Displaying all 19 publications

  1. Arumugam A, A Rahman NA, Theophilus SC, Shariffudin A, Abdullah JM
    Malays J Med Sci, 2015 Dec;22(Spec Issue):62-71.
    PMID: 27006639 MyJurnal
    Mortality and morbidity associated with intracerebral hemorrhage is still high. Up to now, there are no evidence-based effective treatments for acute ICH. This study is to assess the effect of tranexamic acid (TXA) on hematoma growth of patients with spontaneous ICH compared to a placebo.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tranexamic Acid
  2. Ovesen C, Jakobsen JC, Gluud C, Steiner T, Law Z, Flaherty K, et al.
    BMC Res Notes, 2018 Jun 13;11(1):379.
    PMID: 29895329 DOI: 10.1186/s13104-018-3481-8
    OBJECTIVE: We present the statistical analysis plan of a prespecified Tranexamic Acid for Hyperacute Primary Intracerebral Haemorrhage (TICH)-2 sub-study aiming to investigate, if tranexamic acid has a different effect in intracerebral haemorrhage patients with the spot sign on admission compared to spot sign negative patients. The TICH-2 trial recruited above 2000 participants with intracerebral haemorrhage arriving in hospital within 8 h after symptom onset. They were included irrespective of radiological signs of on-going haematoma expansion. Participants were randomised to tranexamic acid versus matching placebo. In this subgroup analysis, we will include all participants in TICH-2 with a computed tomography angiography on admission allowing adjudication of the participants' spot sign status.

    RESULTS: Primary outcome will be the ability of tranexamic acid to limit absolute haematoma volume on computed tomography at 24 h (± 12 h) after randomisation among spot sign positive and spot sign negative participants, respectively. Within all outcome measures, the effect of tranexamic acid in spot sign positive/negative participants will be compared using tests of interaction. This sub-study will investigate the important clinical hypothesis that spot sign positive patients might benefit more from administration of tranexamic acid compared to spot sign negative patients. Trial registration ISRCTN93732214 ( http://www.isrctn.com ).

    Matched MeSH terms: Tranexamic Acid/administration & dosage; Tranexamic Acid/pharmacology*
  3. Flaherty K, Bath PM, Dineen R, Law Z, Scutt P, Pocock S, et al.
    Trials, 2017 Dec 20;18(1):607.
    PMID: 29262841 DOI: 10.1186/s13063-017-2341-5
    RATIONALE: Aside from blood pressure lowering, treatment options for intracerebral haemorrhage remain limited and a proportion of patients will undergo early haematoma expansion with resultant significant morbidity and mortality. Tranexamic acid (TXA), an anti-fibrinolytic drug, has been shown to significantly reduce mortality in patients, who are bleeding following trauma, when given rapidly. TICH-2 is testing whether TXA is effective at improving outcome in spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (SICH).

    METHODS AND DESIGN: TICH-2 is a pragmatic, phase III, prospective, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial. Two thousand adult (aged ≥ 18 years) patients with an acute SICH, within 8 h of stroke onset, will be randomised to receive TXA or the placebo control. The primary outcome is ordinal shift of modified Rankin Scale score at day 90. Analyses will be performed using intention-to-treat.

    RESULTS: This paper and its attached appendices describe the statistical analysis plan (SAP) for the trial and were developed and published prior to database lock and unblinding to treatment allocation. The SAP includes details of analyses to be undertaken and unpopulated tables which will be reported in the primary and key secondary publications. The database will be locked in early 2018, ready for publication of the results later in the same year.

    DISCUSSION: The SAP details the analyses that will be done to avoid bias arising from prior knowledge of the study findings. The trial will determine whether TXA can improve outcome after SICH, which currently has no definitive therapy.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN registry, ID: ISRCTN93732214 . Registered on 17 January 2013.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tranexamic Acid/adverse effects; Tranexamic Acid/therapeutic use*
  4. Law ZK, Meretoja A, Engelter ST, Christensen H, Muresan EM, Glad SB, et al.
    European stroke journal, 2017 Mar;2(1):13-22.
    PMID: 31008298 DOI: 10.1177/2396987316676610
    Purpose: Haematoma expansion is a devastating complication of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) with no established treatment. Tranexamic acid had been an effective haemostatic agent in reducing post-operative and traumatic bleeding. We review current evidence examining the efficacy of tranexamic acid in improving clinical outcome after ICH.

    Method: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and clinical trial registers for studies using search strategies incorporating the terms 'intracerebral haemorrhage', 'tranexamic acid' and 'antifibrinolytic'. Authors of ongoing clinical trials were contacted for further details.

    Findings: We screened 268 publications and retrieved 17 articles after screening. Unpublished information from three ongoing clinical trials was obtained. We found five completed studies. Of these, two randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing intravenous tranexamic acid to placebo (n = 54) reported no significant difference in death or dependency. Three observational studies (n = 281) suggested less haematoma growth with rapid tranexamic acid infusion. There are six ongoing RCTs (n = 3089) with different clinical exclusions, imaging selection criteria (spot sign and haematoma volume), time window for recruitment and dosing of tranexamic acid.

    Discussion: Despite their heterogeneity, the ongoing trials will provide key evidence on the effects of tranexamic acid on ICH. There are uncertainties of whether patients with negative spot sign, large haematoma, intraventricular haemorrhage, or poor Glasgow Coma Scale should be recruited. The time window for optimal effect of haemostatic therapy in ICH is yet to be established.

    Conclusion: Tranexamic acid is a promising haemostatic agent for ICH. We await the results of the trials before definite conclusions can be drawn.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tranexamic Acid
  5. Law ZK, England TJ, Mistri AK, Woodhouse LJ, Cala L, Dineen R, et al.
    European stroke journal, 2020 Jun;5(2):123-129.
    PMID: 32637645 DOI: 10.1177/2396987320901391
    Introduction: Seizures are common after intracerebral haemorrhage. Tranexamic acid increases the risk of seizures in non-intracerebral haemorrhage population but its effect on post-intracerebral haemorrhage seizures is unknown. We explored the risk factors and outcomes of seizures after intracerebral haemorrhage and if tranexamic acid increased the risk of seizures in the Tranexamic acid for IntraCerebral Haemorrhage-2 trial.

    Patients and methods: Seizures were reported prospectively up to day 90. Cox regression analyses were used to determine the predictors of seizures within 90 days and early seizures (≤7 days). We explored the effect of early seizures on day 90 outcomes.

    Results: Of 2325 patients recruited, 193 (8.3%) had seizures including 163 (84.5%) early seizures and 30 (15.5%) late seizures (>7 days). Younger age (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.98 per year increase, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-0.99; p = 0.008), lobar haematoma (aHR 5.84, 95%CI 3.58-9.52; p acid did not increase the risk of seizure within 90 days. Early seizures were associated with worse modified Rankin Scale (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.79, 95%CI 1.12-2.86, p = 0.015) and increased risk of death (aOR 3.26, 95%CI 1.98-5.39; p acid did not increase the risk of post-intracerebral haemorrhage seizures in the first 90 days. Early seizures resulted in worse functional outcome and increased risk of death.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tranexamic Acid
  6. Brenner A, Belli A, Chaudhri R, Coats T, Frimley L, Jamaluddin SF, et al.
    Crit Care, 2020 11 11;24(1):560.
    PMID: 33172504 DOI: 10.1186/s13054-020-03243-4
    BACKGROUND: The CRASH-3 trial hypothesised that timely tranexamic acid (TXA) treatment might reduce deaths from intracranial bleeding after traumatic brain injury (TBI). To explore the mechanism of action of TXA in TBI, we examined the timing of its effect on death.

    METHODS: The CRASH-3 trial randomised 9202 patients within 3 h of injury with a GCS score ≤ 12 or intracranial bleeding on CT scan and no significant extracranial bleeding to receive TXA or placebo. We conducted an exploratory analysis of the effects of TXA on all-cause mortality within 24 h of injury and within 28 days, excluding patients with a GCS score of 3 or bilateral unreactive pupils, stratified by severity and country income. We pool data from the CRASH-2 and CRASH-3 trials in a one-step fixed effects individual patient data meta-analysis.

    RESULTS: There were 7637 patients for analysis after excluding patients with a GCS score of 3 or bilateral unreactive pupils. Of 1112 deaths, 23.3% were within 24 h of injury (early deaths). The risk of early death was reduced with TXA (112 (2.9%) TXA group vs 147 (3.9%) placebo group; risk ratio [RR] RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.58-0.94). There was no evidence of heterogeneity by severity (p = 0.64) or country income (p = 0.68). The risk of death beyond 24 h of injury was similar in the TXA and placebo groups (432 (11.5%) TXA group vs 421 (11.7%) placebo group; RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.69-1.12). The risk of death at 28 days was 14.0% in the TXA group versus 15.1% in the placebo group (544 vs 568 events; RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.83-1.03). When the CRASH-2 and CRASH-3 trial data were pooled, TXA reduced early death (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.70-0.87) and death within 28 days (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.82-0.94).

    CONCLUSIONS: Tranexamic acid reduces early deaths in non-moribund TBI patients regardless of TBI severity or country income. The effect of tranexamic acid in patients with isolated TBI is similar to that in polytrauma. Treatment is safe and even severely injured patients appear to benefit when treated soon after injury.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN15088122 , registered on 19 July 2011; NCT01402882 , registered on 26 July 2011.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tranexamic Acid
  7. Sukumaran K
    Med J Malaysia, 1988 Jun;43(2):155-8.
    PMID: 3237131
    Matched MeSH terms: Tranexamic Acid/therapeutic use*
  8. Law ZK, Ali A, Krishnan K, Bischoff A, Appleton JP, Scutt P, et al.
    Stroke, 2020 01;51(1):121-128.
    PMID: 31735141 DOI: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.026128
    Background and Purpose- Blend, black hole, island signs, and hypodensities are reported to predict hematoma expansion in acute intracerebral hemorrhage. We explored the value of these noncontrast computed tomography signs in predicting hematoma expansion and functional outcome in our cohort of intracerebral hemorrhage. Methods- The TICH-2 (Tranexamic acid for IntraCerebral Hemorrhage-2) was a prospective randomized controlled trial exploring the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid in acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Baseline and 24-hour computed tomography scans of trial participants were analyzed. Hematoma expansion was defined as an increase in hematoma volume of >33% or >6 mL on 24-hour computed tomography. Poor functional outcome was defined as modified Rankin Scale of 4 to 6 at day 90. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify predictors of hematoma expansion and poor functional outcome. Results- Of 2325 patients recruited, 2077 (89.3%) had valid baseline and 24-hour scans. Five hundred seventy patients (27.4%) had hematoma expansion while 1259 patients (54.6%) had poor functional outcome. The prevalence of noncontrast computed tomography signs was blend sign, 366 (16.1%); black hole sign, 414 (18.2%); island sign, 200 (8.8%); and hypodensities, 701 (30.2%). Blend sign (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.53 [95% CI, 1.16-2.03]; P=0.003), black hole (aOR, 2.03 [1.34-3.08]; P=0.001), and hypodensities (aOR, 2.06 [1.48-2.89]; P<0.001) were independent predictors of hematoma expansion on multivariable analysis with adjustment for covariates. Black hole sign (aOR, 1.52 [1.10-2.11]; P=0.012), hypodensities (aOR, 1.37 [1.05-1.78]; P=0.019), and island sign (aOR, 2.59 [1.21-5.55]; P=0.014) were significant predictors of poor functional outcome. Tranexamic acid reduced the risk of hematoma expansion (aOR, 0.77 [0.63-0.94]; P=0.010), but there was no significant interaction between the presence of noncontrast computed tomography signs and benefit of tranexamic acid on hematoma expansion and functional outcome (P interaction all >0.05). Conclusions- Blend sign, black hole sign, and hypodensities predict hematoma expansion while black hole sign, hypodensities, and island signs predict poor functional outcome. Noncontrast computed tomography signs did not predict a better response to tranexamic acid. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: https://www.isrctn.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN93732214.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tranexamic Acid/pharmacology*
  9. Dineen RA, Pszczolkowski S, Flaherty K, Law ZK, Morgan PS, Roberts I, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2018 02 03;8(2):e019930.
    PMID: 29431141 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-019930
    OBJECTIVES: To test whether administration of the antifibrinolytic drug tranexamic acid (TXA) in patients with spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (SICH) leads to increased prevalence of diffusion-weighted MRI-defined hyperintense ischaemic lesions (primary hypothesis) or reduced perihaematomal oedema volume, perihaematomal diffusion restriction and residual MRI-defined SICH-related tissue damage (secondary hypotheses).

    DESIGN: MRI substudy nested within the double-blind randomised controlled Tranexamic Acid for Hyperacute Primary Intracerebral Haemorrhage (TICH)-2 trial (ISRCTN93732214).

    SETTING: International multicentre hospital-based study.

    PARTICIPANTS: Eligible adults consented and randomised in the TICH-2 trial who were also able to undergo MRI scanning. To address the primary hypothesis, a sample size of n=280 will allow detection of a 10% relative increase in prevalence of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) hyperintense lesions in the TXA group with 5% significance, 80% power and 5% imaging data rejection.

    INTERVENTIONS: TICH-2 MRI substudy participants will undergo MRI scanning using a standardised protocol at day ~5 and day ~90 after randomisation. Clinical assessments, randomisation to TXA or placebo and participant follow-up will be performed as per the TICH-2 trial protocol.

    CONCLUSION: The TICH-2 MRI substudy will test whether TXA increases the incidence of new DWI-defined ischaemic lesions or reduces perihaematomal oedema or final ICH lesion volume in the context of SICH.

    ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The TICH-2 trial obtained ethical approval from East Midlands - Nottingham 2 Research Ethics Committee (12/EM/0369) and an amendment to allow the TICH-2 MRI sub study was approved in April 2015 (amendment number SA02/15). All findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals. The primary outcome results will also be presented at a relevant scientific meeting.


    Matched MeSH terms: Tranexamic Acid/administration & dosage*
  10. Fuah KW, Lim CTS, Pang DCL, Wong JS
    Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl, 2018 2 20;29(1):207-209.
    PMID: 29456232 DOI: 10.4103/1319-2442.225177
    Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic agent commonly used to achieve hemostasis. However, there have been a few case reports suggesting that high-dose intravenous TXA has epileptogenic property. In patients with renal impairment, even administering the usual recommended dose of TXA can induce seizure episodes. We present here a patient on hemodialysis who developed seizures after receiving two doses of TXA over 5 h period.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tranexamic Acid/administration & dosage; Tranexamic Acid/adverse effects*
  11. Shah Jahan MY, Shamila MA, Nurul Azlean N, Mohd Amin M, Anandakumar K, Ahmad Ibrahim KB, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2019 08;74(4):300-306.
    PMID: 31424037
    INTRODUCTION: Trauma is a Global threat and the 5th highest cause of all-cause mortality in Malaysia caused predominantly due to road traffic accidents. Majority of trauma victims are young adults aged between 21-40 years old. In Malaysia, 24 out of 100,000 population die annually due to trauma, rating us amongst the highest in South East Asia. These alarming figures justify aggressive preventive and mitigation strategies. The aim of this paper is to promote the implementation of evidence-based interventions that will reduce the rate of preventable death because of trauma. Tranexamic acid is one of the few interventions in the early management of severe trauma with level-one evidence. Tranexamic acid has been proven to reduce all causes of mortality and mortality due to bleeding. Evidence proves that it is most effective when administered early, particularly within the 1st hour of trauma. This proposed guideline is formulated based upon quality evidence from multicentre studies, clinical practices in other countries and consideration of the local demographic factors with the intent of enabling an easy and simple pathway to administer tranexamic acid early in the care of the severely injured.

    CONCLUSION: The guideline highlights select pre-hospital criteria's and the methods for drug administration. The authors recognise that some variants may be present amongst certain institutions necessitating minor adaptations, nevertheless the core principles of advocating tranexamic acid early in the course of pre-hospital trauma should be adhered to.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tranexamic Acid/administration & dosage*; Tranexamic Acid/therapeutic use
  12. Nelson Yap KB, Albert Wong SH, Idris Z
    Med J Malaysia, 2020 11;75(6):660-665.
    PMID: 33219174
    BACKGROUND: Some surgeons advocate the usage of tranexamic acid (TXA) in traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness and safety of TXA in improving the outcome of TBI patients and in reducing the rate of clot expansion and mortality in TBI as compared to those without TXA.

    METHODS: This is a prospective observational cohort study conducted in Sarawak General Hospital, Malaysia. Patients 12 years of age and older with mild to severe TBI who had a brain computed tomography (CT) done within eight hours of injury were enrolled in the study. A total of 334 patients were recruited from the 5th of August 2016 until the 8th of March 2018 in Sarawak General Hospital. In all 167 of them were administered with TXA and another 167 of the patients were not. The primary outcome expected is the number of good outcomes in isolated TBI patients given TXA. Good outcome is defined by Glasgow Outcome Score-Extended (GOSE) of five and above. Secondary outcome was clot expansion of an intracranial bleed seen on the first scan that had expanded by 25% or more on any dimension on the second scan.

    RESULTS: The TXA did not show significant trend of good outcome in terms of GOSE (p=0.763). However, for moderate and severe acute subdural haemorrhage (SDH) subgroups, there was a significant difference (p=0.042). Clot expansion was present in 14 patients (12.7%) with TXA given and in 54 patients (38.8%) without TXA. The difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). Of the patients who received TXA, there was one case (0.6%) of deep vein thrombosis. Apart from that, TXA showed non-significant trend in reducing mortality (p=0.474).

    CONCLUSIONS: Tranexamic acid reduces the rate of clot expansion in TBI by 26.1% (38.8-12.7%) without significantly increasing the risk of a thrombotic event. It can also improve the outcome of moderate and severe TBI patients with acute SDH.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tranexamic Acid
  13. Mahmood A, Needham K, Shakur-Still H, Harris T, Jamaluddin SF, Davies D, et al.
    Emerg Med J, 2020 Dec 01.
    PMID: 33262252 DOI: 10.1136/emermed-2020-210424
    BACKGROUND: Early tranexamic acid (TXA) treatment reduces head injury deaths after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We used brain scans that were acquired as part of the routine clinical practice during the CRASH-3 trial (before unblinding) to examine the mechanism of action of TXA in TBI. Specifically, we explored the potential effects of TXA on intracranial haemorrhage and infarction.

    METHODS: This is a prospective substudy nested within the CRASH-3 trial, a randomised placebo-controlled trial of TXA (loading dose 1 g over 10 min, then 1 g infusion over 8 hours) in patients with isolated head injury. CRASH-3 trial patients were recruited between July 2012 and January 2019. Participants in the current substudy were a subset of trial patients enrolled at 10 hospitals in the UK and 4 in Malaysia, who had at least one CT head scan performed as part of the routine clinical practice within 28 days of randomisation. The primary outcome was the volume of intraparenchymal haemorrhage (ie, contusion) measured on a CT scan done after randomisation. Secondary outcomes were progressive intracranial haemorrhage (post-randomisation CT shows >25% of volume seen on pre-randomisation CT), new intracranial haemorrhage (any haemorrhage seen on post-randomisation CT but not on pre-randomisation CT), cerebral infarction (any infarction seen on any type of brain scan done post-randomisation, excluding infarction seen pre-randomisation) and intracranial haemorrhage volume (intraparenchymal + intraventricular + subdural + epidural) in those who underwent neurosurgical haemorrhage evacuation. We planned to conduct sensitivity analyses excluding patients who were severely injured at baseline. Dichotomous outcomes were analysed using relative risks (RR) or hazard ratios (HR), and continuous outcomes using a linear mixed model.

    RESULTS: 1767 patients were included in this substudy. One-third of the patients had a baseline GCS (Glasgow Coma Score) of 3 (n=579) and 24% had unilateral or bilateral unreactive pupils. 46% of patients were scanned pre-randomisation and post-randomisation (n=812/1767), 19% were scanned only pre-randomisation (n=341/1767) and 35% were scanned only post-randomisation (n=614/1767). In all patients, there was no evidence that TXA prevents intraparenchymal haemorrhage expansion (estimate=1.09, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.45) or intracranial haemorrhage expansion in patients who underwent neurosurgical haemorrhage evacuation (n=363) (estimate=0.79, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.11). In patients scanned pre-randomisation and post-randomisation (n=812), there was no evidence that TXA reduces progressive haemorrhage (adjusted RR=0.91, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.13) and new haemorrhage (adjusted RR=0.85, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.01). When patients with unreactive pupils at baseline were excluded, there was evidence that TXA prevents new haemorrhage (adjusted RR=0.80, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.98). In patients scanned post-randomisation (n=1431), there was no evidence of an increase in infarction with TXA (adjusted HR=1.28, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.76). A larger proportion of patients without (vs with) a post-randomisation scan died from head injury (38% vs 19%: RR=1.97, 95% CI 1.66 to 2.34, p<0.0001).

    CONCLUSION: TXA may prevent new haemorrhage in patients with reactive pupils at baseline. This is consistent with the results of the CRASH-3 trial which found that TXA reduced head injury death in patients with at least one reactive pupil at baseline. However, the large number of patients without post-randomisation scans and the possibility that the availability of scan data depends on whether a patient received TXA, challenges the validity of inferences made using routinely collected scan data. This study highlights the limitations of using routinely collected scan data to examine the effects of TBI treatments.


    Matched MeSH terms: Tranexamic Acid
  14. Sprigg N, Flaherty K, Appleton JP, Al-Shahi Salman R, Bereczki D, Beridze M, et al.
    Lancet, 2018 05 26;391(10135):2107-2115.
    PMID: 29778325 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31033-X
    BACKGROUND: Tranexamic acid can prevent death due to bleeding after trauma and post-partum haemorrhage. We aimed to assess whether tranexamic acid reduces haematoma expansion and improves outcome in adults with stroke due to intracerebral haemorrhage.

    METHODS: We did an international, randomised placebo-controlled trial in adults with intracerebral haemorrhage from acute stroke units at 124 hospital sites in 12 countries. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 1 g intravenous tranexamic acid bolus followed by an 8 h infusion of 1 g tranexamic acid or a matching placebo, within 8 h of symptom onset. Randomisation was done centrally in real time via a secure website, with stratification by country and minimisation on key prognostic factors. Treatment allocation was concealed from patients, outcome assessors, and all other health-care workers involved in the trial. The primary outcome was functional status at day 90, measured by shift in the modified Rankin Scale, using ordinal logistic regression with adjustment for stratification and minimisation criteria. All analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN93732214.

    FINDINGS: We recruited 2325 participants between March 1, 2013, and Sept 30, 2017. 1161 patients received tranexamic acid and 1164 received placebo; the treatment groups were well balanced at baseline. The primary outcome was assessed for 2307 (99%) participants. The primary outcome, functional status at day 90, did not differ significantly between the groups (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0·88, 95% CI 0·76-1·03, p=0·11). Although there were fewer deaths by day 7 in the tranexamic acid group (101 [9%] deaths in the tranexamic acid group vs 123 [11%] deaths in the placebo group; aOR 0·73, 0·53-0·99, p=0·0406), there was no difference in case fatality at 90 days (250 [22%] vs 249 [21%]; adjusted hazard ratio 0·92, 95% CI 0·77-1·10, p=0·37). Fewer patients had serious adverse events after tranexamic acid than after placebo by days 2 (379 [33%] patients vs 417 [36%] patients), 7 (456 [39%] vs 497 [43%]), and 90 (521 [45%] vs 556 [48%]).

    INTERPRETATION: Functional status 90 days after intracerebral haemorrhage did not differ significantly between patients who received tranexamic acid and those who received placebo, despite a reduction in early deaths and serious adverse events. Larger randomised trials are needed to confirm or refute a clinically significant treatment effect.

    FUNDING: National Institute of Health Research Health Technology Assessment Programme and Swiss Heart Foundation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tranexamic Acid/therapeutic use*
  15. Sprigg N, Flaherty K, Appleton JP, Al-Shahi Salman R, Bereczki D, Beridze M, et al.
    Health Technol Assess, 2019 07;23(35):1-48.
    PMID: 31322116 DOI: 10.3310/hta23350
    BACKGROUND: Tranexamic acid reduces death due to bleeding after trauma and postpartum haemorrhage.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess if tranexamic acid is safe, reduces haematoma expansion and improves outcomes in adults with spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH).

    DESIGN: The TICH-2 (Tranexamic acid for hyperacute primary IntraCerebral Haemorrhage) study was a pragmatic, Phase III, prospective, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial.

    SETTING: Acute stroke services at 124 hospitals in 12 countries (Denmark, Georgia, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Malaysia, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the UK).

    PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients (aged ≥ 18 years) with ICH within 8 hours of onset.

    EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Exclusion criteria were ICH secondary to anticoagulation, thrombolysis, trauma or a known underlying structural abnormality; patients for whom tranexamic acid was thought to be contraindicated; prestroke dependence (i.e. patients with a modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score > 4); life expectancy acid bolus followed by an 8-hour 1-g infusion or matching placebo (i.e. 0.9% saline).

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The primary outcome was functional status (death or dependency) at day 90, which was measured by the shift in the mRS score, using ordinal logistic regression, with adjustment for stratification and minimisation criteria.

    RESULTS: A total of 2325 participants (tranexamic acid, n = 1161; placebo, n = 1164) were recruited from 124 hospitals in 12 countries between 2013 and 2017. Treatment groups were well balanced at baseline. The primary outcome was determined for 2307 participants (tranexamic acid, n = 1152; placebo, n = 1155). There was no statistically significant difference between the treatment groups for the primary outcome of functional status at day 90 [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76 to 1.03; p = 0.11]. Although there were fewer deaths by day 7 in the tranexamic acid group (aOR 0.73, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.99; p = 0.041), there was no difference in case fatality at 90 days (adjusted hazard ratio 0.92, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.10; p = 0.37). Fewer patients experienced serious adverse events (SAEs) after treatment with tranexamic acid than with placebo by days 2 (p = 0.027), 7 (p = 0.020) and 90 (p = 0.039). There was no increase in thromboembolic events or seizures.

    LIMITATIONS: Despite attempts to enrol patients rapidly, the majority of participants were enrolled and treated > 4.5 hours after stroke onset. Pragmatic inclusion criteria led to a heterogeneous population of participants, some of whom had very large strokes. Although 12 countries enrolled participants, the majority (82.1%) were from the UK.

    CONCLUSIONS: Tranexamic acid did not affect a patient's functional status at 90 days after ICH, despite there being significant modest reductions in early death (by 7 days), haematoma expansion and SAEs, which is consistent with an antifibrinolytic effect. Tranexamic acid was safe, with no increase in thromboembolic events.

    FUTURE WORK: Future work should focus on enrolling and treating patients early after stroke and identify which participants are most likely to benefit from haemostatic therapy. Large randomised trials are needed.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN93732214.

    FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 23, No. 35. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information. The project was also funded by the Pragmatic Trials, UK, funding call and the Swiss Heart Foundation in Switzerland.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tranexamic Acid/therapeutic use*
  16. Jackson N, Hashim ZA, Zainal NA, Jamaluddin N
    Singapore Med J, 1995 Apr;36(2):230-1.
    PMID: 7676276
    A 30-year-old Malay lady, with no previous or family history of bleeding, presented with severe gum bleeding 25 days post-partum. The factor VIII:c was 0.03 iu/ml with evidence of a slow-acting factor VIII inhibitor. Von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:age) varied from less that 0.05 to 0.17 iu/ml, and there was absent ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation. Anti-nuclear and anti-DNA antibodies were present, but there were no other features of systemic lupus erythematosus. There was some clinical response to cryoprecipitate and tranexamic acid, and slight improvement with corticosteroid. Fifteen months later, the patient has no active bleeding problem, and her VWF-ag is increasing spontaneously. However, factor VIII:c is less than 0.01 iu/ml and her factor VIII inhibitor titre is still > 20 Bethesda units/ml.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tranexamic Acid/therapeutic use
  17. Law ZK, Dineen R, England TJ, Cala L, Mistri AK, Appleton JP, et al.
    Transl Stroke Res, 2020 Sep 09.
    PMID: 32902808 DOI: 10.1007/s12975-020-00845-6
    Neurological deterioration is common after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We aimed to identify the predictors and effects of neurological deterioration and whether tranexamic acid reduced the risk of neurological deterioration. Data from the Tranexamic acid in IntraCerebral Hemorrhage-2 (TICH-2) randomized controlled trial were analyzed. Neurological deterioration was defined as an increase in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) of ≥ 4 or a decline in Glasgow Coma Scale of ≥ 2. Neurological deterioration was considered to be early if it started ≤ 48 h and late if commenced between 48 h and 7 days after onset. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors and effects of neurological deterioration and the effect of tranexamic acid on neurological deterioration. Of 2325 patients, 735 (31.7%) had neurological deterioration: 590 (80.3%) occurred early and 145 (19.7%) late. Predictors of early neurological deterioration included recruitment from the UK, previous ICH, higher admission systolic blood pressure, higher NIHSS, shorter onset-to-CT time, larger baseline hematoma, intraventricular hemorrhage, subarachnoid extension and antiplatelet therapy. Older age, male sex, higher NIHSS, previous ICH and larger baseline hematoma predicted late neurological deterioration. Neurological deterioration was independently associated with a modified Rankin Scale of > 3 (aOR 4.98, 3.70-6.70; p acid reduced the risk of early (aOR 0.79, 0.63-0.99; p = 0.041) but not late neurological deterioration (aOR 0.76, 0.52-1.11; p = 0.15). Larger hematoma size, intraventricular and subarachnoid extension increased the risk of neurological deterioration. Neurological deterioration increased the risk of death and dependency at day 90. Tranexamic acid reduced the risk of early neurological deterioration and warrants further investigation in ICH. URL: https://www.isrctn.com Unique identifier: ISRCTN93732214.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tranexamic Acid
  18. Sachedina A, Abu Bakar M, Dunford AM, Morris A, Nur Azurah AG, Grover SR
    J Obstet Gynaecol Res, 2021 Jan;47(1):352-358.
    PMID: 33084069 DOI: 10.1111/jog.14532
    AIM: To describe the characteristics, management and outcomes of a cohort of young people with dysmenorrhea presenting to a tertiary adolescent gynecology service, managed primarily with medical interventions.

    METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at the Royal Children's Hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Data were collected from medical records of patients presenting with dysmenorrhea and/or pelvic pain.

    RESULTS: Of 154 patients, mean age of presentation was 15.7 years (SD = 2.2) and mean duration of pain was 14.9 months (SD = 10.8). Regular cycles were reported by 64.5%, and heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) in 67.8%. Patients self-reporting HMB reported less pain on the day prior to menses than those not reporting HMB (P acid and cyclic or continuous combined oral contraceptive pills. Laparoscopies were undertaken in 12 (8.1%) patients, with normal findings in 8 (66.7%). Secondary dysmenorrhea was identified in 10 patients: of these, endometriosis was identified in one patient and unilateral obstructive Müllerian anomalies in six. Overall, 92.2% of patients had improvement in symptoms after treatment.

    CONCLUSION: Laparoscopy and endometriosis rates in patients presenting to a tertiary center were lower than previously reported, with most patients achieving symptom improvement without laparoscopy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tranexamic Acid
  19. Teoh WY, Tan TG, Ng KT, Ong KX, Chan XL, Tsan SEH, et al.
    Ann Surg, 2020 Apr 08.
    PMID: 32282377 DOI: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000003896
    OBJECTIVES: Perioperative bleeding remains a major concern to all clinicians caring for perioperative patients. Due to the theoretical risk of thromboembolic events associated with tranexamic acid (TXA) when administered intravenously, topical route of TXA has been extensively studied, but its safety and efficacy profile remain unclear in the literature. The primary aim of this review was to assess the effect of topical TXA on incidence of blood transfusion and mortality in adults undergoing surgery.

    DATA SOURCES: EMBASE, MEDLINE, CENTRAL, and ISI Web of Science were systematically searched from their inception until May 31, 2019.

    REVIEW METHODS: Parallel-arm randomized controlled trials were included.

    RESULTS: Seventy-one trials (7539 participants: orthopedics 5450 vs nonorthopedics 1909) were included for quantitative meta-analysis. In comparison to placebo, topical TXA significantly reduced intraoperative blood loss [mean difference (MD) -36.83 mL, 95% confidence interval (CI) -54.77 to -18.88, P < 0.001], total blood loss (MD -319.55 mL, 95% CI -387.42 to -251.69, P < 0.001), and incidence of blood transfusion [odds ratio (OR) 0.30, 95% CI 0.26-0.34, P < 0.001]. Patients who received topical TXA were associated with a shorter length of hospital stay (MD -0.28 days, 95% CI -0.47 to -0.08, P = 0.006). No adverse events associated with the use of topical TXA were observed, namely mortality (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.45-1.36, P = 0.39), pulmonary embolism (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.27-1.93, P = 0.52), deep vein thrombosis (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.65-1.77, P = 0.79), myocardial infarction (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.21-2.99, P = 0.73), and stroke (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.28-2.57, P = 0.77). Of all included studies, the risk of bias assessment was "low" for 20 studies, "unclear" for 26 studies and "high" for 25 studies.

    CONCLUSIONS: In the meta-analysis of 71 trials (7539 patients), topical TXA reduced the incidence of blood transfusion without any notable adverse events associated with TXA in adults undergoing surgery.

    PROSPERO: CRD 42018111762.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tranexamic Acid
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