Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 81 in total

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  1. Al-Kharasani NM, Zulkarnain ZA, Subramaniam S, Hanapi ZM
    Sensors (Basel), 2018 Feb 15;18(2).
    PMID: 29462884 DOI: 10.3390/s18020597
    Routing in Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET) is a bit complicated because of the nature of the high dynamic mobility. The efficiency of routing protocol is influenced by a number of factors such as network density, bandwidth constraints, traffic load, and mobility patterns resulting in frequency changes in network topology. Therefore, Quality of Service (QoS) is strongly needed to enhance the capability of the routing protocol and improve the overall network performance. In this paper, we introduce a statistical framework model to address the problem of optimizing routing configuration parameters in Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication. Our framework solution is based on the utilization of the network resources to further reflect the current state of the network and to balance the trade-off between frequent changes in network topology and the QoS requirements. It consists of three stages: simulation network stage used to execute different urban scenarios, the function stage used as a competitive approach to aggregate the weighted cost of the factors in a single value, and optimization stage used to evaluate the communication cost and to obtain the optimal configuration based on the competitive cost. The simulation results show significant performance improvement in terms of the Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), Normalized Routing Load (NRL), Packet loss (PL), and End-to-End Delay (E2ED).
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks
  2. Khan MA, Hasbullah H, Nazir B, Khan IA
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:785305.
    PMID: 25152924 DOI: 10.1155/2014/785305
    Recently, wireless sensor network (WSN) applications have seen an increase in interest. In search and rescue, battlefield reconnaissance, and some other such applications, so that a survey of the area of interest can be made collectively, a set of mobile nodes is deployed. Keeping the network nodes connected is vital for WSNs to be effective. The provision of connectivity can be made at the time of startup and can be maintained by carefully coordinating the nodes when they move. However, if a node suddenly fails, the network could be partitioned to cause communication problems. Recently, several methods that use the relocation of nodes for connectivity restoration have been proposed. However, these methods have the tendency to not consider the potential coverage loss in some locations. This paper addresses the concerns of both connectivity and coverage in an integrated way so that this gap can be filled. A novel algorithm for simultaneous-node repositioning is introduced. In this approach, each neighbour of the failed node, one by one, moves in for a certain amount of time to take the place of the failed node, after which it returns to its original location in the network. The effectiveness of this algorithm has been verified by the simulation results.
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks*
  3. Devan PAM, Hussin FA, Ibrahim R, Bingi K, Khanday FA
    Sensors (Basel), 2021 Jul 21;21(15).
    PMID: 34372210 DOI: 10.3390/s21154951
    Industrialization has led to a huge demand for a network control system to monitor and control multi-loop processes with high effectiveness. Due to these advancements, new industrial wireless sensor network (IWSN) standards such as ZigBee, WirelessHART, ISA 100.11a wireless, and Wireless network for Industrial Automation-Process Automation (WIA-PA) have begun to emerge based on their wired conventional structure with additional developments. This advancement improved flexibility, scalability, needed fewer cables, reduced the network installation and commissioning time, increased productivity, and reduced maintenance costs compared to wired networks. On the other hand, using IWSNs for process control comes with the critical challenge of handling stochastic network delays, packet drop, and external noises which are capable of degrading the controller performance. Thus, this paper presents a detailed study focusing only on the adoption of WirelessHART in simulations and real-time applications for industrial process monitoring and control with its crucial challenges and design requirements.
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks*
  4. Ghaleb FA, Al-Rimy BAS, Boulila W, Saeed F, Kamat M, Foad Rohani M, et al.
    Comput Intell Neurosci, 2021;2021:2977954.
    PMID: 34413885 DOI: 10.1155/2021/2977954
    Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) have emerged as a scalable, reliable, and agile wireless network that supports many types of innovative technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT), Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), and Internet of Vehicles (IoV). Due to the limited number of orthogonal channels, interference between channels adversely affects the fair distribution of bandwidth among mesh clients, causing node starvation in terms of insufficient bandwidth distribution, which impedes the adoption of WMN as an efficient access technology. Therefore, a fair channel assignment is crucial for the mesh clients to utilize the available resources. However, the node starvation problem due to unfair channel distribution has been vastly overlooked during channel assignment by the extant research. Instead, existing channel assignment algorithms equally distribute the interference reduction on the links to achieve fairness which neither guarantees a fair distribution of the network bandwidth nor eliminates node starvation. In addition, the metaheuristic-based solutions such as genetic algorithm, which is commonly used for WMN, use randomness in creating initial population and selecting the new generation usually leading the search to local minima. To this end, this study proposes a Fairness-Oriented Semichaotic Genetic Algorithm-Based Channel Assignment Technique (FA-SCGA-CAA) to solve node starvation problem in wireless mesh networks. FA-SCGA-CAA maximizes link fairness while minimizing link interference using a genetic algorithm (GA) with a novel nonlinear fairness-oriented fitness function. The primary chromosome with powerful genes is created based on multicriterion links ranking channel assignment algorithm. Such a chromosome was used with a proposed semichaotic technique to create a strong population that directs the search towards the global minima effectively and efficiently. The proposed semichaotic technique was also used during the mutation and parent selection of the new genes. Extensive experiments were conducted to evaluate the proposed algorithm. A comparison with related work shows that the proposed FA-SCGA-CAA reduced the potential node starvation by 22% and improved network capacity utilization by 23%. It can be concluded that the proposed FA-SCGA-CAA is reliable to maintain high node-level fairness while maximizing the utilization of the network resources, which is the ultimate goal of many wireless networks.
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks*
  5. Izadi D, Abawajy JH, Ghanavati S, Herawan T
    Sensors (Basel), 2015;15(2):2964-79.
    PMID: 25635417 DOI: 10.3390/s150202964
    The success of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) deployment strongly depends on the quality of service (QoS) it provides regarding issues such as data accuracy, data aggregation delays and network lifetime maximisation. This is especially challenging in data fusion mechanisms, where a small fraction of low quality data in the fusion input may negatively impact the overall fusion result. In this paper, we present a fuzzy-based data fusion approach for WSN with the aim of increasing the QoS whilst reducing the energy consumption of the sensor network. The proposed approach is able to distinguish and aggregate only true values of the collected data as such, thus reducing the burden of processing the entire data at the base station (BS). It is also able to eliminate redundant data and consequently reduce energy consumption thus increasing the network lifetime. We studied the effectiveness of the proposed data fusion approach experimentally and compared it with two baseline approaches in terms of data collection, number of transferred data packets and energy consumption. The results of the experiments show that the proposed approach achieves better results than the baseline approaches.
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks
  6. Zareei M, Islam AKMM, Baharun S, Vargas-Rosales C, Azpilicueta L, Mansoor N
    Sensors (Basel), 2017 Sep 16;17(9).
    PMID: 28926952 DOI: 10.3390/s17092136
    New wireless network paradigms will demand higher spectrum use and availability to cope with emerging data-hungry devices. Traditional static spectrum allocation policies cause spectrum scarcity, and new paradigms such as Cognitive Radio (CR) and new protocols and techniques need to be developed in order to have efficient spectrum usage. Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols are accountable for recognizing free spectrum, scheduling available resources and coordinating the coexistence of heterogeneous systems and users. This paper provides an ample review of the state-of-the-art MAC protocols, which mainly focuses on Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks (CRAHN). First, a description of the cognitive radio fundamental functions is presented. Next, MAC protocols are divided into three groups, which are based on their channel access mechanism, namely time-slotted protocol, random access protocol and hybrid protocol. In each group, a detailed and comprehensive explanation of the latest MAC protocols is presented, as well as the pros and cons of each protocol. A discussion on future challenges for CRAHN MAC protocols is included with a comparison of the protocols from a functional perspective.
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks
  7. Khasawneh AM, Kaiwartya O, Lloret J, Abuaddous HY, Abualigah L, Shinwan MA, et al.
    Sensors (Basel), 2020 Dec 18;20(24).
    PMID: 33353003 DOI: 10.3390/s20247278
    In this paper, we propose a non-localization routing protocol for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs), namely, the triangle metric based multi-layered routing protocol (TM2RP). The main idea of the proposed TM2RP is to utilize supernodes along with depth information and residual energy to balance the energy consumption between sensors. Moreover, TM2RP is the first multi-layered and multi-metric pressure routing protocol that considers link quality with residual energy to improve the selection of next forwarding nodes with more reliable and energy-efficient links. The aqua-sim package based on the ns-2 simulator was used to evaluate the performance of the proposed TM2RP. The obtained results were compared to other similar methods such as depth based routing (DBR) and multi-layered routing protocol (MRP). Simulation results showed that the proposed protocol (TM2RP) obtained better outcomes in terms of energy consumption, network lifetime, packet delivery ratio, and end-to-end delay.
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks
  8. Butt SA, Bakar KA, Javaid N, Gharaei N, Ishmanov F, Afzal MK, et al.
    Sensors (Basel), 2019 Jan 26;19(3).
    PMID: 30691141 DOI: 10.3390/s19030510
    The key concerns to enhance the lifetime of IoT-enabled Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (IoT-UWSNs) are energy-efficiency and reliable data delivery under constrained resource. Traditional transmission approaches increase the communication overhead, which results in congestion and affect the reliable data delivery. Currently, many routing protocols have been proposed for UWSNs to ensure reliable data delivery and to conserve the node's battery with minimum communication overhead (by avoiding void holes in the network). In this paper, adaptive energy-efficient routing protocols are proposed to tackle the aforementioned problems using the Shortest Path First (SPF) with least number of active nodes strategy. These novel protocols have been developed by integrating the prominent features of Forward Layered Multi-path Power Control One (FLMPC-One) routing protocol, which uses 2-hop neighbor information, Forward Layered Multi-path Power Control Two (FLMPC-Two) routing protocol, which uses 3-hop neighbor information and 'Dijkstra' algorithm (for shortest path selection). Different Packet Sizes (PSs) with different Data Rates (DRs) are also taken into consideration to check the dynamicity of the proposed protocols. The achieved outcomes clearly validate the proposed protocols, namely: Shortest Path First using 3-hop neighbors information (SPF-Three) and Breadth First Search with Shortest Path First using 3-hop neighbors information (BFS-SPF-Three). Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed protocols in terms of minimum Energy Consumption (EC) and Required Packet Error Rate (RPER) with a minimum number of active nodes at the cost of affordable delay.
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks
  9. Al-Mekhlafi ZG, Hanapi ZM, Othman M, Zukarnain ZA
    PLoS One, 2017;12(1):e0167423.
    PMID: 28056020 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167423
    Recently, Pulse Coupled Oscillator (PCO)-based travelling waves have attracted substantial attention by researchers in wireless sensor network (WSN) synchronization. Because WSNs are generally artificial occurrences that mimic natural phenomena, the PCO utilizes firefly synchronization of attracting mating partners for modelling the WSN. However, given that sensor nodes are unable to receive messages while transmitting data packets (due to deafness), the PCO model may not be efficient for sensor network modelling. To overcome this limitation, this paper proposed a new scheme called the Travelling Wave Pulse Coupled Oscillator (TWPCO). For this, the study used a self-organizing scheme for energy-efficient WSNs that adopted travelling wave biologically inspired network systems based on phase locking of the PCO model to counteract deafness. From the simulation, it was found that the proposed TWPCO scheme attained a steady state after a number of cycles. It also showed superior performance compared to other mechanisms, with a reduction in the total energy consumption of 25%. The results showed that the performance improved by 13% in terms of data gathering. Based on the results, the proposed scheme avoids the deafness that occurs in the transmit state in WSNs and increases the data collection throughout the transmission states in WSNs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks*
  10. Khan SU, Rahim MKA, Aminu-Baba M, Murad NA
    PLoS One, 2017;12(12):e0189240.
    PMID: 29253852 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0189240
    This paper proposes the correction of faulty sensors using a synthesis of the greedy sparse constrained optimization GSCO) technique. The failure of sensors can damage the radiation power pattern in terms of sidelobes and nulls. The synthesis problem can recover the wanted power pattern with reduced number of sensors into the background of greedy algorithm and solved with orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) technique. Numerical simulation examples of linear arrays are offered to demonstrate the effectiveness of getting the wanted power pattern with a reduced number of antenna sensors which is compared with the available techniques in terms of sidelobes level and number of nulls.
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks*
  11. Gulzari UA, Khan S, Sajid M, Anjum S, Torres FS, Sarjoughian H, et al.
    PLoS One, 2019;14(10):e0222759.
    PMID: 31577809 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0222759
    This paper presents the Hybrid Scalable-Minimized-Butterfly-Fat-Tree (H-SMBFT) topology for on-chip communication. Main aspects of this work are the description of the architectural design and the characteristics as well as a comparative analysis against two established indirect topologies namely Butterfly-Fat-Tree (BFT) and Scalable-Minimized-Butterfly-Fat-Tree (SMBFT). Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed topology outperforms its predecessors in terms of performance, area and power dissipation. Specifically, it improves the link interconnectivity between routing levels, such that the number of required links isreduced. This results into reduced router complexity and shortened routing paths between any pair of communicating nodes in the network. Moreover, simulation results under synthetic as well as real-world embedded applications workloads reveal that H-SMBFT can reduce the average latency by up-to35.63% and 17.36% compared to BFT and SMBFT, respectively. In addition, the power dissipation of the network can be reduced by up-to33.82% and 19.45%, while energy consumption can be improved byup-to32.91% and 16.83% compared to BFT and SMBFT, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks*
  12. Saad WK, Shayea I, Hamza BJ, Mohamad H, Daradkeh YI, Jabbar WA
    Sensors (Basel), 2021 Jul 31;21(15).
    PMID: 34372437 DOI: 10.3390/s21155202
    The massive growth of mobile users will spread to significant numbers of small cells for the Fifth Generation (5G) mobile network, which will overlap the fourth generation (4G) network. A tremendous increase in handover (HO) scenarios and HO rates will occur. Ensuring stable and reliable connection through the mobility of user equipment (UE) will become a major problem in future mobile networks. This problem will be magnified with the use of suboptimal handover control parameter (HCP) settings, which can be configured manually or automatically. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the impact of different HCP settings on the performance of 5G network. Several system scenarios are proposed and investigated based on different HCP settings and mobile speed scenarios. The different mobile speeds are expected to demonstrate the influence of many proposed system scenarios on 5G network execution. We conducted simulations utilizing MATLAB software and its related tools. Evaluation comparisons were performed in terms of handover probability (HOP), ping-pong handover probability (PPHP) and outage probability (OP). The 5G network framework has been employed to evaluate the proposed system scenarios used. The simulation results reveal that there is a trade-off in the results obtained from various systems. The use of lower HCP settings provides noticeable enhancements compared to higher HCP settings in terms of OP. Simultaneously, the use of lower HCP settings provides noticeable drawbacks compared to higher HCP settings in terms of high PPHP for all scenarios of mobile speed. The simulation results show that medium HCP settings may be the acceptable solution if one of these systems is applied. This study emphasises the application of automatic self-optimisation (ASO) functions as the best solution that considers user experience.
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks*
  13. Al-Gumaei YA, Noordin KA, Reza AW, Dimyati K
    PLoS One, 2015;10(8):e0135137.
    PMID: 26258522 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0135137
    Spectrum scarcity is a major challenge in wireless communications systems requiring efficient usage and utilization. Cognitive radio network (CRN) is found as a promising technique to solve this problem of spectrum scarcity. It allows licensed and unlicensed users to share the same licensed spectrum band. Interference resulting from cognitive radios (CRs) has undesirable effects on quality of service (QoS) of both licensed and unlicensed systems where it causes degradation in received signal-to-noise ratio (SIR) of users. Power control is one of the most important techniques that can be used to mitigate interference and guarantee QoS in both systems. In this paper, we develop a new approach of a distributed power control for CRN based on utility and pricing. QoS of CR user is presented as a utility function via pricing and a distributed power control as a non-cooperative game in which users maximize their net utility (utility-price). We define the price as a real function of transmit power to increase pricing charge of the farthest CR users. We prove that the power control game proposed in this study has Nash Equilibrium as well as it is unique. The obtained results show that the proposed power control algorithm based on a new utility function has a significant reduction in transmit power consumption and high improvement in speed of convergence.
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks/instrumentation*; Computer Communication Networks/utilization
  14. Safa Sadiq A, Fisal NB, Ghafoor KZ, Lloret J
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:602808.
    PMID: 25614890 DOI: 10.1155/2014/602808
    We propose an Advanced Mobility Handover scheme (AMH) in this paper for seamless mobility in MIPv6-based wireless networks. In the proposed scheme, the mobile node utilizes a unique home IPv6 address developed to maintain communication with other corresponding nodes without a care-of-address during the roaming process. The IPv6 address for each MN during the first round of AMH process is uniquely identified by HA using the developed MN-ID field as a global permanent, which is identifying uniquely the IPv6 address of MN. Moreover, a temporary MN-ID is generated by access point each time an MN is associated with a particular AP and temporarily saved in a developed table inside the AP. When employing the AMH scheme, the handover process in the network layer is performed prior to its default time. That is, the mobility handover process in the network layer is tackled by a trigger developed AMH message to the next access point. Thus, a mobile node keeps communicating with the current access point while the network layer handover is executed by the next access point. The mathematical analyses and simulation results show that the proposed scheme performs better as compared with the existing approaches.
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks*
  15. Sadiq AS, Fisal NB, Ghafoor KZ, Lloret J
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:610652.
    PMID: 25574490 DOI: 10.1155/2014/610652
    We propose an adaptive handover prediction (AHP) scheme for seamless mobility based wireless networks. That is, the AHP scheme incorporates fuzzy logic with AP prediction process in order to lend cognitive capability to handover decision making. Selection metrics, including received signal strength, mobile node relative direction towards the access points in the vicinity, and access point load, are collected and considered inputs of the fuzzy decision making system in order to select the best preferable AP around WLANs. The obtained handover decision which is based on the calculated quality cost using fuzzy inference system is also based on adaptable coefficients instead of fixed coefficients. In other words, the mean and the standard deviation of the normalized network prediction metrics of fuzzy inference system, which are collected from available WLANs are obtained adaptively. Accordingly, they are applied as statistical information to adjust or adapt the coefficients of membership functions. In addition, we propose an adjustable weight vector concept for input metrics in order to cope with the continuous, unpredictable variation in their membership degrees. Furthermore, handover decisions are performed in each MN independently after knowing RSS, direction toward APs, and AP load. Finally, performance evaluation of the proposed scheme shows its superiority compared with representatives of the prediction approaches.
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks*
  16. Sookhak M, Akhundzada A, Sookhak A, Eslaminejad M, Gani A, Khurram Khan M, et al.
    PLoS One, 2015;10(1):e0115324.
    PMID: 25602616 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0115324
    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are ubiquitous and pervasive, and therefore; highly susceptible to a number of security attacks. Denial of Service (DoS) attack is considered the most dominant and a major threat to WSNs. Moreover, the wormhole attack represents one of the potential forms of the Denial of Service (DoS) attack. Besides, crafting the wormhole attack is comparatively simple; though, its detection is nontrivial. On the contrary, the extant wormhole defense methods need both specialized hardware and strong assumptions to defend against static and dynamic wormhole attack. The ensuing paper introduces a novel scheme to detect wormhole attacks in a geographic routing protocol (DWGRP). The main contribution of this paper is to detect malicious nodes and select the best and the most reliable neighbors based on pairwise key pre-distribution technique and the beacon packet. Moreover, this novel technique is not subject to any specific assumption, requirement, or specialized hardware, such as a precise synchronized clock. The proposed detection method is validated by comparisons with several related techniques in the literature, such as Received Signal Strength (RSS), Authentication of Nodes Scheme (ANS), Wormhole Detection uses Hound Packet (WHOP), and Wormhole Detection with Neighborhood Information (WDI) using the NS-2 simulator. The analysis of the simulations shows promising results with low False Detection Rate (FDR) in the geographic routing protocols.
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks*
  17. Al-Rawi HA, Yau KL, Mohamad H, Ramli N, Hashim W
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:960584.
    PMID: 25140350 DOI: 10.1155/2014/960584
    Cognitive radio (CR) enables unlicensed users (or secondary users, SUs) to sense for and exploit underutilized licensed spectrum owned by the licensed users (or primary users, PUs). Reinforcement learning (RL) is an artificial intelligence approach that enables a node to observe, learn, and make appropriate decisions on action selection in order to maximize network performance. Routing enables a source node to search for a least-cost route to its destination node. While there have been increasing efforts to enhance the traditional RL approach for routing in wireless networks, this research area remains largely unexplored in the domain of routing in CR networks. This paper applies RL in routing and investigates the effects of various features of RL (i.e., reward function, exploitation, and exploration, as well as learning rate) through simulation. New approaches and recommendations are proposed to enhance the features in order to improve the network performance brought about by RL to routing. Simulation results show that the RL parameters of the reward function, exploitation, and exploration, as well as learning rate, must be well regulated, and the new approaches proposed in this paper improves SUs' network performance without significantly jeopardizing PUs' network performance, specifically SUs' interference to PUs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks*
  18. Yau KL, Poh GS, Chien SF, Al-Rawi HA
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:209810.
    PMID: 24995352 DOI: 10.1155/2014/209810
    Cognitive radio (CR) enables unlicensed users to exploit the underutilized spectrum in licensed spectrum whilst minimizing interference to licensed users. Reinforcement learning (RL), which is an artificial intelligence approach, has been applied to enable each unlicensed user to observe and carry out optimal actions for performance enhancement in a wide range of schemes in CR, such as dynamic channel selection and channel sensing. This paper presents new discussions of RL in the context of CR networks. It provides an extensive review on how most schemes have been approached using the traditional and enhanced RL algorithms through state, action, and reward representations. Examples of the enhancements on RL, which do not appear in the traditional RL approach, are rules and cooperative learning. This paper also reviews performance enhancements brought about by the RL algorithms and open issues. This paper aims to establish a foundation in order to spark new research interests in this area. Our discussion has been presented in a tutorial manner so that it is comprehensive to readers outside the specialty of RL and CR.
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks*
  19. Shiraz M, Gani A, Ahmad RW, Adeel Ali Shah S, Karim A, Rahman ZA
    PLoS One, 2014;9(8):e102270.
    PMID: 25127245 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102270
    The latest developments in mobile computing technology have enabled intensive applications on the modern Smartphones. However, such applications are still constrained by limitations in processing potentials, storage capacity and battery lifetime of the Smart Mobile Devices (SMDs). Therefore, Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) leverages the application processing services of computational clouds for mitigating resources limitations in SMDs. Currently, a number of computational offloading frameworks are proposed for MCC wherein the intensive components of the application are outsourced to computational clouds. Nevertheless, such frameworks focus on runtime partitioning of the application for computational offloading, which is time consuming and resources intensive. The resource constraint nature of SMDs require lightweight procedures for leveraging computational clouds. Therefore, this paper presents a lightweight framework which focuses on minimizing additional resources utilization in computational offloading for MCC. The framework employs features of centralized monitoring, high availability and on demand access services of computational clouds for computational offloading. As a result, the turnaround time and execution cost of the application are reduced. The framework is evaluated by testing prototype application in the real MCC environment. The lightweight nature of the proposed framework is validated by employing computational offloading for the proposed framework and the latest existing frameworks. Analysis shows that by employing the proposed framework for computational offloading, the size of data transmission is reduced by 91%, energy consumption cost is minimized by 81% and turnaround time of the application is decreased by 83.5% as compared to the existing offloading frameworks. Hence, the proposed framework minimizes additional resources utilization and therefore offers lightweight solution for computational offloading in MCC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks*
  20. Doroodgar F, Abdur Razzaque M, Isnin IF
    Sensors (Basel), 2014;14(3):5004-40.
    PMID: 24618781 DOI: 10.3390/s140305004
    Over-the-air dissemination of code updates in wireless sensor networks have been researchers' point of interest in the last few years, and, more importantly, security challenges toward the remote propagation of code updating have occupied the majority of efforts in this context. Many security models have been proposed to establish a balance between the energy consumption and security strength, having their concentration on the constrained nature of wireless sensor network (WSN) nodes. For authentication purposes, most of them have used a Merkle hash tree to avoid using multiple public cryptography operations. These models mostly have assumed an environment in which security has to be at a standard level. Therefore, they have not investigated the tree structure for mission-critical situations in which security has to be at the maximum possible level (e.g., military applications, healthcare). Considering this, we investigate existing security models used in over-the-air dissemination of code updates for possible vulnerabilities, and then, we provide a set of countermeasures, correspondingly named Security Model Requirements. Based on the investigation, we concentrate on Seluge, one of the existing over-the-air programming schemes, and we propose an improved version of it, named Seluge++, which complies with the Security Model Requirements and replaces the use of the inefficient Merkle tree with a novel method. Analytical and simulation results show the improvements in Seluge++ compared to Seluge.
    Matched MeSH terms: Computer Communication Networks*
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