Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 57 in total

  1. Khan MA, Hasbullah H, Nazir B, Khan IA
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:785305.
    PMID: 25152924 DOI: 10.1155/2014/785305
    Recently, wireless sensor network (WSN) applications have seen an increase in interest. In search and rescue, battlefield reconnaissance, and some other such applications, so that a survey of the area of interest can be made collectively, a set of mobile nodes is deployed. Keeping the network nodes connected is vital for WSNs to be effective. The provision of connectivity can be made at the time of startup and can be maintained by carefully coordinating the nodes when they move. However, if a node suddenly fails, the network could be partitioned to cause communication problems. Recently, several methods that use the relocation of nodes for connectivity restoration have been proposed. However, these methods have the tendency to not consider the potential coverage loss in some locations. This paper addresses the concerns of both connectivity and coverage in an integrated way so that this gap can be filled. A novel algorithm for simultaneous-node repositioning is introduced. In this approach, each neighbour of the failed node, one by one, moves in for a certain amount of time to take the place of the failed node, after which it returns to its original location in the network. The effectiveness of this algorithm has been verified by the simulation results.
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks*
  2. Butt SA, Bakar KA, Javaid N, Gharaei N, Ishmanov F, Afzal MK, et al.
    Sensors (Basel), 2019 Jan 26;19(3).
    PMID: 30691141 DOI: 10.3390/s19030510
    The key concerns to enhance the lifetime of IoT-enabled Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (IoT-UWSNs) are energy-efficiency and reliable data delivery under constrained resource. Traditional transmission approaches increase the communication overhead, which results in congestion and affect the reliable data delivery. Currently, many routing protocols have been proposed for UWSNs to ensure reliable data delivery and to conserve the node's battery with minimum communication overhead (by avoiding void holes in the network). In this paper, adaptive energy-efficient routing protocols are proposed to tackle the aforementioned problems using the Shortest Path First (SPF) with least number of active nodes strategy. These novel protocols have been developed by integrating the prominent features of Forward Layered Multi-path Power Control One (FLMPC-One) routing protocol, which uses 2-hop neighbor information, Forward Layered Multi-path Power Control Two (FLMPC-Two) routing protocol, which uses 3-hop neighbor information and 'Dijkstra' algorithm (for shortest path selection). Different Packet Sizes (PSs) with different Data Rates (DRs) are also taken into consideration to check the dynamicity of the proposed protocols. The achieved outcomes clearly validate the proposed protocols, namely: Shortest Path First using 3-hop neighbors information (SPF-Three) and Breadth First Search with Shortest Path First using 3-hop neighbors information (BFS-SPF-Three). Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed protocols in terms of minimum Energy Consumption (EC) and Required Packet Error Rate (RPER) with a minimum number of active nodes at the cost of affordable delay.
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks
  3. Al-Mekhlafi ZG, Hanapi ZM, Othman M, Zukarnain ZA
    PLoS ONE, 2017;12(1):e0167423.
    PMID: 28056020 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167423
    Recently, Pulse Coupled Oscillator (PCO)-based travelling waves have attracted substantial attention by researchers in wireless sensor network (WSN) synchronization. Because WSNs are generally artificial occurrences that mimic natural phenomena, the PCO utilizes firefly synchronization of attracting mating partners for modelling the WSN. However, given that sensor nodes are unable to receive messages while transmitting data packets (due to deafness), the PCO model may not be efficient for sensor network modelling. To overcome this limitation, this paper proposed a new scheme called the Travelling Wave Pulse Coupled Oscillator (TWPCO). For this, the study used a self-organizing scheme for energy-efficient WSNs that adopted travelling wave biologically inspired network systems based on phase locking of the PCO model to counteract deafness. From the simulation, it was found that the proposed TWPCO scheme attained a steady state after a number of cycles. It also showed superior performance compared to other mechanisms, with a reduction in the total energy consumption of 25%. The results showed that the performance improved by 13% in terms of data gathering. Based on the results, the proposed scheme avoids the deafness that occurs in the transmit state in WSNs and increases the data collection throughout the transmission states in WSNs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks*
  4. Khan SU, Rahim MKA, Aminu-Baba M, Murad NA
    PLoS ONE, 2017;12(12):e0189240.
    PMID: 29253852 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0189240
    This paper proposes the correction of faulty sensors using a synthesis of the greedy sparse constrained optimization GSCO) technique. The failure of sensors can damage the radiation power pattern in terms of sidelobes and nulls. The synthesis problem can recover the wanted power pattern with reduced number of sensors into the background of greedy algorithm and solved with orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) technique. Numerical simulation examples of linear arrays are offered to demonstrate the effectiveness of getting the wanted power pattern with a reduced number of antenna sensors which is compared with the available techniques in terms of sidelobes level and number of nulls.
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks*
  5. Al-Gumaei YA, Noordin KA, Reza AW, Dimyati K
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(8):e0135137.
    PMID: 26258522 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0135137
    Spectrum scarcity is a major challenge in wireless communications systems requiring efficient usage and utilization. Cognitive radio network (CRN) is found as a promising technique to solve this problem of spectrum scarcity. It allows licensed and unlicensed users to share the same licensed spectrum band. Interference resulting from cognitive radios (CRs) has undesirable effects on quality of service (QoS) of both licensed and unlicensed systems where it causes degradation in received signal-to-noise ratio (SIR) of users. Power control is one of the most important techniques that can be used to mitigate interference and guarantee QoS in both systems. In this paper, we develop a new approach of a distributed power control for CRN based on utility and pricing. QoS of CR user is presented as a utility function via pricing and a distributed power control as a non-cooperative game in which users maximize their net utility (utility-price). We define the price as a real function of transmit power to increase pricing charge of the farthest CR users. We prove that the power control game proposed in this study has Nash Equilibrium as well as it is unique. The obtained results show that the proposed power control algorithm based on a new utility function has a significant reduction in transmit power consumption and high improvement in speed of convergence.
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks/instrumentation*; Computer Communication Networks/utilization
  6. Al-Medhwahi M, Hashim F, Ali BM, Sali A
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(6):e0156880.
    PMID: 27257964 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0156880
    The rapid expansion of wireless monitoring and surveillance applications in several domains reinforces the trend of exploiting emerging technologies such as the cognitive radio. However, these technologies have to adjust their working concepts to consider the common characteristics of conventional wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN), still an immature technology, has to deal with new networks that might have different types of data, traffic patterns, or quality of service (QoS) requirements. In this paper, we design and model a new cognitive radio-based medium access control (MAC) algorithm dealing with the heterogeneous nature of the developed networks in terms of either the traffic pattern or the required QoS for the node applications. The proposed algorithm decreases the consumed power on several fronts, provides satisfactory levels of latency and spectrum utilization with efficient scheduling, and manages the radio resources for various traffic conditions. An intensive performance evaluation is conducted to study the impact of key parameters such as the channel idle time length, node density, and the number of available channels. The performance evaluation of the proposed algorithm shows a better performance than the comparable protocols. Moreover, the results manifest that the proposed algorithm is suitable for real time monitoring applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks*
  7. Al-Nahari A, Mohamad MM
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(6):e0156670.
    PMID: 27258013 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0156670
    Decreasing the route rediscovery time process in reactive routing protocols is challenging in mobile ad hoc networks. Links between nodes are continuously established and broken because of the characteristics of the network. Finding multiple routes to increase the reliability is also important but requires a fast update, especially in high traffic load and high mobility where paths can be broken as well. The sender node keeps re-establishing path discovery to find new paths, which makes for long time delay. In this paper we propose an improved multipath routing protocol, called Receiver-based ad hoc on demand multipath routing protocol (RB-AOMDV), which takes advantage of the reliability of the state of the art ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol with less re-established discovery time. The receiver node assumes the role of discovering paths when finding data packets that have not been received after a period of time. Simulation results show the delay and delivery ratio performances are improved compared with AOMDV.
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks*
  8. Alizadeh M, Zamani M, Baharun S, Abdul Manaf A, Sakurai K, Anada H, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(11):e0142716.
    PMID: 26580963 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0142716
    Proxy Mobile IPv6 is a network-based localized mobility management protocol that supports mobility without mobile nodes' participation in mobility signaling. The details of user authentication procedure are not specified in this standard, hence, many authentication schemes have been proposed for this standard. In 2013, Chuang et al., proposed an authentication method for PMIPv6, called SPAM. However, Chuang et al.'s Scheme protects the network against some security attacks, but it is still vulnerable to impersonation and password guessing attacks. In addition, we discuss other security drawbacks such as lack of revocation procedure in case of loss or stolen device, and anonymity issues of the Chuang et al.'s scheme. We further propose an enhanced authentication method to mitigate the security issues of SPAM method and evaluate our scheme using BAN logic.
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks*
  9. Safa Sadiq A, Fisal NB, Ghafoor KZ, Lloret J
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:602808.
    PMID: 25614890 DOI: 10.1155/2014/602808
    We propose an Advanced Mobility Handover scheme (AMH) in this paper for seamless mobility in MIPv6-based wireless networks. In the proposed scheme, the mobile node utilizes a unique home IPv6 address developed to maintain communication with other corresponding nodes without a care-of-address during the roaming process. The IPv6 address for each MN during the first round of AMH process is uniquely identified by HA using the developed MN-ID field as a global permanent, which is identifying uniquely the IPv6 address of MN. Moreover, a temporary MN-ID is generated by access point each time an MN is associated with a particular AP and temporarily saved in a developed table inside the AP. When employing the AMH scheme, the handover process in the network layer is performed prior to its default time. That is, the mobility handover process in the network layer is tackled by a trigger developed AMH message to the next access point. Thus, a mobile node keeps communicating with the current access point while the network layer handover is executed by the next access point. The mathematical analyses and simulation results show that the proposed scheme performs better as compared with the existing approaches.
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks*
  10. Sookhak M, Akhundzada A, Sookhak A, Eslaminejad M, Gani A, Khurram Khan M, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(1):e0115324.
    PMID: 25602616 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0115324
    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are ubiquitous and pervasive, and therefore; highly susceptible to a number of security attacks. Denial of Service (DoS) attack is considered the most dominant and a major threat to WSNs. Moreover, the wormhole attack represents one of the potential forms of the Denial of Service (DoS) attack. Besides, crafting the wormhole attack is comparatively simple; though, its detection is nontrivial. On the contrary, the extant wormhole defense methods need both specialized hardware and strong assumptions to defend against static and dynamic wormhole attack. The ensuing paper introduces a novel scheme to detect wormhole attacks in a geographic routing protocol (DWGRP). The main contribution of this paper is to detect malicious nodes and select the best and the most reliable neighbors based on pairwise key pre-distribution technique and the beacon packet. Moreover, this novel technique is not subject to any specific assumption, requirement, or specialized hardware, such as a precise synchronized clock. The proposed detection method is validated by comparisons with several related techniques in the literature, such as Received Signal Strength (RSS), Authentication of Nodes Scheme (ANS), Wormhole Detection uses Hound Packet (WHOP), and Wormhole Detection with Neighborhood Information (WDI) using the NS-2 simulator. The analysis of the simulations shows promising results with low False Detection Rate (FDR) in the geographic routing protocols.
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks*
  11. Sadiq AS, Fisal NB, Ghafoor KZ, Lloret J
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:610652.
    PMID: 25574490 DOI: 10.1155/2014/610652
    We propose an adaptive handover prediction (AHP) scheme for seamless mobility based wireless networks. That is, the AHP scheme incorporates fuzzy logic with AP prediction process in order to lend cognitive capability to handover decision making. Selection metrics, including received signal strength, mobile node relative direction towards the access points in the vicinity, and access point load, are collected and considered inputs of the fuzzy decision making system in order to select the best preferable AP around WLANs. The obtained handover decision which is based on the calculated quality cost using fuzzy inference system is also based on adaptable coefficients instead of fixed coefficients. In other words, the mean and the standard deviation of the normalized network prediction metrics of fuzzy inference system, which are collected from available WLANs are obtained adaptively. Accordingly, they are applied as statistical information to adjust or adapt the coefficients of membership functions. In addition, we propose an adjustable weight vector concept for input metrics in order to cope with the continuous, unpredictable variation in their membership degrees. Furthermore, handover decisions are performed in each MN independently after knowing RSS, direction toward APs, and AP load. Finally, performance evaluation of the proposed scheme shows its superiority compared with representatives of the prediction approaches.
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks*
  12. Al-Rawi HA, Yau KL, Mohamad H, Ramli N, Hashim W
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:960584.
    PMID: 25140350 DOI: 10.1155/2014/960584
    Cognitive radio (CR) enables unlicensed users (or secondary users, SUs) to sense for and exploit underutilized licensed spectrum owned by the licensed users (or primary users, PUs). Reinforcement learning (RL) is an artificial intelligence approach that enables a node to observe, learn, and make appropriate decisions on action selection in order to maximize network performance. Routing enables a source node to search for a least-cost route to its destination node. While there have been increasing efforts to enhance the traditional RL approach for routing in wireless networks, this research area remains largely unexplored in the domain of routing in CR networks. This paper applies RL in routing and investigates the effects of various features of RL (i.e., reward function, exploitation, and exploration, as well as learning rate) through simulation. New approaches and recommendations are proposed to enhance the features in order to improve the network performance brought about by RL to routing. Simulation results show that the RL parameters of the reward function, exploitation, and exploration, as well as learning rate, must be well regulated, and the new approaches proposed in this paper improves SUs' network performance without significantly jeopardizing PUs' network performance, specifically SUs' interference to PUs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks*
  13. Shiraz M, Gani A, Ahmad RW, Adeel Ali Shah S, Karim A, Rahman ZA
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(8):e102270.
    PMID: 25127245 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102270
    The latest developments in mobile computing technology have enabled intensive applications on the modern Smartphones. However, such applications are still constrained by limitations in processing potentials, storage capacity and battery lifetime of the Smart Mobile Devices (SMDs). Therefore, Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) leverages the application processing services of computational clouds for mitigating resources limitations in SMDs. Currently, a number of computational offloading frameworks are proposed for MCC wherein the intensive components of the application are outsourced to computational clouds. Nevertheless, such frameworks focus on runtime partitioning of the application for computational offloading, which is time consuming and resources intensive. The resource constraint nature of SMDs require lightweight procedures for leveraging computational clouds. Therefore, this paper presents a lightweight framework which focuses on minimizing additional resources utilization in computational offloading for MCC. The framework employs features of centralized monitoring, high availability and on demand access services of computational clouds for computational offloading. As a result, the turnaround time and execution cost of the application are reduced. The framework is evaluated by testing prototype application in the real MCC environment. The lightweight nature of the proposed framework is validated by employing computational offloading for the proposed framework and the latest existing frameworks. Analysis shows that by employing the proposed framework for computational offloading, the size of data transmission is reduced by 91%, energy consumption cost is minimized by 81% and turnaround time of the application is decreased by 83.5% as compared to the existing offloading frameworks. Hence, the proposed framework minimizes additional resources utilization and therefore offers lightweight solution for computational offloading in MCC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks*
  14. Yau KL, Poh GS, Chien SF, Al-Rawi HA
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:209810.
    PMID: 24995352 DOI: 10.1155/2014/209810
    Cognitive radio (CR) enables unlicensed users to exploit the underutilized spectrum in licensed spectrum whilst minimizing interference to licensed users. Reinforcement learning (RL), which is an artificial intelligence approach, has been applied to enable each unlicensed user to observe and carry out optimal actions for performance enhancement in a wide range of schemes in CR, such as dynamic channel selection and channel sensing. This paper presents new discussions of RL in the context of CR networks. It provides an extensive review on how most schemes have been approached using the traditional and enhanced RL algorithms through state, action, and reward representations. Examples of the enhancements on RL, which do not appear in the traditional RL approach, are rules and cooperative learning. This paper also reviews performance enhancements brought about by the RL algorithms and open issues. This paper aims to establish a foundation in order to spark new research interests in this area. Our discussion has been presented in a tutorial manner so that it is comprehensive to readers outside the specialty of RL and CR.
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks*
  15. Doroodgar F, Abdur Razzaque M, Isnin IF
    Sensors (Basel), 2014;14(3):5004-40.
    PMID: 24618781 DOI: 10.3390/s140305004
    Over-the-air dissemination of code updates in wireless sensor networks have been researchers' point of interest in the last few years, and, more importantly, security challenges toward the remote propagation of code updating have occupied the majority of efforts in this context. Many security models have been proposed to establish a balance between the energy consumption and security strength, having their concentration on the constrained nature of wireless sensor network (WSN) nodes. For authentication purposes, most of them have used a Merkle hash tree to avoid using multiple public cryptography operations. These models mostly have assumed an environment in which security has to be at a standard level. Therefore, they have not investigated the tree structure for mission-critical situations in which security has to be at the maximum possible level (e.g., military applications, healthcare). Considering this, we investigate existing security models used in over-the-air dissemination of code updates for possible vulnerabilities, and then, we provide a set of countermeasures, correspondingly named Security Model Requirements. Based on the investigation, we concentrate on Seluge, one of the existing over-the-air programming schemes, and we propose an improved version of it, named Seluge++, which complies with the Security Model Requirements and replaces the use of the inefficient Merkle tree with a novel method. Analytical and simulation results show the improvements in Seluge++ compared to Seluge.
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks*
  16. Aalsalem MY, Khan WZ, Saad NM, Hossain MS, Atiquzzaman M, Khan MK
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(7):e0158072.
    PMID: 27409082 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0158072
    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are vulnerable to Node Replication attacks or Clone attacks. Among all the existing clone detection protocols in WSNs, RAWL shows the most promising results by employing Simple Random Walk (SRW). More recently, RAND outperforms RAWL by incorporating Network Division with SRW. Both RAND and RAWL have used SRW for random selection of witness nodes which is problematic because of frequently revisiting the previously passed nodes that leads to longer delays, high expenditures of energy with lower probability that witness nodes intersect. To circumvent this problem, we propose to employ a new kind of constrained random walk, namely Single Stage Memory Random Walk and present a distributed technique called SSRWND (Single Stage Memory Random Walk with Network Division). In SSRWND, single stage memory random walk is combined with network division aiming to decrease the communication and memory costs while keeping the detection probability higher. Through intensive simulations it is verified that SSRWND guarantees higher witness node security with moderate communication and memory overheads. SSRWND is expedient for security oriented application fields of WSNs like military and medical.
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks*
  17. Chizari H, Hosseini M, Poston T, Razak SA, Abdullah AH
    Sensors (Basel), 2011;11(3):3163-76.
    PMID: 22163792 DOI: 10.3390/s110303163
    Sensing and communication coverage are among the most important trade-offs in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) design. A minimum bound of sensing coverage is vital in scheduling, target tracking and redeployment phases, as well as providing communication coverage. Some methods measure the coverage as a percentage value, but detailed information has been missing. Two scenarios with equal coverage percentage may not have the same Quality of Coverage (QoC). In this paper, we propose a new coverage measurement method using Delaunay Triangulation (DT). This can provide the value for all coverage measurement tools. Moreover, it categorizes sensors as 'fat', 'healthy' or 'thin' to show the dense, optimal and scattered areas. It can also yield the largest empty area of sensors in the field. Simulation results show that the proposed DT method can achieve accurate coverage information, and provides many tools to compare QoC between different scenarios.
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks/instrumentation*
  18. Abdelaziz A, Fong AT, Gani A, Garba U, Khan S, Akhunzada A, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2017;12(4):e0174715.
    PMID: 28384312 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0174715
    Software Defined Networking (SDN) is an emerging promising paradigm for network management because of its centralized network intelligence. However, the centralized control architecture of the software-defined networks (SDNs) brings novel challenges of reliability, scalability, fault tolerance and interoperability. In this paper, we proposed a novel clustered distributed controller architecture in the real setting of SDNs. The distributed cluster implementation comprises of multiple popular SDN controllers. The proposed mechanism is evaluated using a real world network topology running on top of an emulated SDN environment. The result shows that the proposed distributed controller clustering mechanism is able to significantly reduce the average latency from 8.1% to 1.6%, the packet loss from 5.22% to 4.15%, compared to distributed controller without clustering running on HP Virtual Application Network (VAN) SDN and Open Network Operating System (ONOS) controllers respectively. Moreover, proposed method also shows reasonable CPU utilization results. Furthermore, the proposed mechanism makes possible to handle unexpected load fluctuations while maintaining a continuous network operation, even when there is a controller failure. The paper is a potential contribution stepping towards addressing the issues of reliability, scalability, fault tolerance, and inter-operability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks*
  19. Al-Mishmish H, Akhayyat A, Rahim HA, Hammood DA, Ahmad RB, Abbasi QH
    Sensors (Basel), 2018 Oct 28;18(11).
    PMID: 30373314 DOI: 10.3390/s18113661
    Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) are single-hop network systems, where sensors gather the body's vital signs and send them directly to master nodes (MNs). The sensors are distributed in or on the body. Therefore, body posture, clothing, muscle movement, body temperature, and climatic conditions generally influence the quality of the wireless link between sensors and the destination. Hence, in some cases, single hop transmission ('direct transmission') is not sufficient to deliver the signals to the destination. Therefore, we propose an emergency-based cooperative communication protocol for WBAN, named Critical Data-based Incremental Cooperative Communication (CD-ICC), based on the IEEE 802.15.6 CSMA standard but assuming a lognormal shadowing channel model. In this paper, a complete study of a system model is inspected in the terms of the channel path loss, the successful transmission probability, and the outage probability. Then a mathematical model is derived for the proposed protocol, end-to-end delay, duty cycle, and average power consumption. A new back-off time is proposed within CD-ICC, which ensures the best relays cooperate in a distributed manner. The design objective of the CD-ICC is to reduce the end-to-end delay, the duty cycle, and the average power transmission. The simulation and numerical results presented here show that, under general conditions, CD-ICC can enhance network performance compared to direct transmission mode (DTM) IEEE 802.15.6 CSMA and benchmarking. To this end, we have shown that the power saving when using CD-ICC is 37.5% with respect to DTM IEEE 802.15.6 CSMA and 10% with respect to MI-ICC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks*
  20. Homaei MH, Salwana E, Shamshirband S
    Sensors (Basel), 2019 Jul 18;19(14).
    PMID: 31323905 DOI: 10.3390/s19143173
    "Internet of Things (IoT)" has emerged as a novel concept in the world of technology and communication. In modern network technologies, the capability of transmitting data through data communication networks (such as Internet or intranet) is provided for each organism (e.g. human beings, animals, things, and so forth). Due to the limited hardware and operational communication capability as well as small dimensions, IoT undergoes several challenges. Such inherent challenges not only cause fundamental restrictions in the efficiency of aggregation, transmission, and communication between nodes; but they also degrade routing performance. To cope with the reduced availability time and unstable communications among nodes, data aggregation, and transmission approaches in such networks are designed more intelligently. In this paper, a distributed method is proposed to set child balance among nodes. In this method, the height of the network graph increased through restricting the degree; and network congestion reduced as a result. In addition, a dynamic data aggregation approach based on Learning Automata was proposed for Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (LA-RPL). More specifically, each node was equipped with learning automata in order to perform data aggregation and transmissions. Simulation and experimental results indicate that the LA-RPL has better efficiency than the basic methods used in terms of energy consumption, network control overhead, end-to-end delay, loss packet and aggregation rates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks
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