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  1. Nurul Farhana S, Muchlisin ZA, Duong TY, Tanyaros S, Page LM, Zhao Y, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2018 Jul 17;8(1):10787.
    PMID: 30018357 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-29049-7
    Members of the freshwater halfbeak genus Dermogenys are hard to identify to the species level, despite several previous attempts to isolate fixed meristic, morphometric and colour pattern differences. This has led to ongoing confusion in scientific literature, records of species occurrence, and entries in museum collections. Here, a DNA barcoding study was conducted on the genus to gain further understanding of its taxonomic status across the Southeast Asian region. Fish were collected from 33 localities, spanning freshwater and brackish habitats in Malaysia, Western Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam. In total, 290 samples of Dermogenys spp. were amplified for a 651 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI) gene. Analysis was able to successfully differentiate the three species: D. collettei, D. siamensis, D. sumatrana; reveal the presence of a new putative species, Dermogenys sp., that was sampled in sympatry with D. collettei at three locations; as well as uncovering two genetic lineages of a fifth species, D. bispina, that display non-overlapping geographical distributions in drainages of northern Borneo; Kudat and Sandakan. This study expands the barcode library for Zenarchopteridae, demonstrates the efficacy of DNA barcoding techniques for differentiating Dermogenys species, and the potential thereof in species discovery.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Mitochondrial/chemistry
  2. Flot JF, Blanchot J, Charpy L, Cruaud C, Licuanan WY, Nakano Y, et al.
    BMC Ecol., 2011 Oct 04;11:22.
    PMID: 21970706 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6785-11-22
    BACKGROUND: Morphological data suggest that, unlike most other groups of marine organisms, scleractinian corals of the genus Stylophora are more diverse in the western Indian Ocean and in the Red Sea than in the central Indo-Pacific. However, the morphology of corals is often a poor predictor of their actual biodiversity: hence, we conducted a genetic survey of Stylophora corals collected in Madagascar, Okinawa, the Philippines and New Caledonia in an attempt to find out the true number of species in these various locations.

    RESULTS: A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial ORF and putative control region concurs with a haploweb analysis of nuclear ITS2 sequences in delimiting three species among our dataset: species A and B are found in Madagascar whereas species C occurs in Okinawa, the Philippines and New Caledonia. Comparison of ITS1 sequences from these three species with data available online suggests that species C is also found on the Great Barrier Reef, in Malaysia, in the South China Sea and in Taiwan, and that a distinct species D occurs in the Red Sea. Shallow-water morphs of species A correspond to the morphological description of Stylophora madagascarensis, species B presents the morphology of Stylophora mordax, whereas species C comprises various morphotypes including Stylophora pistillata and Stylophora mordax.

    CONCLUSIONS: Genetic analysis of the coral genus Stylophora reveals species boundaries that are not congruent with morphological traits. Of the four hypotheses that may explain such discrepancy (phenotypic plasticity, morphological stasis, morphological convergence, and interspecific hybridization), the first two appear likely to play a role but the fourth one is rejected since mitochondrial and nuclear markers yield congruent species delimitations. The position of the root in our molecular phylogenies suggests that the center of origin of Stylophora is located in the western Indian Ocean, which probably explains why this genus presents a higher biodiversity in the westernmost part of its area of distribution than in the "Coral Triangle".

    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Mitochondrial/chemistry
  3. Smith DG, McDonough JW, George DA
    Am J Primatol, 2007 Feb;69(2):182-98.
    PMID: 17177314
    An 835 base pair (bp) fragment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was sequenced to characterize genetic variation within and among 1,053 samples comprising five regional populations each of longtail macaques (Macaca fascicularis) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and one sample each of Japanese (M. fuscata) and Taiwanese (M. cyclopis) macaques. The mtDNA haplotypes of longtail macaques clustered in two large highly structured clades (Fas1 and Fas2) of a neighbor-joining tree that were reciprocally monophyletic with respect to those representing rhesus macaques, Japanese macaques, and Taiwanese macaques. Both clades exhibited haplotypes of Indonesian and Malaysian longtail macaques widely dispersed throughout them; however, longtail macaques from Indochina, Philippines, and Mauritius each clustered in a separate well-defined clade together with one or a few Malaysian and/or Indonesian longtail macaques, suggesting origins on the Sunda shelf. Longtail macaques from Malaysia and Indonesia were far more genetically diverse, and those from Mauritius were far less diverse than any other population studied. Nucleotide diversity between mtDNA sequences of longtail macaques from different geographic regions is, in some cases, greater than that between Indian and Chinese rhesus macaques. Approximately equal amounts of genetic diversity are due to differences among animals in the same regional population, different regional populations, and different species. A greater proportion of genetic variance was explained by interspecies differences when Japanese and Taiwanese macaques were regarded as regional populations of rhesus macaques than when they were treated as separate species. Rhesus macaques from China were more closely related to both Taiwanese and Japanese macaques than to their own conspecifics from India.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Mitochondrial/chemistry*
  4. Manin BO, Drakeley CJ, Chua TH
    PLoS One, 2018;13(8):e0202905.
    PMID: 30138386 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0202905
    Anopheles balabacensis, the primary vector of Plasmodium knowlesi in Sabah, Malaysia, is both zoophilic and anthropophilic, feeding on macaques as well as humans. It is the dominant Anopheles species found in Kudat Division where it is responsible for all the cases of P. knowlesi. However there is a paucity of basic biological and ecological information on this vector. We investigated the genetic variation of this species using the sequences of cox1 (1,383 bp) and cox2 (685 bp) to gain an insight into the population genetics and inter-population gene flow in Sabah. A total of 71 An. balabacensis were collected from seven districts constituting 14 subpopulations. A total of 17, 10 and 25 haplotypes were detected in the subpopulations respectively using the cox1, cox2 and the combined sequence. Some of the haplotypes were common among the subpopulations due to gene flow occurring between them. AMOVA showed that the genetic variation was high within subpopulations as compared to between subpopulations. Mantel test results showed that the variation between subpopulations was not due to the geographical distance between them. Furthermore, Tajima's D and Fu's Fs tests showed that An. balabacensis in Sabah is experiencing population expansion and growth. High gene flow between the subpopulations was indicated by the low genetic distance and high gene diversity in the cox1, cox2 and the combined sequence. However the population at Lipasu Lama appeared to be isolated possibly due to its higher altitude at 873 m above sea level.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Mitochondrial/chemistry*
  5. Gray HWI, Nishida S, Welch AJ, Moura AE, Tanabe S, Kiani MS, et al.
    Mol Phylogenet Evol, 2018 05;122:1-14.
    PMID: 29294405 DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2017.12.027
    Phylogeography can provide insight into the potential for speciation and identify geographic regions and evolutionary processes associated with species richness and evolutionary endemism. In the marine environment, highly mobile species sometimes show structured patterns of diversity, but the processes isolating populations and promoting differentiation are often unclear. The Delphinidae (oceanic dolphins) are a striking case in point and, in particular, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops spp.). Understanding the radiation of species in this genus is likely to provide broader inference about the processes that determine patterns of biogeography and speciation, because both fine-scale structure over a range of kilometers and relative panmixia over an oceanic range are known for Tursiops populations. In our study, novel Tursiops spp. sequences from the northwest Indian Ocean (including mitogenomes and two nuDNA loci) are included in a worldwide Tursiops spp. phylogeographic analysis. We discover a new 'aduncus' type lineage in the Arabian Sea (off India, Pakistan and Oman) that diverged from the Australasian lineage ∼261 Ka. Effective management of coastal dolphins in the region will need to consider this new lineage as an evolutionarily significant unit. We propose that the establishment of this lineage could have been in response to climate change during the Pleistocene and show data supporting hypotheses for multiple divergence events, including vicariance across the Indo-Pacific barrier and in the northwest Indian Ocean. These data provide valuable transferable inference on the potential mechanisms for population and species differentiation across this geographic range.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Mitochondrial/chemistry
  6. Olival KJ, Dick CW, Simmons NB, Morales JC, Melnick DJ, Dittmar K, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2013 Aug 08;6:231.
    PMID: 23924629 DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-6-231
    BACKGROUND: Population-level studies of parasites have the potential to elucidate patterns of host movement and cross-species interactions that are not evident from host genealogy alone. Bat flies are obligate and generally host-specific blood-feeding parasites of bats. Old-World flies in the family Nycteribiidae are entirely wingless and depend on their hosts for long-distance dispersal; their population genetics has been unstudied to date.

    METHODS: We collected a total of 125 bat flies from three Pteropus species (Pteropus vampyrus, P. hypomelanus, and P. lylei) from eight localities in Malaysia, Cambodia, and Vietnam. We identified specimens morphologically and then sequenced three mitochondrial DNA gene fragments (CoI, CoII, cytB; 1744 basepairs total) from a subset of 45 bat flies. We measured genetic diversity, molecular variance, and population genetic subdivision (FST), and used phylogenetic and haplotype network analyses to quantify parasite genetic structure across host species and localities.

    RESULTS: All flies were identified as Cyclopodia horsfieldi with the exception of two individuals of Eucampsipoda sundaica. Low levels of population genetic structure were detected between populations of Cyclopodia horsfieldi from across a wide geographic range (~1000 km), and tests for isolation by distance were rejected. AMOVA results support a lack of geographic and host-specific population structure, with molecular variance primarily partitioned within populations. Pairwise FST values from flies collected from island populations of Pteropus hypomelanus in East and West Peninsular Malaysia supported predictions based on previous studies of host genetic structure.

    CONCLUSIONS: The lack of population genetic structure and morphological variation observed in Cyclopodia horsfieldi is most likely due to frequent contact between flying fox species and subsequent high levels of parasite gene flow. Specifically, we suggest that Pteropus vampyrus may facilitate movement of bat flies between the three Pteropus species in the region. We demonstrate the utility of parasite genetics as an additional layer of information to measure host movement and interspecific host contact. These approaches may have wide implications for understanding zoonotic, epizootic, and enzootic disease dynamics. Bat flies may play a role as vectors of disease in bats, and their competence as vectors of bacterial and/or viral pathogens is in need of further investigation.

    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Mitochondrial/chemistry
  7. Takaoka H, Srisuka W, Saeung A, Otsuka Y, Choochote W
    Trop Biomed, 2012 Sep;29(3):381-90.
    PMID: 23018501
    Simulium (Nevermannia) chomthongense sp. nov. is described from female, male, pupal and larval specimens collected from Doi Inthanon National Park and Doi Phahompok National Park, Chiang Mai, Thailand. This new species, first reported as S. (Eusimulium) sp. A, and later regarded as S. (N.) caudisclerum Takaoka & Davies, described from peninsular Malaysia, is distinguished from S. (N.) caudisclerum in the male by the number of enlarged upper-eye facets and the relative size of the hind basitarsus against the hind tibia and femur, and in the pupa by the relative length of the stalks of paired filaments against the common basal stalk and the color of the dorsal surface of abdominal segments 1- 3 (or 4). Taxonomic and molecular notes are provided to separate this new species from four other known species of the vernum species-group, which share an accessory sclerite on the larval abdomen, a rare characteristic in this species-group.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Mitochondrial/chemistry
  8. Chao LL, Wu WJ, Shih CM
    Exp. Appl. Acarol., 2009 Aug;48(4):329-44.
    PMID: 19184580 DOI: 10.1007/s10493-009-9244-4
    The genetic identity of Ixodes granulatus ticks was determined for the first time in Taiwan. The phylogenetic relationships were analyzed by comparing the sequences of mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA gene obtained from 19 strains of ticks representing seven species of Ixodes and two outgroup species (Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Haemaphysalis inermis). Four major clades could be easily distinguished by neighbour-joining analysis and were congruent by maximum-parsimony method. All these I. granulatus ticks of Taiwan were genetically affiliated to a monophyletic group with highly homogeneous sequences (92.2-99.3% similarity), and can be discriminated from other Ixodes species and other genera of ticks with a sequence divergence ranging from 11.7 to 30.8%. Moreover, intraspecific analysis revealed that two distinct lineages are evident between the same species of I. granulatus ticks collected from Taiwan and Malaysia. Our results demonstrate that all these I. granulatus ticks of Taiwan represent a unique lineage distinct from the common vector ticks (I. ricinus complex) for Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Mitochondrial/chemistry
  9. Yeap BK, Othman AS, Lee VS, Lee CY
    J. Econ. Entomol., 2007 Apr;100(2):467-74.
    PMID: 17461072
    The phylogenetic relationship of Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) and Coptotermes vastator Light (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) was determined using DNA sequence comparisons of mitochondrial genes. Partial sequences of the ribosomal RNA small subunit 12S, ribosomal RNA large subunit 16S, and mitochondrial COII were obtained from nine populations of C. gestroi from South East Asia (Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, and Indonesia) and four populations of C. vastator from the Philippines and Hawaii. In addition, four populations of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Globitermes sulphureus (Haviland) were used as the outgroups. Consensus sequences were obtained and aligned. C. vastator and C. gestroi are synonymous, based on high sequence homology across the 12S, 16S, and COII genes. The interspecific pairwise sequence divergence, based on Kimura 2-parameter model between C. gestroi and C. vastator, varied only up to 0.80%. Morphometric measurements of 16 characteristics revealed numerous overlaps between the examined individuals of both species. Based on the molecular phylogenetics and morphometric data, it is proposed that C. vastator is a junior synonym of C. gestroi.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Mitochondrial/chemistry
  10. Hall MJ, Edge W, Testa JM, Adams ZJ, Ready PD
    Med. Vet. Entomol., 2001 Dec;15(4):393-402.
    PMID: 11776458
    A morphological and molecular analysis was undertaken with the objective of identifying markers for geographical populations of Old World screwworm flies, Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The morphological analysis involved 192 adult flies from 14 countries, and the molecular analysis involved 45 larvae or adults from 14 populations in 11 countries. Principal components and cluster analysis of 10 morphological characters indicated that flies from Papua New Guinea (PNG) were a distinct group and most similar to flies from nearby Asian islands (Java, Sabah). There was poor resolution of other geographical regions, but some support for clustering of flies from Africa or India. Cladistic analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences gave strong support for recognizing two races of Old World screwworm, one from sub-Saharan Africa and the other from the Gulf region and Asia. This latter race could be further divided into two lineages, i.e. one from mainland Asia (from Iraq to the Malay Peninsula) and the other from two islands of PNG.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Mitochondrial/chemistry
  11. Lau CH, Drinkwater RD, Yusoff K, Tan SG, Hetzel DJ, Barker JS
    Anim. Genet., 1998 Aug;29(4):253-64.
    PMID: 9745663
    Swamp and river buffalo mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was sequenced for 303 bp of the cytochrome b gene for 54 animals from 14 populations, and for 158 bp of the D-loop region for 80 animals from 11 populations. Only one cytochrome b haplotype was found in river buffalo. Of the four haplotypes identified in swamp buffalo, one found in all populations is apparently ancestral both to the other swamp haplotypes and to the river haplotype. The phylogenetic relationships among the 33 D-loop haplotypes, with a cluster of 11 found in swamp buffalo only, also support the evolution of domesticated swamp and river buffalo from an ancestral swamp-like animal, most likely represented today by the wild Asian buffalo (Bubalus arnee). The time of divergence of the swamp and river types, estimated from the D-loop data, is 28,000 to 87,000 years ago. We hypothesise that the species originated in mainland south-east Asia, and that it spread north to China and west to the Indian subcontinent, where the rive type evolved and was domesticated. Following domestication in China, the domesticated swamp buffalo spread through two separate routes, through Taiwan and the Philippines to the eastern islands of Borneo and Sulawesi, and south through mainland south-east Asia and then to the western islands of Indonesia.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Mitochondrial/chemistry*
  12. Gan HM, Tan MH, Lee YP, Schultz MB, Horwitz P, Burnham Q, et al.
    Mol Phylogenet Evol, 2018 01;118:88-98.
    PMID: 28966124 DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2017.09.022
    To further understand the evolutionary history and mitogenomic features of Australia's highly distinctive freshwater crayfish fauna, we utilized a recently described rapid mitogenome sequencing pipeline to generate 24 new crayfish mitogenomes including a diversity of burrowing crayfish species and the first for Astacopsis gouldi, the world's largest freshwater invertebrate. Whole mitogenome-based phylogeny estimates using both Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood methods substantially strengthen existing hypotheses for systematic relationships among Australian freshwater crayfish with evidence of pervasive diversifying selection and accelerated mitochondrial substitution rate among the members of the clade representing strongly burrowing crayfish that may reflect selection pressures for increased energy requirement for adaptation to terrestrial environment and a burrowing lifestyle. Further, gene rearrangements are prevalent in the burrowing crayfish mitogenomes involving both tRNA and protein coding genes. In addition, duplicated control regions were observed in two closely related Engaeus species, together with evidence for concerted evolution. This study significantly adds to the understanding of Australian freshwater crayfish evolutionary relationships and suggests a link between mitogenome evolution and adaptation to terrestrial environments and a burrowing lifestyle in freshwater crayfish.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Mitochondrial/chemistry
  13. Kaur T, Ong AH
    Biochem Genet, 2011 Oct;49(9-10):562-75.
    PMID: 21461907 DOI: 10.1007/s10528-011-9431-y
    This study describes the organization of the repetitive pattern in the mtDNA control region of Tomistoma schlegelii. Using newly designed primers, we detected length variations of approximately 50-100 bp among individuals, and only one individual showed a heteroplasmic band. Sequencing the region after CSB III revealed two main patterns: a repeat motif and a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) pattern. The VNTR region, with a core unit of 104 bp, consisting of four motifs and a short AT chain, is implicated in the length variation seen among individuals of Tomistoma. A conserved motif seen in a family unit indicated that the repeat pattern was stably inherited from the maternal parent to all offspring. A combination of VNTR patterns specific to different crocodilians was seen in Tomistoma, and the overall secondary structure was shown to be similar to that in Crocodylus and Gavialis.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Mitochondrial/chemistry
  14. Wang M, Yan S, Brown CL, Shaharom-Harrison F, Shi SF, Yang TB
    Mitochondrial DNA A DNA Mapp Seq Anal, 2016 11;27(6):3865-3875.
    PMID: 25319302
    To examine the phylogeographical pattern of Tetrancistrum nebulosi (Monogenea, Dactylogyridae) in the South China Sea, fragments of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 genes were obtained for 220 individuals collected from 8 localities along the southeast coast of China and 1 locality in Terengganu, Malaysia. Based on these two genes, two and three distinct clades with geographic signals were revealed on the phylogenetic trees respectively. The divergence between these clades was estimated to occur in the late Pleistocene. Analysis of molecular variance and pairwise FSTsuggested a high rate of gene flow among individuals sampled from the Chinese coast, but with obvious genetic differentiation from the Malaysian population. Mismatch distribution and neutrality tests indicated that the T. nebulosi population experienced expansion in Pleistocene low sea level periods. Vicariance was considered to account for the genetic divergence between Chinese and Malaysian populations, while sea level fluctuations and mainland-island connections during glacial cycles were associated with the slight genetic divergence between the populations along the mainland coast of China and those off Sanya. On the contrary, oceanographic circulations and host migration could lead to genetic homogeneity of populations distributed along the mainland coast of China.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Mitochondrial/chemistry
  15. Gharamah AA, Azizah MN, Rahman WA
    Vet Parasitol, 2012 Sep 10;188(3-4):268-76.
    PMID: 22538095 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2012.04.003
    The large stomach worm, Haemonchus contortus, commonly known as "the barber's pole worm", is a blood-sucking nematode found in the abomasa of sheep and goats. This work is the first documentation on the ND4 sequences of H. contortus from sheep and goats in Malaysia and Yemen and the results provide a preliminary insight on the genetic differences of H. contortus found in the two countries. In general, this study showed a high degree of diversity and low population structure of this species within the same country in comparison with higher genetic structuring at a wider geographical scale. The results also showed that the majority of genetic variance was within H. contortus populations. The Malaysian sheep and goat populations investigated appeared to share the same isolate of H. contortus while different isolates may be found in Yemen which must be taken into account in the design of an effective control strategy. Analysis of the internal transcribed spacer-2 (ITS-2) confirmed that all samples investigated in this study belonged to H. contortus. However presence of other Haemonchus species parasitizing these two hosts can only be confirmed by further detailed studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Mitochondrial/chemistry
  16. Le TH, Humair PF, Blair D, Agatsuma T, Littlewood DT, McManus DP
    Mol. Biochem. Parasitol., 2001 Sep 28;117(1):61-71.
    PMID: 11551632
    Complete sequences were obtained for the coding portions of the mitochondrial (mt) genomes of Schistosoma mansoni (NMRI strain, Puerto Rico; 14 415 bp), S. japonicum (Anhui strain, China; 14 085 bp) and S. mekongi (Khong Island, Laos; 14 072 bp). Each comprises 36 genes: 12 protein-encoding genes (cox1-3, nad1-6, nad4L, atp6 and cob); two ribosomal RNAs, rrnL (large subunit rRNA or 16S) and rrnS (small subunit rRNA or 12S); as well as 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes. The atp8 gene is absent. A large segment (9.6 kb) of the coding region (comprising 14 tRNAs, eight complete and two incomplete protein-encoding genes) for S. malayensis (Baling, Malaysian Peninsula) was also obtained. Each genome also possesses a long non-coding region that is divided into two parts (a small and a large non-coding region, the latter not fully sequenced in any species) by one or more tRNAs. The protein-encoding genes are similar in size, composition and codon usage in all species except for cox1 in S. mansoni (609 aa) and cox2 in S. mekongi (219 aa), both of which are longer than homologues in other species. An unexpected finding in all the Schistosoma species was the presence of a leucine zipper motif in the nad4L gene. The gene order in S. mansoni is strikingly different from that seen in the S. japonicum group and other flatworms. There is a high level of identity (87-94% at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels) for all protein-encoding genes of S. mekongi and S. malayensis. The identity between genes of these two species and those of S. japonicum is less (56-83% for amino acids and 73-79% for nucleotides). The identity between the genes of S. mansoni and the Asian schistosomes is far less (33-66% for amino acids and 54-68% for nucleotides), an observation consistent with the known phylogenetic distance between S. mansoni and the other species.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Mitochondrial/chemistry
  17. Matsui M, Kuraishi N, Eto K, Hamidy A, Nishikawa K, Shimada T, et al.
    Mol Phylogenet Evol, 2016 09;102:305-19.
    PMID: 27374495 DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2016.06.009
    A fanged frog Limnonectes kuhlii was once thought to be wide-ranging in Southeast Asia, but is now confined to its type locality Java through recent phylogenetic studies, which clarified heterospecific status of non-Javanese populations, and monophyly of Bornean populations. However, large genetic differences among Bornean populations suggest occurrence of cryptic species, which we test using dense geographic sampling. We estimated the phylogenetic relationships among samples of Bornean populations together with their putative relatives from the continental Southeast Asia, using 2517bp sequences of the 12S rRNA, tRNA(val), and 16S rRNA of mitochondrial DNA, and 2367bp sequences of the NCX1, POMC, and RAG1 of nuclear genes. In the mtDNA trees, Bornean L. kuhlii-like frogs formed a monophyletic group split into 18 species lineages including L. hikidai, with the deepest phylogenetic split separating L. cintalubang from the remaining species. Almost all of these lineages co-occur geographically, and two to three lineages were found syntopically in each locality. Co-occurrence of more than one lineage may be maintained by differential morphology and microhabitat selection. These syntopic lineages should be regarded as distinct species. Our results clearly indicate that taxonomic revision is urgent to clarify many evolutionary problems of Bornean L. kuhlii-like frogs.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Mitochondrial/chemistry
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