Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 61 in total

  1. Amin M, Yousuf M, Attaullah M, Ahmad N, Azra MN, Lateef M, et al.
    Environ Technol, 2023 Jun;44(14):2148-2156.
    PMID: 34962184 DOI: 10.1080/09593330.2021.2024276
    Organophosphates (OPs) and synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) are the most popular broad spectrum pesticides, used in agriculture as they have a strong pesticidal activity while also being biodegradable in the environment. The present study aimed to demonstrate the effects of these pesticides on the Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in brain, gills and body muscles of Oreochromis niloticus - an important enzyme for the assessment and biomonitoring pollution caused by neurotoxins in the environment. The fish were exposed for 24 and 48 h to the LC0 concentrations of the malathion (1.425 mg/L), the chlorpyrifos (0.125 mg/L) and the λ-cyhalothrin (0.0039 mg/L), respectively. The activity of the AChE was significantly increased (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Cichlids*
  2. Mengistu SB, Palstra AP, Mulder HA, Benzie JAH, Trinh TQ, Roozeboom C, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2021 05 26;11(1):11018.
    PMID: 34040080 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-90418-w
    Nile tilapia is predominantly produced in smallholder ponds without aeration. We hypothesize that Nile tilapia with high oxygen uptake efficiency (O2UE) may perform better under these conditions than Nile tilapia with low O2UE. Critical swimming speed (Ucrit, in cm s-1) is a potential indicator for O2UE. Our objectives were to estimate variance components for Ucrit and fish size at swim testing early in life, and genetic correlations (rg) between Ucrit with harvest weight (HW) and daily growth coefficient (DGC) later after grow-out in a non-aerated pond. Substantial heritability was found for absolute Ucrit (0.48). The estimated rg between absolute Ucrit and fish size at testing were all strong and positive (range 0.72-0.83). The estimated rg between absolute Ucrit and HW, and absolute Ucrit and DGC were - 0.21 and - 0.63 respectively, indicating that fish with higher absolute Ucrit had lower growth in the non-aerated pond as compared to fish with lower absolute Ucrit. These results suggest a juvenile trade-off between swimming and growth performance where fish with high Ucrit early in life show slower growth later under conditions of limited oxygen availability. We conclude that Ucrit in Nile tilapia is heritable and can be used to predict growth performance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cichlids*
  3. Zainal SFFS, Aziz HA, Ramli SF, Omar FM
    Water Environ Res, 2022 Jan;94(1):e1667.
    PMID: 34842319 DOI: 10.1002/wer.1667
    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the toxicity levels of the coagulation and flocculation process on raw and treated leachate using acute toxicity tests. Tin tetrachloride (SnCl4 ) and the Jatropha curcas (JC) seed were used as coagulant and coagulant aid to remove concentrated suspended solids, SS (534 mg/L), color (19,297 Pt-Co), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) (4188 mg/L) in a stabilized landfill leachate. The toxicity effects on local red tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) were investigated, which involved three main steps, namely, acclimatization, range-finding test, and short-term definitive test. The presence of JC seed (0.9 g/L) as a flocculant reduced the dosage of SnCl4 from 11.1 to 8.5 g/L and exhibited good removals of 99.78%, 98.53%, and 74.29%, respectively, for SS, color, and COD. The toxicity test indicated that only five fish died in the first 12 h for the treated sample compared with seven deaths for untreated leachate. In 96 h, a total of 42 and 31 mortality rates were noted for the raw and treated leachate samples, respectively. The treated sample could reduce the toxicity effects to the tested tilapia fish and is safe to be discharged at appropriate dilution concentrations. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Coagulation-flocculation by Tin (IV) chloride and Jatropha Curcas (JC) was investigated. Almost complete reduction of SS was obtained at 8.5 g/L of SnCl4 and 0.9 g/L of JC as flocculant. The toxicity effect was evaluated using red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish as the indicator. Treated leachate was considered acceptable as the number of dead fish was lower than the untreated leachate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cichlids*
  4. Abd Hamid M, Md Sah ASR, Idris I, Mohd Nor SA, Mansor M
    PeerJ, 2023;11:e15986.
    PMID: 38144186 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.15986
    BACKGROUND: The Temengor Reservoir is the second largest reservoir in Peninsular Malaysia. Located in the northwestern state of Perak, it was selected to develop a large-scale tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) aquaculture facility within the Aquaculture Industrial Zone (AIZ) in 2008 due to its favourable environmental conditions. No record of tilapia has ever been reported in the natural waters prior to this. However, a post-establishment study recorded tilapia sightings in the natural waters of this lake. The cultured tilapia was easily recognizable with the elongated mouth and body, and long caudal fin. It is postulated that these were escapees from the floating cages that had invaded the natural waters and would negatively impact the native fish species. To test our hypothesis, we investigated the impact of the aquaculture facility on native fish diversity through a spatial design.

    METHODS: The study was focused on assessing the impact of tilapia culture at sites nearer to the AIZ vs more distant sites, the former with a greater likelihood of receiving escapees. Two major sites were chosen; within 5 km (near-cage) and within 5-15 km (far-cage) radii from the AIZ. Fish sampling was conducted using multiple mesh sizes of gill nets (3.7, 5.1, 6.5, 7.6, and 10.2 cm) deployed at the littoral zone of the sampling points. Species diversity, abundance, dietary habits, and habitat preference were investigated.

    RESULTS: The CPUE (individual/hour) of native fish species at the far-cage site of the AIZ Reservoir was found to be significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that at the near-cage site. Principal component analysis (PCA) based on diet and habitat preferences showed that the tilapia, O. niloticus had almost overlapping diet resources and habitat with native fish species.

    CONCLUSION: We conclude that there is a correlation between the reduced catches of native species (based on CPUE) and the high presence of tilapia. Thus, appropriate actions must be implemented for strategic and effective planning in terms of native fish conservation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cichlids*
  5. Ng TH, Tan HH
    J Fish Biol, 2010 Jun;76(9):2238-60.
    PMID: 20557661 DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.2010.02642.x
    Etroplus suratensis, a southern Asian cichlid, has established populations in Singapore. The fish, which was first collected in 1995, was probably introduced via the aquarium trade or through the Johor River in Malaysia. The growth, feeding and reproductive characteristics were found to follow its ecology in its native range in southern Asia, and its establishment in Singapore could be due to the similarity in environment and availability of food. Changes in intestinal length indicated diet shifts from a predominantly herbivorous to an omnivorous one as it matured. Stomach contents did not provide comparable evidence. Diet similarity to two other introduced cichlids may imply that interspecies resource competition exists. Closer monitoring is needed to determine its effects on the local environment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cichlids/anatomy & histology; Cichlids/physiology*
  6. Yakubu Y, Ahmad MT, Chong CM, Ismail IS, Shaari K
    J Fish Biol, 2023 Feb;102(2):358-372.
    PMID: 36333916 DOI: 10.1111/jfb.15266
    Despite the use of Terminalia catappa (TC) leaf by traditional fish farmers around the world to improve the health status of cultured fish, there is a paucity of information on comprehensive metabolite profile and the maximum safe dose of the plant. This study aims at profiling the methanol leaf extract of T. catappa, quantifying total phenolic content (TPC) as well as the total flavonoid content (TFC) and evaluating its acute toxicity on blood, plasma biochemical parameters and histopathology of some vital organs in red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis sp.). The experimental fish were acclimatised for 2 weeks and divided into six groups. Group (1) served as a control group and was administered 0.2 ml,g-1 of phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Groups 2-6 were orally administered T. catappa leaf extracts (0.2 ml.50 g-1 ) in the following sequence; 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250 and 500 mg.kg-1 body weight. The metabolites identified in T. catappa using liquid chromatography-tandem mass electrospray ionisation spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) revealed the presence of organic acids, hydrolysable tannins, phenolic acids and flavonoids. Phenolic quantification revealed reasonable quantity of phenolic compounds (217.48 μg GAEmg-1 for TPC and 91.90 μg. QCEmg-1 for TFC). Furthermore, there was no significant difference in all the tested doses in terms of blood parameters and plasma biochemical analysis except for the packed cell volume (PCV) at 500 mg.kg-1 when compared to the control. Significant histopathological changes were observed in groups administered with the extract at 125, 250 and 500 mg.kg-1 doses. To a very large extent it is therefore safe to administer the extract at 31.25 and 62.5 mg.kg-1 in tilapia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cichlids*
  7. Debnath PP, Dinh-Hung N, Taengphu S, Nguyen VV, Delamare-Deboutteville J, Senapin S, et al.
    J Fish Dis, 2022 Jan;45(1):77-87.
    PMID: 34580880 DOI: 10.1111/jfd.13537
    Sixteen countries, including Bangladesh, have reported the presence of tilapia lake virus (TiLV), an emerging tilapia pathogen. Fish polyculture is a common farming practice in Bangladesh. Some unusual mortalities reported in species co-cultivated with TiLV-infected tilapia led us to investigate whether any of the co-cultivated species would also test positive for TiLV and whether they were susceptible to TiLV infection under controlled laboratory experiments. Using 183 samples obtained from 15 farms in six districts across Bangladesh, we determined that 20% of the farms tested positive for TiLV in tilapia, while 15 co-cultivated fish species and seven other invertebrates (e.g. insects and crustaceans) considered potential carriers all tested negative. Of the six representative fish species experimentally infected with TiLV, only Nile tilapia showed the typical clinical signs of the disease, with 70% mortality within 12 days. By contrast, four carp species and one catfish species challenged with TiLV showed no signs of TiLV infection. Challenged tilapia were confirmed as TiLV-positive by RT-qPCR, while challenged carp and walking catfish all tested negative. Overall, our field and laboratory findings indicate that species used in polycultures are not susceptible to TiLV. Although current evidence suggests that TiLV is likely host-specific to tilapia, targeted surveillance for TiLV in other fish species in polyculture systems should continue, in order to prepare for a possible future scenario where TiLV mutates and/or adapts to new host(s).
    Matched MeSH terms: Cichlids*
  8. Lee SW, Sim KY, Wendy W, Zulhisyam AK
    Vet World, 2016 Mar;9(3):231-4.
    PMID: 27057104 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.231-234
    This study was revealed the potential of Peperomia pellucida leaf extract as an immunostimulator agent in controlling motile aeromonad septicemia due to Aeromonas hydrophila in red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis sp.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cichlids
  9. Lim SY, Ooi AL, Wong WL
    Springerplus, 2016;5(1):1609.
    PMID: 27652182 DOI: 10.1186/s40064-016-3266-2
    Tilapia is one of the commercially important fish in Malaysia as well as in other parts of the world. An understanding of monogenean infection dynamics in tilapia fish may assist us in searching for some intervention measures in reducing the loss of fish caused by parasitic diseases. The present study aimed (1) to compare infection level of monogeneans between the wild and cultured Oreochromis niloticus, and between the cultured O. niloticus and cultured red hybrid tilapia, and (2) to examine the spatial distribution of monogenean species over the gills of the different host species. From a total of 75 fish specimens, six species of monogeneans from two genera: Cichlidogyrus (C. halli, C. mbirizei, C. sclerosus, C. thurstonae, C. tilapiae) and Scutogyrus (S. longicornis) were identified. Data showed that the infection level of cultured O. niloticus was higher than that of the wild O. niloticus, however, the former was lower than that of the cultured red hybrid tilapia. Higher species richness of monogeneans was observed in the cultured red hybrid tilapia as compared to the others. Results for spatial distribution showed that the monogeneans have no preference on the left or right sides of the gills. However, C. halli, C. mbirizei, and C. tilapiae showed preferences on specific gill arches in the cultured O. niloticus and red hybrid tilapia. In general, the gill arch IV harboured the least number of monogeneans. The susceptibility of monogenean infection between the different types of tilapia is discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cichlids
  10. Ahamad Bustamam MS, Pantami HA, Shaari K, Min CC, Mediani A, Ismail IS
    Fish Shellfish Immunol, 2023 Jan;132:108455.
    PMID: 36464078 DOI: 10.1016/j.fsi.2022.108455
    Tilapia is one of the most common fish species that is intensively produced all over the world. However, significant measures at improving aquaculture health must be taken since disease outbreaks are often encountered in the rapidly developing aquaculture industry. Therefore, the objective of the study was designed to evaluate the metabolite changes in tilapia' sera through 1H NMR metabolomics in identifying the potential biomarkers responsible for immunomodulatory effect by the indigenous species of Malaysian microalgae Isochrysis galbana (IG). The results showed that IG-incorporated diet mainly at 5.0% has improved the immune response of innate immunity as observed in serum bactericidal activity (SBA) and serum lysozyme activity (SLA). The orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS) analysis indicated 5 important metabolites significantly upregulated namely as ethanol, lipoprotein, lipid, α-glucose and unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) in the 5.0% IG-incorporated diet compared to control. In conclusion, this study had successfully determined IG in improving aquaculture health through its potential use as an immune modulator. This work also demonstrated the effective use of metabolomics approach in the development of alternative nutritious diet from microalgae species to boost fish health in fulfilling the aquaculture's long-term goals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cichlids*
  11. Muthanna A, Desa MNM, Alsalemi W, Liyana Abd Aziz NA, Dzaraly ND, Baharin NHZ, et al.
    PMID: 37167694 DOI: 10.1016/j.cimid.2023.101993
    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a major cause of several infectious diseases in humans and fish. This study was conducted to compare human and fish-derived GBS in terms of their antimicrobial susceptibility, serotype, virulence and pili genes and sequence type (ST), and to determine whether there is a potential linkage of zoonotic transmission in Malaysia. GBS isolated from humans and fish had similar phenotypic characteristics and differed in virulence gene profile, antimicrobial susceptibility, serotype and sequence type. Fish GBS isolates had lower genetic diversity and higher antibiotic susceptibility than human isolates. We report a rare detection of the potentially fish-adapted ST283 in human GBS isolates. Both human and fish ST283 shared several phenotypic and genotypic features, including virulence and pilus genes and antimicrobial susceptibility, illustrating the value of monitoring GBS within the One Health scope. In this study, two human GBS ST283 isolates belonging to the variant common in fish hosts were identified, raising awareness of the zoonotic potential between the different species in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cichlids*
  12. Marjanovic J, Mulder HA, Khaw HL, Bijma P
    Genet. Sel. Evol., 2016 06 10;48(1):41.
    PMID: 27286860 DOI: 10.1186/s12711-016-0218-9
    Animal breeding programs have been very successful in improving the mean levels of traits through selection. However, in recent decades, reducing the variability of trait levels between individuals has become a highly desirable objective. Reaching this objective through genetic selection requires that there is genetic variation in the variability of trait levels, a phenomenon known as genetic heterogeneity of environmental (residual) variance. The aim of our study was to investigate the potential for genetic improvement of uniformity of harvest weight and body size traits (length, depth, and width) in the genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT) strain. In order to quantify the genetic variation in uniformity of traits and estimate the genetic correlations between level and variance of the traits, double hierarchical generalized linear models were applied to individual trait values.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cichlids/genetics*; Cichlids/growth & development*
  13. Lind CE, Agyakwah SK, Attipoe FY, Nugent C, Crooijmans RPMA, Toguyeni A
    Sci Rep, 2019 11 14;9(1):16767.
    PMID: 31727970 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-53295-y
    Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is a globally significant aquaculture species rapidly gaining status as a farmed commodity. In West Africa, wild Nile tilapia genetic resources are abundant yet knowledge of fine-scale population structure and patterns of natural genetic variation are limited. Coinciding with this is a burgeoning growth in tilapia aquaculture in Ghana and other countries within the region underpinned by locally available genetic resources. Using 192 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers this study conducted a genetic survey of Nile tilapia throughout West Africa, sampling 23 wild populations across eight countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, Mali, Gambia and Senegal), representing the major catchments of the Volta, Niger, Senegal and Gambia River basins. A pattern of isolation-by-distance and significant spatial genetic structure was identified throughout West Africa (Global FST = 0.144), which largely corresponds to major river basins and, to a lesser extent, sub-basins. Two populations from the Gambia River (Kudang and Walekounda), one from the western Niger River (Lake Sélingué) and one from the upper Red Volta River (Kongoussi) showed markedly lower levels of diversity and high genetic differentiation compared to all other populations, suggesting genetically isolated populations occurring across the region. Genetic structure within the Volta Basin did not always follow the pattern expected for sub-river basins. This study identifies clear genetic structuring and differentiation amongst West African Nile tilapia populations, which concur with broad patterns found in previous studies. In addition, we provide new evidence for fine-scale genetic structuring within the Volta Basin and previously unidentified genetic differences of populations in Gambia. The 192 SNP marker suite used in this study is a useful tool for differentiating tilapia populations and we recommend incorporating this marker suite into future population screening of O. niloticus. Our results form the basis of a solid platform for future research on wild tilapia genetic resources in West Africa, and the identification of potentially valuable germplasm for use in ongoing breeding programs for aquaculture.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cichlids/classification; Cichlids/genetics*
  14. Taslima K, Wehner S, Taggart JB, de Verdal H, Benzie JAH, Bekaert M, et al.
    BMC Genet, 2020 04 29;21(1):49.
    PMID: 32349678 DOI: 10.1186/s12863-020-00853-3
    BACKGROUND: Tilapias (Family Cichlidae) are the second most important group of aquaculture species in the world. They have been the subject of much research on sex determination due to problems caused by early maturation in culture and their complex sex-determining systems. Different sex-determining loci (linkage group 1, 20 and 23) have been detected in various tilapia stocks. The 'genetically improved farmed tilapia' (GIFT) stock, founded from multiple Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) populations, with some likely to have been introgressed with O. mossambicus, is a key resource for tilapia aquaculture. The sex-determining mechanism in the GIFT stock was unknown, but potentially complicated due to its multiple origins.

    RESULTS: A bulk segregant analysis (BSA) version of double-digest restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (BSA-ddRADseq) was developed and used to detect and position sex-linked single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in 19 families from the GIFT strain breeding nucleus and two Stirling families as controls (a single XY locus had been previously mapped to LG1 in the latter). About 1500 SNPs per family were detected across the genome. Phenotypic sex in Stirling families showed strong association with LG1, whereas only SNPs located in LG23 showed clear association with sex in the majority of the GIFT families. No other genomic regions linked to sex determination were apparent. This region was validated using a series of LG23-specific DNA markers (five SNPs with highest association to sex from this study, the LG23 sex-associated microsatellite UNH898 and ARO172, and the recently isolated amhy marker for individual fish (n = 284).

    CONCLUSIONS: Perhaps surprisingly given its multiple origins, sex determination in the GIFT strain breeding nucleus was associated only with a locus in LG23. BSA-ddRADseq allowed cost-effective analysis of multiple families, strengthening this conclusion. This technique has potential to be applied to other complex traits. The sex-linked SNP markers identified will be useful for potential marker-assisted selection (MAS) to control sex-ratio in GIFT tilapia to suppress unwanted reproduction during growout.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cichlids/genetics*; Cichlids/physiology
  15. de Verdal H, Vandeputte M, Mekkawy W, Chatain B, Benzie JAH
    BMC Genet, 2018 11 16;19(1):105.
    PMID: 30445908 DOI: 10.1186/s12863-018-0691-y
    BACKGROUND: Improving feed efficiency in fish is crucial at the economic, social and environmental levels with respect to developing a more sustainable aquaculture. The important contribution of genetic improvement to achieve this goal has been hampered by the lack of accurate basic information on the genetic parameters of feed efficiency in fish. We used video assessment of feed intake on individual fish reared in groups to estimate the genetic parameters of six growth traits, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and residual feed intake in 40 pedigreed families of the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Feed intake and growth were measured on juvenile fish (22.4 g mean body weight) during 13 consecutive meals, representing 7 days of measurements. We used these data to estimate the FCR response to different selection criteria to assess the potential of genetics as a means of increasing FCR in tilapia.

    RESULTS: Our results demonstrate genetic control for FCR in tilapia, with a heritability estimate of 0.32 ± 0.11. Response to selection estimates showed FCR could be efficiently improved by selective breeding. Due to low genetic correlations, selection for growth traits would not improve FCR. However, weight loss at fasting has a high genetic correlation with FCR (0.80 ± 0.25) and a moderate heritability (0.23), and could be an easy to measure and efficient criterion to improve FCR by selective breeding in tilapia.

    CONCLUSION: At this age, FCR is genetically determined in Nile tilapia. A selective breeding program could be possible and could help enabling the development of a more sustainable aquaculture production.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cichlids/genetics*; Cichlids/growth & development
  16. Biran J, Golan M, Mizrahi N, Ogawa S, Parhar IS, Levavi-Sivan B
    Endocrinology, 2014 Nov;155(11):4391-401.
    PMID: 25144920 DOI: 10.1210/en.2013-2047
    LPXRFamide (LPXRFa) peptides have been characterized for their ability to inhibit gonadotropin (GTH) release in birds and stimulate growth hormone (GH) release in frogs. However, their involvement in regulating the reproductive hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis in mammals and fish is inconclusive. To study the role of LPXRFa peptides in the regulation of GTH secretion, we cloned tilapia LPXRFa and LPXRF receptor (LPXRF-R). Processing of the tilapia preproLPXRFa liberated three mature LPXRFa peptides that varied in size and post-translational modifications. Phylogenetic analysis of LPXRFa and the closely related RFamide peptide PQRFa showed clear clustering of each peptide sequence with its orthologs from various vertebrates. Signal-transduction analysis of the tilapia LPXRF-R in COS-7 cells showed clear stimulation of CRE-dependent luciferase activity, whereas the human NPFFR1 showed suppression of forskolin-induced CRE-dependent activity in this system. Administration of the tilapia pyroglutaminated LPXRFa-2 peptide to primary cell culture of tilapia pituitaries, or to reproductive female tilapia by ip injection, positively regulated both LH and FSH release in vivo and in vitro. Using double-labeled fluorescent in-situ hybridization and immunofluorescence, βLH cells were found to co-express both tilapia lpxrf and tilapia lpxrf-r mRNA, whereas some of the βFSH cells coexpressed only lpxrf-r mRNA. No coexpression of tilapia lpxrf-r was identified in GH-positive cells. These findings suggest that the LPXRFa system is a potent positive regulator of the reproductive neuroendocrine axis of tilapia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cichlids/genetics*; Cichlids/metabolism*
  17. Teoh CY, Ng WK
    J Agric Food Chem, 2013 Jun 26;61(25):6056-68.
    PMID: 23718861 DOI: 10.1021/jf400904j
    The present study aimed to investigate the potential role of dietary petroselinic acid (PSA) in enhancing the n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) content in fish tissues. Three isolipidic casein-based diets were formulated to comprise graded levels of PSA (0, 10, or 20% of total fatty acid) with the incremented inclusion of coriander seed oil. Fish growth and nutrient digestibility were not significantly (P > 0.05) influenced by dietary PSA level. In general, dietary PSA affected the fatty acid composition of tilapia tissues and whole-body, which reflected dietary fatty acid ratios. Dietary PSA significantly (P < 0.05) increased β-oxidation, particularly on α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) and linoleic acid (18:2n-6). This study provided evidence that PSA, a pseudoproduct mimicking the structure of 18:3n-6, did reduce Δ-6 desaturation on 18:2n-6 but, contrary to popular speculation, did not stimulate more Δ-6 desaturase activity on 18:3n-3. The overall Δ-6 desaturase enzyme activity may be suppressed at high dietary levels of PSA. Nevertheless, the n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA biosynthesis was not significantly inhibited by dietary PSA, indicating that the bioconversion efficiency is not modulated only by Δ-6 desaturase. The deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA in liver and fillet lipids was higher in fish fed PSA-supplemented diets.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cichlids/growth & development*; Cichlids/metabolism*
  18. Laith AA, Abdullah MA, Nurhafizah WWI, Hussein HA, Aya J, Effendy AWM, et al.
    Fish Shellfish Immunol, 2019 Jul;90:235-243.
    PMID: 31009810 DOI: 10.1016/j.fsi.2019.04.052
    Streptococcus agalactiae species have been recognized as the main pathogen causing high mortality in fish leading to significant worldwide economical losses to the aquaculture industries. Vaccine development has become a priority in combating multidrug resistance in bacteria; however, there is a lack of commercial live attenuated vaccine (LAV) against S. agalactiae in Malaysia. The aim of this study is to compare two methods using attenuated bacteria as live vaccine and to evaluate the efficacy of selected LAV on the immune responses and resistance of Oreochromis niloticus (tilapia) against S. agalactiae. The LAV derived from S. agalactiae had been weakened using the chemical agent Acriflavine dye (LAV1), whereas the second vaccine was weakened using serial passages of bacteria on broth media (LAV2). Initial immunization was carried out only on day one, given twice-in the morning and evening, for the 42 day period. Serum samples were collected to determine the systemic antibody (IgM) responses and lysozymal (LSZ) activity using ELISA. On day 43 after immunization, the fish were injected intraperitoneally (i.p) with 0.1 mL of S. agalactiae at LD50 = 1.5 × 105 (CFU)/fish. Fish were monitored daily for 10 days. Clinical signs, mortality and the relative percent of survival (RPS) were recorded. Trial 1 results showed a significant increased (P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Cichlids/immunology; Cichlids/microbiology*
  19. Das K, Ogawa S, Kitahashi T, Parhar IS
    Peptides, 2019 02;112:67-77.
    PMID: 30389346 DOI: 10.1016/j.peptides.2018.10.009
    A cichlid fish, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), is a maternal mouthbrooder, which exhibits minimum energy expenditure and slower ovarian cycles during mouthbrooding. The objective of this study was to observe changes in the gene expression of key neuropeptides involved in the control of appetite and reproduction, including neuropeptide Y a (NPYa), reproductive neuropeptides: gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH1, GnRH2 and GnRH3) and kisspeptin (Kiss2) during mouthbrooding (4- and 12-days), 12-days of food restriction and 12-days of food restriction followed by refeeding. The food restriction regime showed a significant increase in npya mRNA levels in the telencephalon. However, there were no significant alterations in npya mRNA levels during mouthbrooding. gnrh1 mRNA levels were significantly lower in mouthbrooding female as compared with females with food restriction. gnrh3 mRNA levels were also significantly lower in female with 12-days of mouthbrooding, 12-days of food restriction followed by 12-days of refeeding when compared with controls. There were no significant differences in gnrh2 and kiss2 mRNA levels between groups under different feeding regimes. No significant changes were observed in mRNA levels of receptors for peripheral metabolic signaling molecules: ghrelin (GHS-R1a and GHS-R1b) and leptin (Lep-R). These results suggested that unaffected npya mRNA levels in the telencephalon might contribute to suppression of appetite in mouthbrooding female tilapia. Furthermore, lower gnrh1 and gnrh3 mRNA levels may influence the suppression of reproductive functions such as progression of ovarian cycle and reproductive behaviours, while GnRH2 and Kiss2 may not play a significant roles in reproduction under food restriction condition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cichlids/metabolism*; Cichlids/physiology
  20. Shen G, Huang Y, Dong J, Wang X, Cheng KK, Feng J, et al.
    J Agric Food Chem, 2018 Jan 10;66(1):368-377.
    PMID: 29215281 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b03182
    Taurine is indispensable in aquatic diets that are based solely on plant protein, and it promotes growth of many fish species. However, the physiological and metabolome effects of taurine on fish have not been well described. In this study, 1H NMR-based metabolomics approaches were applied to investigate the metabolite variations in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis nilotictus) muscle in order to visualize the metabolic trajectory and reveal the possible mechanisms of metabolic effects of dietary taurine supplementation on tilapia growth. After extraction using aqueous and organic solvents, 19 taurine-induced metabolic changes were evaluated in our study. The metabolic changes were characterized by differences in carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid, and nucleotide contents. The results indicate that taurine supplementation could significantly regulate the physiological state of fish and promote growth and development. These results provide a basis for understanding the mechanism of dietary taurine supplementation in fish feeding. 1H NMR spectroscopy, coupled with multivariate pattern recognition technologies, is an efficient and useful tool to map the fish metabolome and identify metabolic responses to different dietary nutrients in aquaculture.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cichlids/growth & development; Cichlids/metabolism*
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