Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 466 in total

  1. Effendi-Tenang I, Tan MP, Khaliddin N, Jamaluddin Ahmad M, Amir NN, Kamaruzzaman SB, et al.
    Arch Gerontol Geriatr, 2020 06 26;90:104165.
    PMID: 32650156 DOI: 10.1016/j.archger.2020.104165
    INTRODUCTION: Published literature on vision impairment and cognitive function amongst older Malaysians remains scarce. This study investigates the association between vision impairment and cognitive function in an older Malaysian population.

    METHODS: Subjects aged 55 years and above from the Malaysian Elders Longitudinal Research (MELoR) study with available information on vision and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores were included. Data were obtained through a home-based interview and hospital-based health check by trained researchers. Visual acuity (VA) was assessed with logMAR score with vision impairment defined as VA 6/18 or worse in the better-seeing eye. Cognition was evaluated using the MoCA-Blind scoring procedure. Those with a MoCA-Blind score of <19/22 were considered to have cognitive impairment.

    RESULTS: Data was available for 1144 participants, mean (SD) age = 68.57 (±7.23) years. Vision impairment was present in 143 (12.5 %) and 758 (66.3 %) had MoCA-Blind score of <19. Subjects with vision impairment were less likely to have a MoCA-Blind score of ≥19 (16.8 % vs 36.2 %, p < 0.001). Vision impairment was associated with poorer MoCA-Blind scores after adjustments for age, gender, and ethnicity (β = 2.064; 95 % CI, -1.282 to 3.320; P = 0.003). In those who had > 6 years of education attainment, vision impairment was associated with a significant reduction of cognitive function and remained so after adjustment for age and gender (β = 1.863; 95 % CI, 1.081-3.209; P = 0.025).

    CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that vision impairment correlates with cognitive decline. Therefore, maintaining good vision is an important interventional strategy for preventing cognitive decline in older adults.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cognition; Cognition Disorders*
  2. Chew KS, van Merriënboer J, Durning SJ
    BMC Res Notes, 2016 Sep 17;9(1):445.
    PMID: 27639851 DOI: 10.1186/s13104-016-2249-2
    Although a clinician may have the intention of carrying out strategies to reduce cognitive errors, this intention may not be realized especially under heavy workload situations or following a period of interruptions. Implementing strategies to reduce cognitive errors in clinical setting may be facilitated by a portable mnemonic in the form of a checklist.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cognition*
  3. Mohamed Fuad Z, Mahadzir H, Syed Zakaria SZ, Mohamed Ibrahim N
    Front Public Health, 2020;8:577940.
    PMID: 33282811 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.577940
    Background: Stroke is highly prevalent globally and is an important cause of cognitive impairment and dementia. Aims: We determined the frequency of post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) at 1, 3, and 6 months among patients with first clinical ischemic stroke compared to risk and age-matched controls. Methods: This study involved 32 cases and 32 controls, and was conducted over 6 months. Cases were inpatients aged >60 with first clinical ischemic stroke. Controls were age-matched subjects without prior stroke. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was performed in all patients at 1, 3, and 6 month post stroke. A MoCA score of <26 was used for mild PSCI and <22 for moderate PSCI (post stroke dementia). Results: Post-stroke dementia was detected in 12 patients (37.5%) at 1st month, in 13 (40.6%) at 3rd month and 15 (48.4%) at 6th months. Mild PSCI was present in 7 patients (21.6%) at 1 month, 16 patients (50%) at 3 months, and 15 patients (48%) at 6 months. The odds ratio (OR) for post-stroke dementia was 3.2 (95%CI 0.98-10.68; p = 0.05) at 1 month; 3.69(95% CI 1.13-12.11; p = 0.031) at 3 months, and 4.88 (95% CI 1.49-15.99; p = 0.009) at 6 months. Years of education was an independent predictor for dementia (OR 0.60; p = 0.046). The OR for post-stroke dementia at 6th month was 7.23 with education level adjusted (95%CI 1.46-35.86, p = 0.015). Conclusion: The frequency of PSCI was high as early as 1 month after stroke. Stroke alone conferred a 7.2 times risk for post-stroke dementia compared to controls.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cognition Disorders*
  4. Guure CB, Ibrahim NA, Adam MB, Said SM
    PLoS One, 2017;12(8):e0182873.
    PMID: 28813458 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0182873
    BACKGROUND: Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS) is an instrument administered by trained personnel to examine levels of participants' cognitive function. However, the association between changes in scores over time and the risk of death (mortality) is not known. The aims of this study are to examine the association between 3MS scores and mortality via cognitive impairment among older women and to determine individuals' risk of changes in scores to better predict their survival and mortality rates.

    METHODS: We propose a Bayesian joint modelling approach to determine mortality due to cognitive impairment via repeated measures of 3MS scores trajectories over a 21-year follow-up period. Data for this study are taken from the Osteoporotic Fracture longitudinal study among women aged 65+ which started in 1986-88.

    RESULTS: The standard relative risk model from the analyses with a baseline 3MS score after adjusting for all the significant covariates demonstrates that, every unit decrease in a 3MS score corresponds to a non-significant 1.059 increase risk of mortality with a 95% CI of (0.981, 1.143), while the extended model results in a significant 0.09% increased risk in mortality. The joint modelling approach found a strong association between the 3MS scores and the risk of mortality, such that, every unit decrease in 3MS scores results in a 1.135 (13%) increased risk of death via cognitive impairment with a 95% CI of (1.056, 1.215).

    CONCLUSION: It has been demonstrated that a decrease in 3MS results has a significant increase risk of mortality due to cognitive impairment via joint modelling, but insignificant when considered under the standard relative risk approach.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cognition*; Cognition Disorders/diagnosis; Cognition Disorders/mortality*; Cognition Disorders/epidemiology; Cognition Disorders/psychology*
  5. Ooi CP, Loke SC, Yassin Z, Hamid TA
    PMID: 21491398 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007220.pub2
    BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate state between normal cognition and dementia in which daily function is largely intact. This condition may present an opportunity for research into the prevention of dementia. Carbohydrate is an essential and easily accessible macronutrient which influences cognitive performance. A better understanding of carbohydrate-driven cognitive changes in normal cognition and mild cognitive impairment may suggest ways to prevent or reduce cognitive decline.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of carbohydrates in improving cognitive function in older adults.

    SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched ALOIS, the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group Specialized Register on 22 June 2010 using the terms: carbohydrates OR carbohydrate OR monosaccharides OR disaccharides OR oligosaccharides OR polysaccharides OR CARBS. ALOIS contains records from all major healthcare databases (The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, LILACS) as well as from many trial databases and grey literature sources.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised controlled trials (RCT) that have examined the efficacy of any form of carbohydrates in normal cognition and MCI.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: One review author selected and retrieved relevant articles for further assessment. The remaining authors independently assessed whether any of the retrieved trials should be included. Disagreements were resolved by discussion. 

    MAIN RESULTS: There is no suitable RCT of any form of carbohydrates involving independent-living older adults with normal cognition or mild cognitive impairment.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There are no suitable RCTs on which to base any recommendations about the use of any form of carbohydrate for enhancing cognitive performance in older adults with normal cognition or mild cognitive impairment. More studies of many different carbohydrates are needed to tease out complex nutritional issues and further evaluate memory improvement.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cognition*; Cognition Disorders/drug therapy*
  6. Teoh SL, Sudfangsai S, Lumbiganon P, Laopaiboon M, Lai NM, Chaiyakunapruk N
    Nutrients, 2016;8(4).
    PMID: 27104559 DOI: 10.3390/nu8040228
    In a recent systematic review and meta-analysis report (Nutrients 2016, 8, 57), we critically appraised and summarized current evidence to determine the effects of chicken essence in improving cognitive functions as well as its safety. [...].
    Matched MeSH terms: Cognition
  7. Zareei M, Islam AKMM, Baharun S, Vargas-Rosales C, Azpilicueta L, Mansoor N
    Sensors (Basel), 2017 Sep 16;17(9).
    PMID: 28926952 DOI: 10.3390/s17092136
    New wireless network paradigms will demand higher spectrum use and availability to cope with emerging data-hungry devices. Traditional static spectrum allocation policies cause spectrum scarcity, and new paradigms such as Cognitive Radio (CR) and new protocols and techniques need to be developed in order to have efficient spectrum usage. Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols are accountable for recognizing free spectrum, scheduling available resources and coordinating the coexistence of heterogeneous systems and users. This paper provides an ample review of the state-of-the-art MAC protocols, which mainly focuses on Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks (CRAHN). First, a description of the cognitive radio fundamental functions is presented. Next, MAC protocols are divided into three groups, which are based on their channel access mechanism, namely time-slotted protocol, random access protocol and hybrid protocol. In each group, a detailed and comprehensive explanation of the latest MAC protocols is presented, as well as the pros and cons of each protocol. A discussion on future challenges for CRAHN MAC protocols is included with a comparison of the protocols from a functional perspective.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cognition
  8. Al-Mqdashi A, Sali A, Noordin NK, Hashim SJ, Nordin R
    Sensors (Basel), 2018 Dec 10;18(12).
    PMID: 30544684 DOI: 10.3390/s18124360
    Channel rendezvous is an initial and important process for establishing communications between secondary users (SUs) in distributed cognitive radio networks. Due to the drawbacks of the common control channel (CCC) based rendezvous approach, channel hopping (CH) has attracted a lot of research interests for achieving blind rendezvous. To ensure rendezvous within a finite time, most of the existing CH-based rendezvous schemes generate their CH sequences based on the whole global channel set in the network. However, due to the spatial and temporal variations in channel availabilities as well as the limitation of SUs sensing capabilities, the local available channel set (ACS) for each SU is usually a small subset of the global set. Therefore, following these global-based generated CH sequences can result in extensively long time-to-rendezvous (TTR) especially when the number of unavailable channels is large. In this paper, we propose two matrix-based CH rendezvous schemes in which the CH sequences are generated based on the ACSs only. We prove the guaranteed and full diversity rendezvous of the proposed schemes by deriving the theoretical upper bounds of their maximum TTRs. Furthermore, extensive simulation comparisons with other existing works are conducted which illustrate the superior performance of our schemes in terms of the TTR metrics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cognition
  9. Mohd Zulkifly MF, Ghazali SE, Che Din N, Subramaniam P
    Malays J Med Sci, 2016 Mar;23(2):53-64.
    PMID: 27547115 MyJurnal
    This study aims to estimate the prevalence and explore the predictors for post-stroke cognitive impairment at the community level in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cognition Disorders
  10. Ghani RA, Nasir R, Wan Shahrazad WS, Yusooff F
    Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia, 2013;olume 27:3-14.
    Kajian kuasai-eksperimental ini dijalankan bertujuan untuk mengukur kesan terapi keluarga ke atas herotan kognitif pesalah remaja. Subjek kajian terdiri daripada 18 orang pesalah jenayah remaja yang menerima perintah bon berkelakuan baik berserta perintah tambahan bengkel interaktif sebagai kumpulan rawatan dan 18 orang pesalah remaja yang menerima perintah bon berkelakuan baik tanpa perintah tambahan bengkel interaktif sebagai kumpulan kawalan. Herotan kognitif diukur menggunakan soal selidik laporan kendiri Cognitive Distortion Scale (CDS). Subjek rawatan diberikan enam sesi terapi keluarga dalam jangka masa 2 - 3 bulan selama 50 ke 90 minit bagi setiap sesi. Ujian SPANOVA digunakan untuk mengukur kesan terapi keluarga ke atas pesalah remaja. Hasil kajian menunjukkan terapi keluarga berkesan secara signifikan untuk mengurangkan herotan kognitif pesalah remaja.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cognition
  11. Siddique J, Shamim A, Nawaz M, Faye I, Rehman M
    Front Psychol, 2020;11:591753.
    PMID: 33613353 DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.591753
    The increasing interest in online shopping in recent years has increased the importance of understanding customer engagement valence (CEV) in a virtual service network. There is yet a comprehensive explanation of the CEV concept, particularly its impact on multi-actor networks such as web stores. Therefore, this study aims to fill this research gap. In this study, past literature in the marketing and consumer psychology field was critically reviewed to understand the concept of CEV in online shopping, and the propositional-based style was employed to conceptualize the CEV within the online shopping (web stores) context. The outcomes demonstrate that the valence of customer engagement is dependent on the cognitive interpretation of signals that are prompted by multiple actors on a web store service network. If the signals are positively interpreted, positive outcomes such as service co-creation are expected, but if they are negatively interpreted, negative outcomes such as service co-destruction are predicted. These notions create avenues for future empirical research and practical implications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cognition
  12. Yusop CYC, Mohamad I, Mohammad WMZW, Abdullah B
    J Natl Med Assoc, 2017 04 03;109(3):215-220.
    PMID: 28987252 DOI: 10.1016/j.jnma.2017.03.004
    INTRODUCTION: Obstructive sleep apnea patients may develop deficits in the cognitive domains of attention, concentration, executive function, verbal and visuospatial memory, constructional abilities, and psychomotor functioning. As cognitive performance will improve with the treatment, early screening for cognitive dysfunction should be done to prevent further deterioration.

    OBJECTIVE: We aim to evaluate the cognitive function of obstructive sleep apnea patients by using the 'Mini Mental State Examination'.

    METHODOLOGY: This was a cross sectional study to evaluate the cognitive function of moderate and severe obstructive sleep apnea patients with age ranged from 18 to 60 old who attended our sleep clinic. These patients were confirmed to have moderate and severe obstructive sleep apnea by Type 1 polysomnography (attended full overnight study). The age, gender and ethnicity were noted and other relevant data such as weight, height, body mass index and apnea and hypopnoea index were recorded accordingly. The cognitive function was evaluated using validated Malay version of Mini Mental State Examination which measured 5 areas of cognitive functions comprising orientation, registration, attention and calculation, word recall and language abilities, and visuospatial.

    RESULTS: A total of 38 patients participated in this study. All 19 patients of moderate group and 14 patients of severe group had normal cognitive function while only 5 patients in severe group had mild cognitive function impairment. There was a statistically significant difference between the moderate group and severe group on cognitive performance (p value = 0.042).

    CONCLUSIONS: Severe obstructive sleep apnea patients may have impaired cognitive function. Mini Mental State Examination is useful in the screening of cognitive function of obstructive sleep apnea patients but in normal score, more sophisticated test batteries are required as it is unable to identify in 'very minimal' or 'extremely severe' cognitive dysfunction.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cognition*; Cognition Disorders/diagnosis*; Cognition Disorders/etiology; Cognition Disorders/epidemiology
  13. Foong HF, Hamid TA, Ibrahim R, Haron SA
    Psychogeriatrics, 2018 Jan;18(1):21-29.
    PMID: 29372603 DOI: 10.1111/psyg.12279
    BACKGROUND: The link between psychosocial stress and cognitive function is complex, and previous studies have indicated that it may be mediated by processing speed. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to examine whether processing speed mediates the association between psychosocial stress and global cognition in older adults. Moreover, the moderating role of gender in this model is examined as well.

    METHODS: The study included 2322 community-dwelling older adults in Malaysia who were randomly selected through a multistage proportional cluster random sampling technique. Global cognition construct was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment; psychosocial stress construct was measured by perceived stress, depression, loneliness, and neuroticism; and processing speed was assessed by the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Structural equation modelling was used to analyze the mediation and moderation tests.

    RESULTS: Processing speed was found to partially mediate the relationship between psychosocial stress and global cognition (β in the direct model = -0.15, P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Cognition/physiology*; Cognition Disorders/diagnosis*; Cognition Disorders/physiopathology; Cognition Disorders/psychology
  14. Mohamad N, Hoare DJ, Hall DA
    Hear Res, 2016 Feb;332:199-209.
    PMID: 26523370 DOI: 10.1016/j.heares.2015.10.001
    People with tinnitus report anecdotal difficulties in mental concentration and psychological treatments for tinnitus advise on concentration difficulties and how to manage them. Yet the literature lacks any coherent discussion about what precise theoretical cognitive constructs might be mediating reported concentration problems. This review addresses this gap by describing and critically appraising the behavioural evidence for the effects of tinnitus on cognitive performance (namely working memory and attention). Empirical evidence is somewhat limited, but there is some support that tinnitus interferes with executive attention, and mixed support that it impairs working memory and selective attention. We highlight a number of methodological considerations to help drive the field forward and we propose a putative model of the complex inter-relationships between tinnitus, cognition and confounding factors. This model provides a basis for hypothesis testing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cognition*; Cognition Disorders/diagnosis; Cognition Disorders/etiology*
  15. Benton D, Winichagoon P, Ng TP, Tee ES, Isabelle M
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2012;21(1):104-24.
    PMID: 22374567
    A SYMPOSIUM ON NUTRITION AND COGNITION: Towards research and application for different life stages was held on October 2010 in Malaysia. The influence of diet and nutrition on the cognitive development of the child and on cognitive decline in later life was reviewed. Central to the study of such topics is the assessment of cognitive functioning. Cognitive functioning falls into six main areas: executive functioning, memory, attention, perception, psychomotor and language skills, although each domain can be further subdivided. As it is in the nature of human functioning that the performance on any cognitive test can reflect aspects of many of these domains, ideally a battery of tests should be used to establish the basis of any difference in performance. In intervention studies, frequently there has been a failure to demonstrate a beneficial influence of changes in diet. A possible reason is that studies have failed to acknowledge the time scale and critical ages over which diet has an impact. Diet may have a slow and progressive influence making it difficult for short-term studies to show an improvement. In addition, as many factors influence human behaviour, dietary interventions should only be one part of a coordinated approach; the effect of diet will depend on the social and psychological context in which an individual lives. Placing diet into a broader social and psychological context greatly increases the chance of generating significant findings. This report highlights and reviews presentations and discussions at the symposium.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cognition*; Cognition Disorders
  16. Shapi'i A, Mat Zin NA, Elaklouk AM
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:493562.
    PMID: 25815320 DOI: 10.1155/2015/493562
    Brain injury such as traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke is the major cause of long-term disabilities in many countries. The increasing rate of brain damaged victims and the heterogeneity of impairments decrease rehabilitation effectiveness and competence resulting in higher cost of rehabilitation treatment. On the other hand, traditional rehabilitation exercises are boring, thus leading patients to neglect the prescribed exercises required for recovery. Therefore, we propose game-based approach to address these problems. This paper presents a rehabilitation gaming system (RGS) for cognitive rehabilitation. The RGS is developed based on a proposed conceptual framework which has also been presented in this paper.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cognition Disorders/pathology; Cognition Disorders/rehabilitation*
  17. Al-Medhwahi M, Hashim F, Ali BM, Sali A
    PLoS One, 2016;11(6):e0156880.
    PMID: 27257964 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0156880
    The rapid expansion of wireless monitoring and surveillance applications in several domains reinforces the trend of exploiting emerging technologies such as the cognitive radio. However, these technologies have to adjust their working concepts to consider the common characteristics of conventional wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN), still an immature technology, has to deal with new networks that might have different types of data, traffic patterns, or quality of service (QoS) requirements. In this paper, we design and model a new cognitive radio-based medium access control (MAC) algorithm dealing with the heterogeneous nature of the developed networks in terms of either the traffic pattern or the required QoS for the node applications. The proposed algorithm decreases the consumed power on several fronts, provides satisfactory levels of latency and spectrum utilization with efficient scheduling, and manages the radio resources for various traffic conditions. An intensive performance evaluation is conducted to study the impact of key parameters such as the channel idle time length, node density, and the number of available channels. The performance evaluation of the proposed algorithm shows a better performance than the comparable protocols. Moreover, the results manifest that the proposed algorithm is suitable for real time monitoring applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cognition/physiology*
  18. Zafar R, Dass SC, Malik AS
    PLoS One, 2017;12(5):e0178410.
    PMID: 28558002 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0178410
    Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based decoding human brain activity is challenging, owing to the low spatial resolution of EEG. However, EEG is an important technique, especially for brain-computer interface applications. In this study, a novel algorithm is proposed to decode brain activity associated with different types of images. In this hybrid algorithm, convolutional neural network is modified for the extraction of features, a t-test is used for the selection of significant features and likelihood ratio-based score fusion is used for the prediction of brain activity. The proposed algorithm takes input data from multichannel EEG time-series, which is also known as multivariate pattern analysis. Comprehensive analysis was conducted using data from 30 participants. The results from the proposed method are compared with current recognized feature extraction and classification/prediction techniques. The wavelet transform-support vector machine method is the most popular currently used feature extraction and prediction method. This method showed an accuracy of 65.7%. However, the proposed method predicts the novel data with improved accuracy of 79.9%. In conclusion, the proposed algorithm outperformed the current feature extraction and prediction method.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cognition*
  19. Chen WN, Yeong KY
    PMID: 32056532 DOI: 10.2174/1871527319666200214104331
    Scopolamine as a drug is often used to treat motion sickness. Derivatives of scopolamine have also found applications as antispasmodic drugs among others. In neuroscience-related research, it is often used to induce cognitive disorders in experimental models as it readily permeates the bloodbrain barrier. In the context of Alzheimer's disease, its effects include causing cholinergic dysfunction and increasing amyloid-β deposition, both of which are hallmarks of the disease. Hence, the application of scopolamine in Alzheimer's disease research is proven pivotal but seldom discussed. In this review, the relationship between scopolamine and Alzheimer's disease will be delineated through an overall effect of scopolamine administration and its specific mechanisms of action, discussing mainly its influences on cholinergic function and amyloid cascade. The validity of scopolamine as a model of cognitive impairment or neurotoxin model will also be discussed in terms of advantages and limitations with future insights.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cognition; Cognition Disorders
  20. Mohammed M, Omar N
    PLoS One, 2020;15(3):e0230442.
    PMID: 32191738 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0230442
    The assessment of examination questions is crucial in educational institutes since examination is one of the most common methods to evaluate students' achievement in specific course. Therefore, there is a crucial need to construct a balanced and high-quality exam, which satisfies different cognitive levels. Thus, many lecturers rely on Bloom's taxonomy cognitive domain, which is a popular framework developed for the purpose of assessing students' intellectual abilities and skills. Several works have been proposed to automatically handle the classification of questions in accordance with Bloom's taxonomy. Most of these works classify questions according to specific domain. As a result, there is a lack of technique of classifying questions that belong to the multi-domain areas. The aim of this paper is to present a classification model to classify exam questions based on Bloom's taxonomy that belong to several areas. This study proposes a method for classifying questions automatically, by extracting two features, TFPOS-IDF and word2vec. The purpose of the first feature was to calculate the term frequency-inverse document frequency based on part of speech, in order to assign a suitable weight for essential words in the question. The second feature, pre-trained word2vec, was used to boost the classification process. Then, the combination of these features was fed into three different classifiers; K-Nearest Neighbour, Logistic Regression, and Support Vector Machine, in order to classify the questions. The experiments used two datasets. The first dataset contained 141 questions, while the other dataset contained 600 questions. The classification result for the first dataset achieved an average of 71.1%, 82.3% and 83.7% weighted F1-measure respectively. The classification result for the second dataset achieved an average of 85.4%, 89.4% and 89.7% weighted F1-measure respectively. The finding from this study showed that the proposed method is significant in classifying questions from multiple domains based on Bloom's taxonomy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cognition/physiology*
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