Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 112 in total

  1. Hidayat T, Arif SM, Samad AA
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2013 Oct 01;16(19):1072-5.
    PMID: 24502175
    The mango (Mangifer indica L.) is an important species of the family Anacardiaceae and is one of the most important crops cultivated commercially in many parts of the world. Hence, a better understanding of the phylogeny in this species is crucial as it is the basis knowledge of improving its genetic resources which is beneficial for breeding programs. Phylogenetic relationships among 13 mango cultivars from Indonesia, Malaysia and Taiwan were carried out by comparing DNA sequence data sets derived from the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region pfnuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA). Analysis using parsimony method showed that the cultivars were classified into three major groups. The first group composed almost Malaysian cultivars although with low bootstrap value, the second group consisted of mainly Taiwan cultivars and the last group included mostly Indonesia one. The results indicated that some cultivars have a close relationships with each other even it is originated from different countries. With regards to the relationship among these cultivars, this gives better insight for generating new cultivar.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/genetics*
  2. Ng BL, Omarzuki M, Lau GS, Pannell CM, Yeo TC
    Mol Biotechnol, 2014 Jul;56(7):671-9.
    PMID: 24623047 DOI: 10.1007/s12033-014-9746-0
    Members of the genus Aglaia have been reported to contain bioactive phytochemicals. The genus, belonging to the Meliaceae family, is represented by at least 120 known species of woody trees or shrubs in the tropical rain forest. As some of these species are very similar in their morphology, taxonomic identification can be difficult. A reliable and definitive molecular method which can identify Aglaia to the level of the species will hence be useful in comparing the content of specific bioactive compounds between the species of this genus. Here, we report the analysis of DNA sequences in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA and the observation of a unique nucleotide signature in the ITS that can be used for the identification of Aglaia stellatopilosa. The nucleotide signature consists of nine bases over the length of the ITS sequence (654 bp). This uniqueness was validated in 37 samples identified as Aglaia stellatopilosa by an expert taxonomist, whereas the nucleotide signature was lacking in a selection of other Aglaia species and non-Aglaia genera. This finding suggests that molecular typing could be utilized in the identification of Aglaia stellatopilosa.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/genetics*
  3. Lim PE, Tan J, Suana IW, Eamsobhana P, Yong HS
    PLoS One, 2012;7(5):e37276.
    PMID: 22615962 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037276
    The fruit fly Bactrocera caudata is a pest species of economic importance in Asia. Its larvae feed on the flowers of Cucurbitaceae such as Cucurbita moschata. To-date it is distinguished from related species based on morphological characters. Specimens of B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia (Bali and Lombok) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA genes. Both gene sequences revealed that B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia was distinctly different from B. caudata of Bali and Lombok, without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades, indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for COI sequences between B. caudata of Malaysia-Thailand-China and B. caudata of Bali-Lombok was 5.65%, for 16S sequences from 2.76 to 2.99%, and for combined COI and 16S sequences 4.45 to 4.46%. The 'p' values are distinctly different from intraspecific 'p' distance (0-0.23%). Both the B. caudata lineages are distinctly separated from related species in the subgenus Zeugodacus - B. ascita, B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora, B. tau, B. cucurbitae, and B. depressa. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that the B. caudata lineages are closely related to B. ascita sp. B, and form a clade with B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora and B. ascita sp. A. This study provides additional baseline for the phylogenetic relationships of Bactrocera fruit flies of the subgenus Zeugodacus. Both the COI and 16S genes could be useful markers for the molecular differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of tephritid fruit flies.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/genetics*
  4. Baharum SN, Nurdalila AA
    Mol Biol Rep, 2012 May;39(5):5225-32.
    PMID: 22167328 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-011-1320-2
    The most economically important form of aquaculture is fish farming, which is an industry that accounts for an ever increasing share of world fishery production. Molecular markers can be used to enhance the productivity of the aquaculture and fish industries to meet the increasing demand. Molecular markers can be identified via a DNA test regardless of the developmental stage, age or environmental challenges experienced by the organism. The application of 16s and cytochrome b markers has enabled rapid progress in investigations of genetic variability and inbreeding, parentage assignments, species and strain identification and the construction of high resolution genetic linkage maps for aquaculture fisheries. In this review, the advantages of principles and potential power tools of 16s and cytochrome b markers are discussed. Main findings in term of trend, aspects and debates on the reviewed issue made from the model of aquatic species for the benefit of aquaculture genomics and aquaculture genetics research are discussed. The concepts in this review are illustrated with various research examples and results that relate theory to reality and provide a strong review of the current status of these biotechnology topics.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/genetics*
  5. Desjardin DE, Wilson AW, Binder M
    Mycologia, 2009 2 11;100(6):956-61.
    PMID: 19202849
    Hydnangium echinulatum, described originally from a single specimen collected in Malaysia, has been recollected, and based on morphological and molecular characters is recognized as representing a new gasteroid genus of boletes with affinities to the Boletineae, herein named Durianella. Diagnostic features include an epigeous, ovoid, pyramidal-warted, durian fruit-like basidiome with gelatinized glebal locules and a columella that turns indigo blue upon exposure, and subglobose basidiospores with long, curved, thin-walled and collapsible spines. A redescription, phylogenetic analysis and comparison with allied taxa are presented.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/genetics
  6. Fiala I, Hlavničková M, Kodádková A, Freeman MA, Bartošová-Sojková P, Atkinson SD
    Mol Phylogenet Evol, 2015 May;86:75-89.
    PMID: 25797924 DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2015.03.004
    In order to clarify the phylogenetic relationships among the main marine myxosporean clades including newly established Ceratonova clade and scrutinizing their evolutionary origins, we performed large-scale phylogenetic analysis of all myxosporean species from the marine myxosporean lineage based on three gene analyses and statistical topology tests. Furthermore, we obtained new molecular data for Ceratonova shasta, C. gasterostea, eight Ceratomyxa species and one Myxodavisia species. We described five new species: Ceratomyxa ayami n. sp., C. leatherjacketi n. sp., C. synaphobranchi n. sp., C. verudaensis n. sp. and Myxodavisia bulani n. sp.; two of these formed a new, basal Ceratomyxa subclade. We identified that the Ceratomyxa clade is basal to all other marine myxosporean lineages, and Kudoa with Enteromyxum are the most recently branching clades. Topologies were least stable at the nodes connecting the marine urinary clade, the marine gall bladder clade and the Ceratonova clade. Bayesian inference analysis of SSU rDNA and the statistical tree topology tests suggested that Ceratonova is closely related to the Enteromyxum and Kudoa clades, which represent a large group of histozoic species. A close relationship between Ceratomyxa and Ceratonova was not supported, despite their similar myxospore morphologies. Overall, the site of sporulation in the vertebrate host is a more accurate predictor of phylogenetic relationships than the morphology of the myxospore.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/genetics
  7. Tan SN, Teng ST, Lim HC, Kotaki Y, Bates SS, Leaw CP, et al.
    Harmful Algae, 2016 12;60:139-149.
    PMID: 28073557 DOI: 10.1016/j.hal.2016.11.003
    The distribution of the toxic pennate diatom Nitzschia was investigated at four mangrove areas along the coastal brackish waters of Peninsular Malaysia. Eighty-two strains of N. navis-varingica were isolated and established, and their identity confirmed morphologically and molecularly. Frustule morphological characteristics of the strains examined are identical to previously identified N. navis-varingica, but with a sightly higher density of the number of areolae per 1μm (4-7 areolae). Both LSU and ITS rDNAs phylogenetic trees clustered all strains in the N. navis-varingica clade, with high sequence homogeneity in the LSU rDNA (0-0.3%), while the intraspecific divergences in the ITS2 data set reached up to 7.4%. Domoic acid (DA) and its geometrical isomers, isodomoic A (IA) and isodomoic B (IB), were detected in cultures of N. navis-varingica by FMOC-LC-FLD, and subsequently confirmed by LC-MS/MS, with selected ion monitoring (SIM) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) runs. DA contents ranged between 0.37 and 11.06pgcell-1. This study demonstrated that the toxigenic euryhaline diatom N. navis-varingica is widely distributed in Malaysian mangrove swamps, suggesting the risk of amnesic shellfish poisoning and the possibility of DA contamination in the mangrove-related fisheries products.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/genetics
  8. Loong SK, Khor CS, Jafar FL, AbuBakar S
    J Clin Lab Anal, 2016 Nov;30(6):1056-1060.
    PMID: 27184222 DOI: 10.1002/jcla.21980
    BACKGROUND: Phenotypic identification systems are established methods for laboratory identification of bacteria causing human infections. Here, the utility of phenotypic identification systems was compared against 16S rDNA identification method on clinical isolates obtained during a 5-year study period, with special emphasis on isolates that gave unsatisfactory identification.

    METHODS: One hundred and eighty-seven clinical bacteria isolates were tested with commercial phenotypic identification systems and 16S rDNA sequencing. Isolate identities determined using phenotypic identification systems and 16S rDNA sequencing were compared for similarity at genus and species level, with 16S rDNA sequencing as the reference method.

    RESULTS: Phenotypic identification systems identified ~46% (86/187) of the isolates with identity similar to that identified using 16S rDNA sequencing. Approximately 39% (73/187) and ~15% (28/187) of the isolates showed different genus identity and could not be identified using the phenotypic identification systems, respectively. Both methods succeeded in determining the species identities of 55 isolates; however, only ~69% (38/55) of the isolates matched at species level. 16S rDNA sequencing could not determine the species of ~20% (37/187) of the isolates.

    CONCLUSION: The 16S rDNA sequencing is a useful method over the phenotypic identification systems for the identification of rare and difficult to identify bacteria species. The 16S rDNA sequencing method, however, does have limitation for species-level identification of some bacteria highlighting the need for better bacterial pathogen identification tools.

    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/genetics*
  9. Seelan JS, Justo A, Nagy LG, Grand EA, Redhead SA, Hibbett D
    Mycologia, 2015 May-Jun;107(3):460-74.
    PMID: 25661717 DOI: 10.3852/14-084
    The genus Lentinus (Polyporaceae, Basidiomycota) is widely documented from tropical and temperate forests and is taxonomically controversial. Here we studied the relationships between Lentinus subg. Lentinus sensu Pegler (i.e. sections Lentinus, Tigrini, Dicholamellatae, Rigidi, Lentodiellum and Pleuroti and polypores that share similar morphological characters). We generated sequences of internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and partial 28S regions of nuc rDNA and genes encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB1), focusing on Lentinus subg. Lentinus sensu Pegler and the Neofavolus group, combined these data with sequences from GenBank (including RPB2 gene sequences) and performed phylogenetic analyses with maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. We also evaluated the transition in hymenophore morphology between Lentinus, Neofavolus and related polypores with ancestral state reconstruction. Single-gene phylogenies and phylogenies combining ITS and 28S with RPB1 and RPB2 genes all support existence of a Lentinus/Polyporellus clade and a separate Neofavolus clade. Polyporellus (represented by P. arcularius, P. ciliatus, P. brumalis) forms a clade with species representing Lentinus subg. Lentinus sensu Pegler (1983), excluding L. suavissimus. Lentinus tigrinus appears as the sister group of Polyporellus in the four-gene phylogeny, but this placement was weakly supported. All three multigene analyses and the single-gene analysis using ITS strongly supported Polyporus tricholoma as the sister group of the Lentinus/Polyporellus clade; only the 28S rRNA phylogeny failed to support this placement. Under parsimony the ancestral hymenophoral configuration for the Lentinus/Polyporellus clade is estimated to be circular pores, with independent transitions to angular pores and lamellae. The ancestral state for the Neofavolus clade is estimated to be angular pores, with a single transition to lamellae in L. suavissimus. We propose that Lentinus suavissimus (section Pleuroti) should be reclassified as Neofavolus suavissimus comb. nov.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/genetics
  10. Abbas SZ, Rafatullah M, Ismail N, Lalung J
    J. Basic Microbiol., 2014 Dec;54(12):1279-87.
    PMID: 24852724 DOI: 10.1002/jobm.201400157
    This study focused on the isolation and characterization of high cadmium-resistant bacterial strains, possible exploitation of its cadmium-accumulation and cadmium-induced proteins. Cadmium-resistant bacterial strains designated as RZ1 and RZ2 were isolated from industrial wastewater of Penang, Malaysia. These isolates were identified as Enterobacter mori and Enterobacter sp. WS12 on the basis of phenotypic, biochemical and 16S rDNA sequence based molecular phylogenetic characteristics. Both isolates were Gram negative, cocci, and growing well in Lauria-Bertani broth medium at 35 °C temperature and pH 7.0. Results also indicated that Enterobacter mori and Enterobacter sp. WS12are capable to remove 87.75 and 85.11% of the cadmium from 100 µg ml(-1) concentration, respectively. This study indicates that these strains can be useful as an inexpensive and efficient bioremediation technology to remove and recover the cadmium from wastewater.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/genetics
  11. Eamsobhana P, Lim PE, Yong HS
    J. Helminthol., 2015 May;89(3):317-25.
    PMID: 24622302 DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X14000108
    The Angiostrongylus lungworms are of public health and veterinary concern in many countries. At the family level, the Angiostrongylus lungworms have been included in the family Angiostrongylidae or the family Metastrongylidae. The present study was undertaken to determine the usefulness and suitability of the nuclear 18S (small subunit, SSU) rDNA sequences for differentiating various taxa of the genus Angiostrongylus, as well as to determine the systematics and phylogenetic relationship of Angiostrongylus species and other metastrongyloid taxa. This study revealed six 18S (SSU) haplotypes in A. cantonensis, indicating considerable genetic diversity. The uncorrected pairwise 'p' distances among A. cantonensis ranged from 0 to 0.86%. The 18S (SSU) rDNA sequences unequivocally distinguished the five Angiostrongylus species, confirmed the close relationship of A. cantonensis and A. malaysiensis and that of A. costaricensis and A. dujardini, and were consistent with the family status of Angiostrongylidae and Metastrongylidae. In all cases, the congeneric metastrongyloid species clustered together. There was no supporting evidence to include the genus Skrjabingylus as a member of Metastrongylidae. The genera Aelurostrongylus and Didelphostrongylus were not recovered with Angiostrongylus, indicating polyphyly of the Angiostrongylidae. Of the currently recognized families of Metastrongyloidea, only Crenosomatidae appeared to be monophyletic. In view of the unsettled questions regarding the phylogenetic relationships of various taxa of the metastrongyloid worms, further analyses using more markers and more taxa are warranted.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/genetics
  12. Tan JY, Yin WF, Chan KG
    Sensors (Basel), 2014 Apr 14;14(4):6788-96.
    PMID: 24736131 DOI: 10.3390/s140406788
    Quorum sensing (QS) is a mechanism adopted by bacteria to regulate expression of genes according to population density. N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) are a type of QS signalling molecules commonly found in Gram-negative bacteria which have been reported to play a role in microbial spoilage of foods and pathogenesis. In this study, we isolated an AHL-producing Hafnia alvei strain (FB1) from spherical fish pastes. Analysis via high resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) on extracts from the spent supernatant of H. alvei FB1 revealed the existence of two short chain AHLs: N-(3-oxohexanoyl) homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL) and N-(3-oxo- octanoyl) homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C8-HSL). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the production of AHLs, especially 3-oxo-C8-HSL, by H. alvei.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/genetics
  13. Polgar G, Zane L, Babbucci M, Barbisan F, Patarnello T, Rüber L, et al.
    Mol Phylogenet Evol, 2014 Apr;73:161-76.
    PMID: 24486991 DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2014.01.014
    This study provides a first description of the phylogeographic patterns and evolutionary history of two species of the mudskipper genus Periophthalmus. These amphibious gobies are distributed throughout the whole Indo-Pacific region and Atlantic coast of Africa, in peritidal habitats of soft-bottom coastal ecosystems. Three sequence datasets of two widely distributed species, Periophthalmus argentilineatus and P. kalolo, were obtained by amplifying and sequencing two mtDNA markers (D-loop and 16S rDNA) and the nDNA rag1 region. The three datasets were then used to perform phylogeographic, demographic and population genetic analyses. Our results indicate that tectonic events and past climatic oscillations strongly contributed to shape present genetic differentiation, phylogeographic and demographic patterns. We found support for the monophyly of P. kalolo, and only shallow genetic differentiation between East-African and Indo-Malayan populations of this species. However, our collections of the morphospecies P. argentilineatus include three molecularly distinct lineages, one of them more closely related to P. kalolo. The presence of Miocenic timings for the most recent common ancestors of some of these morphologically similar clades, suggests the presence of strong stabilising selection in mudskippers' habitats. At population level, demographic analyses and palaeoecological records of mangrove ecosystems suggest that Pleistocene bottlenecks and expansion plus secondary contact events of the studied species were associated with recurrent sea transgressions during interglacials, and sea regressions or stable regimes during glacials, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/genetics
  14. Lim HK, Syed MA, Shukor MY
    J. Basic Microbiol., 2012 Jun;52(3):296-305.
    PMID: 22052341 DOI: 10.1002/jobm.201100121
    A novel molybdate-reducing bacterium, tentatively identified as Klebsiella sp. strain hkeem and based on partial 16s rDNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, has been isolated. Strain hkeem produced 3 times more molybdenum blue than Serratia sp. strain Dr.Y8; the most potent Mo-reducing bacterium isolated to date. Molybdate was optimally reduced to molybdenum blue using 4.5 mM phosphate, 80 mM molybdate and using 1% (w/v) fructose as a carbon source. Molybdate reduction was optimum at 30 °C and at pH 7.3. The molybdenum blue produced from cellular reduction exhibited absorption spectrum with a maximum peak at 865 nm and a shoulder at 700 nm. Inhibitors of electron transport system such as antimycin A, rotenone, sodium azide, and potassium cyanide did not inhibit the molybdenum-reducing enzyme. Mercury, silver, and copper at 1 ppm inhibited molybdenum blue formation in whole cells of strain hkeem.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/genetics
  15. Jirků M, Bartošová P, Kodádková A, Mutschmann F
    J. Eukaryot. Microbiol., 2011 Jan-Feb;58(1):50-9.
    PMID: 21182559 DOI: 10.1111/j.1550-7408.2010.00521.x
    Infection with Chloromyxum careni Mutschmann, 1999 was found in the Asian horned frog Megophrys nasuta from Malaysia and Indonesia. Kidney was the only organ infected. Coelozoic plasmodia up to 300 μm were localized in Bowman's space, embracing the glomerulus from all sides, or rarely in lumina of renal tubules. Plasmodia are polysporic, containing disporic pansporoblasts. Myxospores observed by light microscopy are colorless, variable in shape and size, measuring 6.0-8.5 × 5.0-6.5 μm, composed of two symmetrical valves joined by a meridian suture, containing four pyriform polar capsules 3.0-4.0 × 2.5-3.0 μm and a single sporoplasm. Each valve possesses 14-24 (median 21) fine longitudinal ridges clearly visible only in scanning electron microscopy. Rarely, atypical spores with a markedly pointed posterior pole and only 6-10 surface ridges are present in plasmodia together with typical spores. Both small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene sequences possess extremely long GU-rich inserts. In all SSU and LSU rDNA-based phylogenetic analyses, C. careni clustered as a distinct basal branch to the Myxobolus+Myxidium lieberkuehni clade, out of the marine Chloromyxum clade containing Chloromyxum leydigi, the type species of the genus. These morphological and phylogenetic data suggest erection of a new genus for the C. careni lineage, but we conservatively treat it as a Chloromyxum sensu lato until more information is available.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/genetics
  16. Divis PC, Shokoples SE, Singh B, Yanow SK
    Malar J, 2010 Nov 30;9:344.
    PMID: 21114872 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-344
    BACKGROUND: The misdiagnosis of Plasmodium knowlesi by microscopy has prompted a re-evaluation of the geographic distribution, prevalence and pathogenesis of this species using molecular diagnostic tools. In this report, a specific probe for P. knowlesi, that can be used in a previously described TaqMan real-time PCR assay for detection of Plasmodium spp., and Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale, was designed and validated against clinical samples.

    METHODS: A hydrolysis probe for a real-time PCR assay was designed to recognize a specific DNA sequence within the P. knowlesi small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. The sensitivity, linearity and specificity of the assay were determined using plasmids containing P. knowlesi DNA and genomic DNA of P. falciparum, P. knowlesi, P. malariae, P. ovale and P. vivax isolated from clinical samples. DNA samples of the simian malaria parasites Plasmodium cynomolgi and Plasmodium inui that can infect humans under experimental conditions were also examined together with human DNA samples.

    RESULTS: Analytical sensitivity of the P. knowlesi-specific assay was 10 copies/μL and quantitation was linear over a range of 10-106 copies. The sensitivity of the assay is equivalent to nested PCR and P. knowlesi DNA was detected from all 40 clinical P. knowlesi specimens, including one from a patient with a parasitaemia of three parasites/μL of blood. No cross-reactivity was observed with 67 Plasmodium DNA samples (31 P. falciparum, 23 P. vivax, six P. ovale, three P. malariae, one P. malariae/P. ovale, one P. falciparum/P. malariae, one P. inui and one P. cynomolgi) and four samples of human DNA.

    CONCLUSIONS: This test demonstrated excellent sensitivity and specificity, and adds P. knowlesi to the repertoire of Plasmodium targets for the clinical diagnosis of malaria by real-time PCR assays. Furthermore, quantitation of DNA copy number provides a useful advantage over other molecular assays to investigate the correlation between levels of infection and the spectrum of disease.

    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/genetics
  17. Voglmayr H, Yule CM
    Mycol. Res., 2006 Oct;110(Pt 10):1242-52.
    PMID: 17018253
    During an investigation of submerged leaves and twigs sampled from tropical peat swamp forests located in Peninsular Malaysia, an anamorphic fungus not attributable to a described genus was detected and isolated in pure culture. Conidial ontogeny was thoroughly studied and illustrated using both light and SEM, which revealed a unique conidial morphology. Analysis of partial nuLSU rDNA and ITS data revealed a phylogenetic position within the Xylariales (Ascomycota), but family affiliation remained unclear.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/genetics
  18. Misbah S, Hassan H, Yusof MY, Hanifah YA, AbuBakar S
    Singapore Med J, 2005 Sep;46(9):461-4.
    PMID: 16123830
    This study aims to identify Acinetobacter of clinical isolates from the University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, to the species level by 16S rDNA sequencing.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/genetics*
  19. Abe N, Matsubara K, Tamukai K, Miwa Y, Takami K
    Parasitol Res, 2015 Aug;114(8):3175-9.
    PMID: 26044884 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-015-4564-2
    Sarcocystis nesbitti, using snakes as the definitive host, is a causative agent of acute human muscular sarcocystosis in Malaysia. Therefore, it is important to explore the distribution and prevalence of S. nesbitti in snakes. Nevertheless, epizootiological information of S. nesbitti in snakes remains insufficient because few surveys have assessed Sarcocystis infection in snakes in endemic countries. In Japan, snakes are popular exotic pet animals that are imported from overseas, but the degree of Sarcocystis infection in them remains unclear. The possibility exists that muscular sarcocystosis by S. nesbitti occurs in contact with captive snakes in non-endemic countries. For a total of 125 snake faecal samples from 67 snake species collected at animal hospitals, pet shops and a zoo, this study investigated the presence of Sarcocystis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the 18S ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA). Four (3.2%) faecal samples were positive by PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA sequences obtained from four amplification products revealed one isolate from a beauty snake (Elaphe taeniura), Sarcocystis zuoi, which uses rat snakes as the definitive host. The isolate from a Macklot's python (Liasis mackloti) was closely related with unidentified Sarcocystis sp. from reticulated pythons in Malaysia. The remaining two isolates from tree boas (Corallus spp.) were closely related with Sarcocystis lacertae, Sarcocystis gallotiae and unidentified Sarcocystis sp. from smooth snakes, Tenerife lizards and European shrews, respectively. This report is the first of a study examining the distribution of Sarcocystis species in captive snakes in Japan.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/genetics
  20. Takeuchi Y, Chaffron S, Salcher MM, Shimizu-Inatsugi R, Kobayashi MJ, Diway B, et al.
    Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2015 Jul;38(5):330-9.
    PMID: 26138047 DOI: 10.1016/j.syapm.2015.05.006
    Pitchers are modified leaves used by carnivorous plants for trapping prey. Their fluids contain digestive enzymes from the plant and they harbor abundant microbes. In this study, the diversity of bacterial communities was assessed in Nepenthes pitcher fluids and the composition of the bacterial community was compared to that in other environments, including the phyllosphere of Arabidopsis, animal guts and another pitcher plant, Sarracenia. Diversity was measured by 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. A total of 232,823 sequences were obtained after chimera and singleton removal that clustered into 3260 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (3% dissimilarity), which were taxonomically distributed over 17 phyla, 25 classes, 45 orders, 100 families, and 195 genera. Pyrosequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization yielded similar estimates of community composition. Most pitchers contained high proportions of unique OTUs, and only 22 OTUs (<0.6%) were shared by ≥14/16 samples, suggesting a unique bacterial assemblage in each pitcher at the OTU level. Diversity analysis at the class level revealed that the bacterial communities of both opened and unopened pitchers were most similar to that of Sarracenia and to that in the phyllosphere. Therefore, the bacterial community in pitchers may be formed by environmental filtering and/or by phyllosphere bacteria.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA, Ribosomal/genetics
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