METHODS: Subjects aged 55 years and above from the Malaysian Elders Longitudinal Research (MELoR) study with available information on vision and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores were included. Data were obtained through a home-based interview and hospital-based health check by trained researchers. Visual acuity (VA) was assessed with logMAR score with vision impairment defined as VA 6/18 or worse in the better-seeing eye. Cognition was evaluated using the MoCA-Blind scoring procedure. Those with a MoCA-Blind score of <19/22 were considered to have cognitive impairment.
RESULTS: Data was available for 1144 participants, mean (SD) age = 68.57 (±7.23) years. Vision impairment was present in 143 (12.5 %) and 758 (66.3 %) had MoCA-Blind score of <19. Subjects with vision impairment were less likely to have a MoCA-Blind score of ≥19 (16.8 % vs 36.2 %, p < 0.001). Vision impairment was associated with poorer MoCA-Blind scores after adjustments for age, gender, and ethnicity (β = 2.064; 95 % CI, -1.282 to 3.320; P = 0.003). In those who had > 6 years of education attainment, vision impairment was associated with a significant reduction of cognitive function and remained so after adjustment for age and gender (β = 1.863; 95 % CI, 1.081-3.209; P = 0.025).
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that vision impairment correlates with cognitive decline. Therefore, maintaining good vision is an important interventional strategy for preventing cognitive decline in older adults.
METHODS: We propose a Bayesian joint modelling approach to determine mortality due to cognitive impairment via repeated measures of 3MS scores trajectories over a 21-year follow-up period. Data for this study are taken from the Osteoporotic Fracture longitudinal study among women aged 65+ which started in 1986-88.
RESULTS: The standard relative risk model from the analyses with a baseline 3MS score after adjusting for all the significant covariates demonstrates that, every unit decrease in a 3MS score corresponds to a non-significant 1.059 increase risk of mortality with a 95% CI of (0.981, 1.143), while the extended model results in a significant 0.09% increased risk in mortality. The joint modelling approach found a strong association between the 3MS scores and the risk of mortality, such that, every unit decrease in 3MS scores results in a 1.135 (13%) increased risk of death via cognitive impairment with a 95% CI of (1.056, 1.215).
CONCLUSION: It has been demonstrated that a decrease in 3MS results has a significant increase risk of mortality due to cognitive impairment via joint modelling, but insignificant when considered under the standard relative risk approach.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of carbohydrates in improving cognitive function in older adults.
SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched ALOIS, the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group Specialized Register on 22 June 2010 using the terms: carbohydrates OR carbohydrate OR monosaccharides OR disaccharides OR oligosaccharides OR polysaccharides OR CARBS. ALOIS contains records from all major healthcare databases (The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, LILACS) as well as from many trial databases and grey literature sources.
SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised controlled trials (RCT) that have examined the efficacy of any form of carbohydrates in normal cognition and MCI.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: One review author selected and retrieved relevant articles for further assessment. The remaining authors independently assessed whether any of the retrieved trials should be included. Disagreements were resolved by discussion.
MAIN RESULTS: There is no suitable RCT of any form of carbohydrates involving independent-living older adults with normal cognition or mild cognitive impairment.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There are no suitable RCTs on which to base any recommendations about the use of any form of carbohydrate for enhancing cognitive performance in older adults with normal cognition or mild cognitive impairment. More studies of many different carbohydrates are needed to tease out complex nutritional issues and further evaluate memory improvement.
OBJECTIVE: We aim to evaluate the cognitive function of obstructive sleep apnea patients by using the 'Mini Mental State Examination'.
METHODOLOGY: This was a cross sectional study to evaluate the cognitive function of moderate and severe obstructive sleep apnea patients with age ranged from 18 to 60 old who attended our sleep clinic. These patients were confirmed to have moderate and severe obstructive sleep apnea by Type 1 polysomnography (attended full overnight study). The age, gender and ethnicity were noted and other relevant data such as weight, height, body mass index and apnea and hypopnoea index were recorded accordingly. The cognitive function was evaluated using validated Malay version of Mini Mental State Examination which measured 5 areas of cognitive functions comprising orientation, registration, attention and calculation, word recall and language abilities, and visuospatial.
RESULTS: A total of 38 patients participated in this study. All 19 patients of moderate group and 14 patients of severe group had normal cognitive function while only 5 patients in severe group had mild cognitive function impairment. There was a statistically significant difference between the moderate group and severe group on cognitive performance (p value = 0.042).
CONCLUSIONS: Severe obstructive sleep apnea patients may have impaired cognitive function. Mini Mental State Examination is useful in the screening of cognitive function of obstructive sleep apnea patients but in normal score, more sophisticated test batteries are required as it is unable to identify in 'very minimal' or 'extremely severe' cognitive dysfunction.
METHODS: The study included 2322 community-dwelling older adults in Malaysia who were randomly selected through a multistage proportional cluster random sampling technique. Global cognition construct was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment; psychosocial stress construct was measured by perceived stress, depression, loneliness, and neuroticism; and processing speed was assessed by the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Structural equation modelling was used to analyze the mediation and moderation tests.
RESULTS: Processing speed was found to partially mediate the relationship between psychosocial stress and global cognition (β in the direct model = -0.15, P