at University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) and to determine the mortality rate of intracerebral haemorrhage at the time of discharge, the prognostic factors and one year outcome of this cohort of patients. Sixty-six patients were admitted at the Neurosurgical unit of University of Malaya Medical Centre for a period of 13 months from March 2002 to March 2003. Fifty percent of the subjects were female. The mean age was 61.6 +/- 16.7 years. Among our patients with intracerebral haemorrhage, the common risk factors were: hypertension (80.3%), diabetes mellitus (25.7%) and smoking (27.2%). Common presenting features for our series were: weakness (61.8%), LOC (58.5%), headache (56.3%) and speech disturbances (45.3%). On neuroimaging, the lesions were seen in basal ganglia/thalamus (45.1%), lobar (32.9%), brainstem (13.4%) and cerebelli (8.5%). The overall 30 days mortality rate for intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) was 43.9%. The important predictors of for mortality were the GCS score on admission (p < 0.0001), haematoma volume > 30 mls (p < 0.0001), evidence of intraventricular extension (p = 0.011) and ICH score (p < 0.0001). At one year follow up, 48.5% (n = 32) were dead, 33.3% (n = 11) obtained good recovery, 36.4% (n = 12) moderate disability, 18.2% (n = 6) severe disability and 3% remain vegetative state. The overall mortality rate for our series of patients with primary intracerebral haemorrhage is quite similar to previously published epidemiological studies. ICH scoring is useful in the prognostication.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cerebral Hemorrhage/mortality*; Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology; Cerebral Hemorrhage/physiopathology
  11. Ekker MS, Jacob MA, van Dongen MME, Aarnio K, Annamalai AK, Arauz A, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2019 11 14;9(11):e031144.
    PMID: 31727655 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-031144
    INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, 2 million patients aged 18-50 years suffer a stroke each year, and this number is increasing. Knowledge about global distribution of risk factors and aetiologies, and information about prognosis and optimal secondary prevention in young stroke patients are limited. This limits evidence-based treatment and hampers the provision of appropriate information regarding the causes of stroke, risk factors and prognosis of young stroke patients.

    METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Global Outcome Assessment Life-long after stroke in young adults (GOAL) initiative aims to perform a global individual patient data meta-analysis with existing data from young stroke cohorts worldwide. All patients aged 18-50 years with ischaemic stroke or intracerebral haemorrhage will be included. Outcomes will be the distribution of stroke aetiology and (vascular) risk factors, functional outcome after stroke, risk of recurrent vascular events and death and finally the use of secondary prevention. Subgroup analyses will be made based on age, gender, aetiology, ethnicity and climate of residence.

    ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval for the GOAL study has already been obtained from the Medical Review Ethics Committee region Arnhem-Nijmegen. Additionally and when necessary, approval will also be obtained from national or local institutional review boards in the participating centres. When needed, a standardised data transfer agreement will be provided for participating centres. We plan dissemination of our results in peer-reviewed international scientific journals and through conference presentations. We expect that the results of this unique study will lead to better understanding of worldwide differences in risk factors, causes and outcome of young stroke patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cerebral Hemorrhage/mortality; Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology*; Cerebral Hemorrhage/physiopathology
  12. Keong LH, Ghani AR, Awang MS, Sayuthi S, Idris B, Abdullah JM
    Acta Neurochir. Suppl., 2011;111:375-9.
    PMID: 21725785 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-7091-0693-8_63
    The aim of the study was to determine the prognostic value of a high augmentation index, which was a surrogate marker of arterial stiffness in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. The outcome was divided into two groups in which the following data were collected in a computer running SphygmoCor CvMS software version 8.2. Logistic regression analysis was carried out among significant variables to identify an independent predictor of 6-month outcome and mortality. Sixty patients were recruited into the study. Admission Glasgow Coma Scale score (OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.450-0.971; P=0.035), total white cell count (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.028-1.453; P=0.023) and hematoma volume (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.024-1.204; P=0.011) were found to be statistically significant for identifying poor 6-month outcome in multivariate analysis. Factors independently associated with mortality were a high augmentation index (OR, 8.6; 95% CI, 1.794-40.940; P=0.007) and midline shift (OR, 7.5; 95% CI, 1.809-31.004; P=0.005). Admission Glasgow Coma Scale score, total white cell count and hematoma volume were significant predictors for poor 6-month outcome, and a high augmentation index and midline shift were predictors for 6-month mortality in this study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnosis*; Cerebral Hemorrhage/mortality*
  13. Tijjani Salihu A, Muthuraju S, Aziz Mohamed Yusoff A, Ahmad F, Zulkifli Mustafa M, Jaafar H, et al.
    Behav Brain Res, 2016 10 01;312:374-84.
    PMID: 27327104 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbr.2016.06.034
    The present study aimed to investigate the behavior and neuronal morphological changes in the perihaemorrhagic tissue of the mouse intracerebellar haemorrhage experimental model. Adult male Swiss albino mice were stereotactically infused with collagenase type VII (0.4U/μl of saline) unilaterally in to the cerebellum, following anaesthesia. Motor deficits were assessed using open field and composite score for evaluating the mouse model of cerebellar ataxia at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after collagenase infusion. The animals were sacrificed at the same time interval for evaluation of perihaematomal neuronal degeneration using haematoxylin and eosin staining and Annexin V-FITC/Propidium iodide assay. At the end of the study, it was found that infusion of 0.4U collagenase produces significant locomotor and ataxic deficit in the mice especially within the first week post surgery, and that this gradually improved within three weeks. Neuronal degeneration evident by cytoplasmic shrinkage and nuclear pyknosis was observed at the perihaematomal area after one day; especially at 3 and 7 days post haemorrhage. By 21 days, both the haematoma and degenerating neurons in the perihaematomal area were phagocytosed and the remaining neuronal cells around the scar tissue appeared normal. Moreover, Annexin-V/propidium iodide-positive cells were observed at the perihaematomal area at 3 and 7 days implying that the neurons likely die via apoptosis. It was concluded that a population of potentially salvageable neurons exist in the perihaematomal area after cerebellar haemorrhage throughout a wide time window that could be amenable to treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cerebral Hemorrhage/complications; Cerebral Hemorrhage/pathology*
  14. Teik CK, Basri NI, Abdul Karim AK, Azrai Abu M, Ahmad MF, Abdul Ghani NA, et al.
    Arch Iran Med, 2019 06 01;22(6):340-343.
    PMID: 31356101
    Cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare entity with an estimated prevalence of 0.01-0.05% in the general population. We reviewed hospital obstetric records during 2010-2017 and reported a case series of six patients with cerebral AVM in pregnancy, of which five patients had successful pregnancy, and one maternal mortality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnosis; Cerebral Hemorrhage/surgery
  15. Law ZK, Ali A, Krishnan K, Bischoff A, Appleton JP, Scutt P, et al.
    Stroke, 2020 01;51(1):121-128.
    PMID: 31735141 DOI: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.026128
    Background and Purpose- Blend, black hole, island signs, and hypodensities are reported to predict hematoma expansion in acute intracerebral hemorrhage. We explored the value of these noncontrast computed tomography signs in predicting hematoma expansion and functional outcome in our cohort of intracerebral hemorrhage. Methods- The TICH-2 (Tranexamic acid for IntraCerebral Hemorrhage-2) was a prospective randomized controlled trial exploring the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid in acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Baseline and 24-hour computed tomography scans of trial participants were analyzed. Hematoma expansion was defined as an increase in hematoma volume of >33% or >6 mL on 24-hour computed tomography. Poor functional outcome was defined as modified Rankin Scale of 4 to 6 at day 90. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify predictors of hematoma expansion and poor functional outcome. Results- Of 2325 patients recruited, 2077 (89.3%) had valid baseline and 24-hour scans. Five hundred seventy patients (27.4%) had hematoma expansion while 1259 patients (54.6%) had poor functional outcome. The prevalence of noncontrast computed tomography signs was blend sign, 366 (16.1%); black hole sign, 414 (18.2%); island sign, 200 (8.8%); and hypodensities, 701 (30.2%). Blend sign (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.53 [95% CI, 1.16-2.03]; P=0.003), black hole (aOR, 2.03 [1.34-3.08]; P=0.001), and hypodensities (aOR, 2.06 [1.48-2.89]; P<0.001) were independent predictors of hematoma expansion on multivariable analysis with adjustment for covariates. Black hole sign (aOR, 1.52 [1.10-2.11]; P=0.012), hypodensities (aOR, 1.37 [1.05-1.78]; P=0.019), and island sign (aOR, 2.59 [1.21-5.55]; P=0.014) were significant predictors of poor functional outcome. Tranexamic acid reduced the risk of hematoma expansion (aOR, 0.77 [0.63-0.94]; P=0.010), but there was no significant interaction between the presence of noncontrast computed tomography signs and benefit of tranexamic acid on hematoma expansion and functional outcome (P interaction all >0.05). Conclusions- Blend sign, black hole sign, and hypodensities predict hematoma expansion while black hole sign, hypodensities, and island signs predict poor functional outcome. Noncontrast computed tomography signs did not predict a better response to tranexamic acid. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: https://www.isrctn.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN93732214.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cerebral Hemorrhage/drug therapy*; Cerebral Hemorrhage/physiopathology*
  16. Fadzli F, Ramli NM, Rahmat K, Ganesan D
    Childs Nerv Syst, 2013 Jan;29(1):159-62.
    PMID: 22996826 DOI: 10.1007/s00381-012-1923-5
    Intraventricular haemorrhage is the most common cause of hydrocephalus in a pre-term baby and may require surgical intervention depending on severity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cerebral Hemorrhage/complications*; Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnosis
  17. Rasool AH, Rahman AR, Choudhury SR, Singh RB
    J Hum Hypertens, 2004 Mar;18(3):187-92.
    PMID: 14973513 DOI: 10.1038/sj.jhh.1001647
    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and spontaneous bleeding into the brain parenchyma, intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), is a stroke subtype associated with high morbidity and mortality. Overall, it comprises about 15% of all stroke in Caucasians, this figure being much higher in Asians and black people. Blood pressure (BP) appears to play an important role in this disease. We have reviewed available literature on the relationship of BP to the occurrence of primary and secondary ICH, the association of BP levels measured early after stroke with prognosis and complications, and evidence about the effects of early BP lowering treatments on post-stroke outcomes. BP appears to be an important risk factor for primary and secondary ICH. In addition, high BP early after ICH may be detrimental to outcome, possibly contributing to complications such as rebleeding and haematoma enlargement. Few data are available about the effects of early lowering of BP on outcome after ICH with no reliable trial yet conducted. Proper randomised trials are required to establish the effect of early lowering of BP on outcome after ICH.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cerebral Hemorrhage/etiology*; Cerebral Hemorrhage/physiopathology
  18. Selladurai BM, Vickneswaran M, Duraisamy S, Atan M
    Br J Neurosurg, 1997 Oct;11(5):398-404.
    PMID: 9474270
    The aim of this investigation was to determine the prognostic value of coagulation abnormalities in a defined subset of patients with acute head injury. Prothrombin time, accelerated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin clotting time, fibrinogen assay, platelet count, fibrin degradation products (FDP) were assayed in 204 patients with acute closed head injury. Their values were graded on a score 0-3 and the sum score for each patient regarded as the disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) score. Moderate to severe DIC scores were evident in 38% of the cohort. At least one parameter was abnormal in 71% of patients. The DIC score correlated inversely with the Glasgow coma score (GCS) (p < 0.0001). In the GCS 13-15 subset, FDP scores were significant predictors of poor outcome (p < 0.001). In the GCS 6-12 subset, the APTT score (p < 0.001), and DIC score (p < 0.0001) predicted an adverse outcome. The DIC scores were significantly abnormal in most patients who had a poor outcome, without evidence of adverse predictors on CT. Logistic regression analysis confirmed the independent predictive capacity of APTT, FDP and DIC scores when values for GCS were fixed. Abnormal haemostatic parameters may enhance the predictive ability in subsets of patients with acute head injury defined by clinical or CT predictors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cerebral Hemorrhage/blood; Cerebral Hemorrhage/complications
  19. Nawawi O, Sinnasamy M, Ramli N
    Br J Radiol, 2006 Jul;79(943):e12-5.
    PMID: 16823046
    A case of an intracerebral bleed in a young man with a rare combination of arteriovenous malformation (AVM) and unilateral moyamoya disease is presented. The location of the bleed in the left basal ganglia corresponded to the area supplied by the basal moyamoya vessels. The AVM which received supply from collateral moyamoya vessels as well as normal cerebral arteries was located in the ipsilateral parieto-occipital region posterior to the basal ganglia bleed. This is the first reported cerebral AVM co-existing with a unilateral moyamoya disease in the English literature. Unusual features of the case such as the unilaterality of the angiographic abnormalities, their coexistence and hypotheses as to their development are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cerebral Hemorrhage/etiology; Cerebral Hemorrhage/radiography
  20. Sprigg N, Flaherty K, Appleton JP, Al-Shahi Salman R, Bereczki D, Beridze M, et al.
    Lancet, 2018 05 26;391(10135):2107-2115.
    PMID: 29778325 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31033-X
    BACKGROUND: Tranexamic acid can prevent death due to bleeding after trauma and post-partum haemorrhage. We aimed to assess whether tranexamic acid reduces haematoma expansion and improves outcome in adults with stroke due to intracerebral haemorrhage.

    METHODS: We did an international, randomised placebo-controlled trial in adults with intracerebral haemorrhage from acute stroke units at 124 hospital sites in 12 countries. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 1 g intravenous tranexamic acid bolus followed by an 8 h infusion of 1 g tranexamic acid or a matching placebo, within 8 h of symptom onset. Randomisation was done centrally in real time via a secure website, with stratification by country and minimisation on key prognostic factors. Treatment allocation was concealed from patients, outcome assessors, and all other health-care workers involved in the trial. The primary outcome was functional status at day 90, measured by shift in the modified Rankin Scale, using ordinal logistic regression with adjustment for stratification and minimisation criteria. All analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN93732214.

    FINDINGS: We recruited 2325 participants between March 1, 2013, and Sept 30, 2017. 1161 patients received tranexamic acid and 1164 received placebo; the treatment groups were well balanced at baseline. The primary outcome was assessed for 2307 (99%) participants. The primary outcome, functional status at day 90, did not differ significantly between the groups (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0·88, 95% CI 0·76-1·03, p=0·11). Although there were fewer deaths by day 7 in the tranexamic acid group (101 [9%] deaths in the tranexamic acid group vs 123 [11%] deaths in the placebo group; aOR 0·73, 0·53-0·99, p=0·0406), there was no difference in case fatality at 90 days (250 [22%] vs 249 [21%]; adjusted hazard ratio 0·92, 95% CI 0·77-1·10, p=0·37). Fewer patients had serious adverse events after tranexamic acid than after placebo by days 2 (379 [33%] patients vs 417 [36%] patients), 7 (456 [39%] vs 497 [43%]), and 90 (521 [45%] vs 556 [48%]).

    INTERPRETATION: Functional status 90 days after intracerebral haemorrhage did not differ significantly between patients who received tranexamic acid and those who received placebo, despite a reduction in early deaths and serious adverse events. Larger randomised trials are needed to confirm or refute a clinically significant treatment effect.

    FUNDING: National Institute of Health Research Health Technology Assessment Programme and Swiss Heart Foundation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cerebral Hemorrhage/complications; Cerebral Hemorrhage/drug therapy*
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