Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 44 in total

  1. Shi W, Massaia A, Louzada S, Banerjee R, Hallast P, Chen Y, et al.
    Hum. Genet., 2018 Jan;137(1):73-83.
    PMID: 29209947 DOI: 10.1007/s00439-017-1857-9
    We describe the variation in copy number of a ~ 10 kb region overlapping the long intergenic noncoding RNA (lincRNA) gene, TTTY22, within the IR3 inverted repeat on the short arm of the human Y chromosome, leading to individuals with 0-3 copies of this region in the general population. Variation of this CNV is common, with 266 individuals having 0 copies, 943 (including the reference sequence) having 1, 23 having 2 copies, and two having 3 copies, and was validated by breakpoint PCR, fibre-FISH, and 10× Genomics Chromium linked-read sequencing in subsets of 1234 individuals from the 1000 Genomes Project. Mapping the changes in copy number to the phylogeny of these Y chromosomes previously established by the Project identified at least 20 mutational events, and investigation of flanking paralogous sequence variants showed that the mutations involved flanking sequences in 18 of these, and could extend over > 30 kb of DNA. While either gene conversion or double crossover between misaligned sister chromatids could formally explain the 0-2 copy events, gene conversion is the more likely mechanism, and these events include the longest non-allelic gene conversion reported thus far. Chromosomes with three copies of this CNV have arisen just once in our data set via another mechanism: duplication of 420 kb that places the third copy 230 kb proximal to the existing proximal copy. Our results establish gene conversion as a previously under-appreciated mechanism of generating copy number changes in humans and reveal the exceptionally large size of the conversion events that can occur.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA Copy Number Variations*
  2. Ching HC, Naidu R, Seong MK, Har YC, Taib NA
    Int. J. Oncol., 2011 Sep;39(3):621-33.
    PMID: 21687935 DOI: 10.3892/ijo.2011.1081
    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, marked by extensive chromosomal aberrations. In this study, we aimed to explicate the underlying chromosomal copy number (CN) alterations and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) implicated in a cohort of Malaysian hospital-based primary breast carcinoma samples using a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array platform. The analysis was conducted by hybridizing the extracted DNA of 70 primary breast carcinomas and 37 normal peripheral blood samples to the Affymetrix 250K Sty SNP arrays. Locus-specific CN aberrations and LOH were statistically summarized using the binary segmentation algorithm and hidden Markov model. Selected genes from the SNP array analysis were also validated using quantitative real-time PCR. The merging of CN and LOH data fabricated distinctive integrated alteration profiles, which were comprised of finely demarcated minimal sites of aberrations. The most prevalent gains (≥ 30%) were detected at the 8q arm: 8q23.1, 8q23.3, 8q24.11, 8q24.13, 8q24.21, 8q24.22, 8q24.23 and 8q24.3, whilst the most ubiquitous losses (≥ 20%) were noted at the 8p12, 8p21.1, 8p21.2, 8p21.1-p21.2, 8p21.3, 8p22, 8p23.1, 8p23.1‑p23.2, 8p23.3, 17p11.2, 17p12, 17p11.2-p12, 17p13.1 and 17p13.2 regions. Copy-neutral LOH was characterized as the most prevailing LOH event, in which the most frequent distributions (≥ 30%) were revealed at 3p21.31, 5q33.2, 12q24.12, 12q24.12‑q24.13 and 14q23.1. These findings offer compre-hensive genome-wide views on breast cancer genomic changes, where the most recurrent gain, loss and copy-neutral LOH events were harboured within the 8q24.21, 8p21.1 and 14q23.1 loci, respectively. This will facilitate the uncovering of true driver genes pertinent to breast cancer biology and the develop-ment of prospective therapeutics.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA Copy Number Variations*
  3. Shaik Alaudeen SR, Mohd Shah AS, Abdul Talib N, Abdullah A
    Introduction: Hypertension related morbidities and mortalities around the world show a gradual increase and early detection and prevention are advocated. The Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) has associated variation in DNA sequences called copy number variation (CNV) with susceptibility to common diseases. However, little is known about CNV role in essential hypertension. Thus, this study aimed to characterize the CNV esv27061 among prehypertensive and hypertensive young adults in Malaysia. Materials and method: In this comparative cross-sectional study, 104 subjects living in Kuantan who gave voluntary consent to participate are recruited and divided into three groups; control (43 subjects), prehypertensive (38 subjects) and mild hypertensive (23 subjects). An optimized droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) was used in the determination of CNV esv27061 in this study. Results: All subjects in the control (n=38; 88.4% gain), prehypertensive (n=33; 86.8% gain) and mild hypertensive (n=21; 91.3% gain) groups had CNV gain (copy number > 2) while 11.6% of control, 13.2% of prehypertensive and 8.7% of mild hypertensive subjects exhibited normal copies (copy number = 2). Conclusion: The present preliminary finding was consistent with the Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) which stated that CNV esv27061 showed more gain than loss.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA Copy Number Variations
  4. Fu R, Mokhtar SS, Phipps ME, Hoh BP, Xu S
    Eur. J. Hum. Genet., 2018 06;26(6):886-897.
    PMID: 29476164 DOI: 10.1038/s41431-018-0120-8
    Copy number variations (CNVs) are genomic structural variations that result from the deletion or duplication of large genomic segments. The characterization of CNVs is largely underrepresented, particularly those of indigenous populations, such as the Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia. In the present study, we first characterized the genome-wide CNVs of four major native populations from Peninsular Malaysia, including the Malays and three Orang Asli populations; namely, Proto-Malay, Senoi, and Negrito (collectively called PM). We subsequently assessed the distribution of CNVs across the four populations. The resulting global CNV map revealed 3102 CNVs, with an average of more than 100 CNVs per individual. We identified genes harboring CNVs that are highly differentiated between PM and global populations, indicating that these genes are predominantly enriched in immune responses and defense functions, including APOBEC3A_B, beta-defensin genes, and CCL3L1, followed by other biological functions, such as drug and toxin metabolism and responses to radiation, suggesting some attributions between CNV variations and adaptations of the PM groups to the local environmental conditions of tropical rainforests.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA Copy Number Variations
  5. Siti Radziah Shaik Alaudeen, Aszrin Abdullah, Azarisman Shah Mohd Shah, Norlelawati Abdul Talib
    Copy number variation (CNV) caused by changes in DNA sequences of 1000
    or more bases is implicated with susceptibility to common diseases. A study on CNV
    esv27061 among hypertensive Australian adults reported association with high blood
    pressure (BP). In Malaysia, no study on CNV among hypertensive young adults is
    available. Thus, this investigation aimed to assess the CNV esv27061 of young Malaysian
    adults with high blood pressure using optimized ddPCR. (Copied from article).
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA Copy Number Variations
  6. Haridan US, Mokhtar U, Machado LR, Abdul Aziz AT, Shueb RH, Zaid M, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(1):e0116791.
    PMID: 25594501 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0116791
    The FCGR3 locus encoding the low affinity activating receptor FcγRIII, plays a vital role in immunity triggered by cellular effector and regulatory functions. Copy number of the genes FCGR3A and FCGR3B has previously been reported to affect susceptibility to several autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammatory conditions. However, such genetic association studies often yield inconsistent results; hence require assays that are robust with low error rate. We investigated the accuracy and efficiency in estimating FCGR3 CNV by comparing Sequenom MassARRAY and paralogue ratio test-restriction enzyme digest variant ratio (PRT-REDVR). In addition, since many genetic association studies of FCGR3B CNV were carried out using real-time quantitative PCR, we have also included the evaluation of that method's performance in estimating the multi-allelic CNV of FCGR3B. The qPCR assay exhibited a considerably broader distribution of signal intensity, potentially introducing error in estimation of copy number and higher false positive rates. Both Sequenom and PRT-REDVR showed lesser systematic bias, but Sequenom skewed towards copy number normal (CN = 2). The discrepancy between Sequenom and PRT-REDVR might be attributed either to batch effects noise in individual measurements. Our study suggests that PRT-REDVR is more robust and accurate in genotyping the CNV of FCGR3, but highlights the needs of multiple independent assays for extensive validation when performing a genetic association study with multi-allelic CNVs.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA Copy Number Variations/genetics
  7. Vincent-Chong VK, Salahshourifar I, Razali R, Anwar A, Zain RB
    Head Neck, 2016 04;38 Suppl 1:E783-97.
    PMID: 25914319 DOI: 10.1002/hed.24102
    BACKGROUND: This purpose of this meta-analysis study was to identify the most frequent and potentially significant copy number alteration (CNA) in oral carcinogenesis.

    METHODS: Seven oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)-related publications, corresponding to 312 samples, were identified for this meta-analysis. The data were analyzed in a 4-step process that included the genome assembly coordination of multiple platforms, assignment of chromosomal position anchors, calling gains and losses, and functional annotation analysis.

    RESULTS: Gains were more frequent than losses in the entire dataset. High-frequency gains were identified in chromosomes 5p, 14q, 11q, 7p, 17q, 20q, 8q, and 3q, whereas high-frequency losses were identified in chromosomes 3p, 8p, 6p, 18q, and 4q. Ingenuity pathway analysis showed that the top biological function was associated with immortalization of the epithelial cells (p = 1.93E-04).

    CONCLUSION: This study has identified multiple recurrent CNAs that are involved in various biological annotations associated with oral carcinogenesis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E783-E797, 2016.

    Matched MeSH terms: DNA Copy Number Variations*
  8. Mokhtar SS, Marshall CR, Phipps ME, Thiruvahindrapuram B, Lionel AC, Scherer SW, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(6):e100371.
    PMID: 24956385 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100371
    Copy number variation (CNV) has been recognized as a major contributor to human genome diversity. It plays an important role in determining phenotypes and has been associated with a number of common and complex diseases. However CNV data from diverse populations is still limited. Here we report the first investigation of CNV in the indigenous populations from Peninsular Malaysia. We genotyped 34 Negrito genomes from Peninsular Malaysia using the Affymetrix SNP 6.0 microarray and identified 48 putative novel CNVs, consisting of 24 gains and 24 losses, of which 5 were identified in at least 2 unrelated samples. These CNVs appear unique to the Negrito population and were absent in the DGV, HapMap3 and Singapore Genome Variation Project (SGVP) datasets. Analysis of gene ontology revealed that genes within these CNVs were enriched in the immune system (GO:0002376), response to stimulus mechanisms (GO:0050896), the metabolic pathways (GO:0001852), as well as regulation of transcription (GO:0006355). Copy number gains in CNV regions (CNVRs) enriched with genes were significantly higher than the losses (P value <0.001). In view of the small population size, relative isolation and semi-nomadic lifestyles of this community, we speculate that these CNVs may be attributed to recent local adaptation of Negritos from Peninsular Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA Copy Number Variations/genetics*
  9. Salahshourifar I, Vincent-Chong VK, Kallarakkal TG, Zain RB
    Oral Oncol., 2014 May;50(5):404-12.
    PMID: 24613650 DOI: 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2014.02.005
    Oral cancer is a multifactorial disease in which both environmental and genetic factors contribute to the aetiopathogenesis. Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide with a higher incidence among Melanesian and South Asian countries. More than 90% of oral cancers are oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The present study aimed to determine common genomic copy number alterations (CNAs) and their frequency by including 12 studies that have been conducted on OSCCs using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). In addition, we reviewed the literature dealing with CNAs that drive oral precursor lesions to the invasive tumors. Results showed a sequential accumulation of genetic changes from oral precursor lesions to invasive tumors. With the disease progression, accumulation of genetic changes increases in terms of frequency, type and size of the abnormalities, even on different regions of the same chromosome. Gains in 3q (36.5%), 5p (23%), 7p (21%), 8q (47%), 11q (45%), 20q (31%) and losses in 3p (37%), 8p (18%), 9p (10%) and 18q (11%) were the most common observations among those studies. However, losses are less frequent than gains but it appears that they might be the primary clonal events in causing oral cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA Copy Number Variations*
  10. Zain SM, Mohamed R, Cooper DN, Razali R, Rampal S, Mahadeva S, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(4):e95604.
    PMID: 24743702 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095604
    Between 10 and 25% of individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) develop hepatic fibrosis leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To investigate the molecular basis of disease progression, we performed a genome-wide analysis of copy number variation (CNV) in a total of 49 patients with NAFLD [10 simple steatosis and 39 non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)] and 49 matched controls using high-density comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) microarrays. A total of 11 CNVs were found to be unique to individuals with simple steatosis, whilst 22 were common between simple steatosis and NASH, and 224 were unique to NASH. We postulated that these CNVs could be involved in the pathogenesis of NAFLD progression. After stringent filtering, we identified four rare and/or novel CNVs that may influence the pathogenesis of NASH. Two of these CNVs, located at 13q12.11 and 12q13.2 respectively, harbour the exportin 4 (XPO4) and phosphodiesterase 1B (PDE1B) genes which are already known to be involved in the etiology of liver cirrhosis and HCC. Cross-comparison of the genes located at these four CNV loci with genes already known to be associated with NAFLD yielded a set of genes associated with shared biological processes including cell death, the key process involved in 'second hit' hepatic injury. To our knowledge, this pilot study is the first to provide CNV information of potential relevance to the NAFLD spectrum. These data could prove invaluable in predicting patients at risk of developing NAFLD and more importantly, those who will subsequently progress to NASH.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA Copy Number Variations/genetics*
  11. Hoh BP, Sam SS, Umi SH, Mahiran M, Nik Khairudin NY, Rafidah Hanim S, et al.
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2014;13(1):980-5.
    PMID: 24634119 DOI: 10.4238/2014.February.19.9
    Copy number variation (CNV) is a form of genetic variation in addition to single nucleotide polymorphisms. The significance of CNV in the manifestation of a number of diseases is only recently receiving considerable attention. We genotyped 163 dengue patients from Peninsular Malaysia for genes possibly linked to dengue infection using quantitative real-time PCR. Here, we report a serendipitous discovery of a novel rare CNV of the ABCF1 gene among the dengue patients. Among these patients, two had a gain of 1 copy (CN = 3) and one had lost 1 copy (CN = 1), indicating that a rare CNV of the ABCF1 gene was detected among dengue patients from Peninsular Malaysia. Although the gene is suspected to regulate inflammatory responses and pathogen-induced cytokine storm, its relevance to dengue requires further investigation.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA Copy Number Variations*
  12. Bakri NM, Ramachandran V, Kee HF, Subrayan V, Isa H, Ngah NF, et al.
    Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 2017 Dec;33(12):602-608.
    PMID: 29132549 DOI: 10.1016/j.kjms.2017.08.003
    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most widely recognised cause of irreversible vision loss and previous studies have suggested that the advancement of wet AMD is influenced by both modifiable and non-modifiable elements. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) and copy number of variations (CNVs) have been associated with AMD in various populations, however the results are conflicting. Our aim is to determine the CNVs of Complement Factor H-Related genes among Malaysian subjects with wet AMD. 130 patients with wet AMD and 120 healthy controls were included in this research. DNA was extracted from all subjects and CNVs of CFH, CFHR1 and CFHR3 genes; determined using quantitative real-time PCR and were compared between the two groups. A consistent association was observed between CFH gene and wet AMD susceptibility (P 
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA Copy Number Variations/genetics*
  13. Ngamphiw C, Assawamakin A, Xu S, Shaw PJ, Yang JO, Ghang H, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2011;6(6):e21451.
    PMID: 21731755 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021451
    The HUGO Pan-Asian SNP consortium conducted the largest survey to date of human genetic diversity among Asians by sampling 1,719 unrelated individuals among 71 populations from China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. We have constructed a database (PanSNPdb), which contains these data and various new analyses of them. PanSNPdb is a research resource in the analysis of the population structure of Asian peoples, including linkage disequilibrium patterns, haplotype distributions, and copy number variations. Furthermore, PanSNPdb provides an interactive comparison with other SNP and CNV databases, including HapMap3, JSNP, dbSNP and DGV and thus provides a comprehensive resource of human genetic diversity. The information is accessible via a widely accepted graphical interface used in many genetic variation databases. Unrestricted access to PanSNPdb and any associated files is available at: http://www4a.biotec.or.th/PASNP.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA Copy Number Variations/genetics
  14. Lim LS, Tay YL, Alias H, Wan KL, Dear PH
    BMC Genomics, 2012;13:389.
    PMID: 22889016 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-13-389
    Eimeria is a genus of parasites in the same phylum (Apicomplexa) as human parasites such as Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium and the malaria parasite Plasmodium. As an apicomplexan whose life-cycle involves a single host, Eimeria is a convenient model for understanding this group of organisms. Although the genomes of the Apicomplexa are diverse, that of Eimeria is unique in being composed of large alternating blocks of sequence with very different characteristics - an arrangement seen in no other organism. This arrangement has impeded efforts to fully sequence the genome of Eimeria, which remains the last of the major apicomplexans to be fully analyzed. In order to increase the value of the genome sequence data and aid in the effort to gain a better understanding of the Eimeria tenella genome, we constructed a whole genome map for the parasite.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA Copy Number Variations
  15. Juriza, I., Sharifah Azween, S.O., Azli, I., Zarina, A.L., Mohd Fadly, M.A., Zubaidah, Z., et al.
    Medicine & Health, 2010;5(2):108-113.
    The human genome contains many submicroscopic copy number variations which includes deletions, duplications and insertions. Although conventional karyotyping remains an important diagnostic tool in evaluating a dysmorphic patient with mental retardation, molecular diagnostic technology such as array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) has proven to be sensitive and reliable in detecting these submicroscopic anomalies. A 3 month-old infant with dysmorphic facies, microcephaly and global developmental delay was referred for genetic evaluation. Preliminary karyotyping which was confounded by the quality of metaphase spread was normal; however, aCGH detected a 30.6Mb deletion from 5p15.33-p13.3. This case illustrates the usefulness of aCGH as an adjunctive investigative tool for detecting chromosomal imbalances.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA Copy Number Variations
  16. Boon-Peng H, Mat Jusoh JA, Marshall CR, Majid F, Danuri N, Basir F, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(3):e0148755.
    PMID: 26930585 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0148755
    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and a powerful predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in the hypertensive patients. It has complex multifactorial and polygenic basis for its pathogenesis. We hypothesized that rare copy number variants (CNVs) contribute to the LVH pathogenesis in hypertensive patients. Copy number variants (CNV) were identified in 258 hypertensive patients, 95 of whom had LVH, after genotyping with a high resolution SNP array. Following stringent filtering criteria, we identified 208 rare, or private CNVs that were only present in our patients with hypertension related LVH. Preliminary findings from Gene Ontology and pathway analysis of this study confirmed the involvement of the genes known to be functionally involved in cardiac development and phenotypes, in line with previously reported transcriptomic studies. Network enrichment analyses suggested that the gene-set was, directly or indirectly, involved in the transcription factors regulating the "foetal cardiac gene programme" which triggered the hypertrophic cascade, confirming previous reports. These findings suggest that multiple, individually rare copy number variants altering genes may contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension-related LVH. In summary, we have provided further supporting evidence that rare CNV could potentially impact this common and complex disease susceptibility with lower heritability.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA Copy Number Variations*
  17. Yam YY, Hoh BP, Othman NH, Hassan S, Yahya MM, Zakaria Z, et al.
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2013;12(1):319-27.
    PMID: 23420356 DOI: 10.4238/2013.February.7.1
    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in many countries, including Malaysia. The accumulation of genomic alterations is an important feature of colorectal carcinogenesis. A better understanding of the molecular events underlying the stages of colorectal carcinogenesis might be helpful in the detection and management of the disease. We used a commercially available single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping array to detect both copy number abnormalities (CNAs) and copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in sporadic colorectal carcinomas. Matched tumor and normal tissues of 13 colorectal carcinomas (Dukes' stages A-D) were analyzed using a 250K single nucleotide polymorphism array. An additional assay was performed to determine the microsatellite instability status by using the National Cancer Institute-recommended BAT-26 panel. In general, copy number gain (92.3%) was most common, followed by copy number loss (53.8%) and copy-neutral LOH (46.2%). Frequent CNAs of gains and losses were observed on chromosomes 7p, 8, 13q, 17p, 18q, and 20q, and copy-neutral LOH was observed on chromosomes 2, 6, 12, 13q, 14q, 17, 20p, 19q, and 22q. Even though genomic alterations are associated with colorectal cancer progression, our results showed that DNA CNAs and copy-neutral LOH do not reflect disease progression in at least 50% tumors. Copy-neutral LOH was observed in both early and advanced tumors, which favors the involvement of these genomic alterations in the early stages of tumor development.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA Copy Number Variations*
  18. Nguyen PN, Huang CJ, Sugii S, Cheong SK, Choo KB
    J. Biomed. Sci., 2017 Mar 07;24(1):20.
    PMID: 28270145 DOI: 10.1186/s12929-017-0326-z
    BACKGROUND: The human chromosome 19 miRNA cluster (C19MC) of 43 genes is a primate-specific miRNA cluster that may have biological significance in the genetic complexity of the primate. Despite previous reports on individual C19MC miRNA expression in cancer and stem cells, systematic studies on C19MC miRNA expression and biological functions are lacking.

    RESULTS: Cluster-wide C19MC miRNA expression profiling by microarray analysis showed wholesome C19MC activation in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). However, in multipotent adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and a unipotent human white pre-adipocyte cell line, only selected C19MC miRNAs were expressed. MiRNA copy number analysis also showed selective C19MC expression in cancer cells with expression patterns highly similar to those in MSCs, suggesting similar miRNA regulatory mechanisms in these cells. Selective miRNA expression also suggests complex transcriptional mechanism(s) regulating C19MC expression under specific cellular and pathological conditions. Bioinformatics analysis showed that sixteen of the C19MC miRNAs share the same "AAGUGC" seed sequence with members of the miR-302/-372 family, which are known cellular reprogramming factors. In particular, C19MC-AAGUGC-miRNAs with the nucleotides 2-7 canonical seed position as in miR-302/-372 miRNAs, may play similar roles as miR-302/-372 in induced pluripotency. A biased 3p-arm selection of the C19MC-AAGUGC-miRNAs was observed indicating that targets of the 3p species of these miRNAs may be biologically significant in regulating stemness. Furthermore, bioinformatics analysis of the putative targets of the C19MC-AAGUGC-miRNAs predicted significant involvement of signaling pathways in reprogramming, many of which contribute to promoting apoptosis by indirect activation of the pro-apoptotic proteins BAK/BAX via suppression of genes of the cell survival pathways, or by enhancing caspase-8 activation through targeting inhibitors of TRAIL-inducing apoptosis.

    CONCLUSIONS: This work demonstrated selective C19MC expression in MSCs and cancer cells, and, through miRNA profiling and bioinformatics analysis, predicted C19MC modulation of apoptosis in induced pluripotency and tumorigenesis.

    Matched MeSH terms: DNA Copy Number Variations/genetics
  19. Tsuchida N, Nakashima M, Kato M, Heyman E, Inui T, Haginoya K, et al.
    Clin. Genet., 2018 03;93(3):577-587.
    PMID: 28940419 DOI: 10.1111/cge.13144
    Epilepsies are common neurological disorders and genetic factors contribute to their pathogenesis. Copy number variations (CNVs) are increasingly recognized as an important etiology of many human diseases including epilepsy. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) is becoming a standard tool for detecting pathogenic mutations and has recently been applied to detecting CNVs. Here, we analyzed 294 families with epilepsy using WES, and focused on 168 families with no causative single nucleotide variants in known epilepsy-associated genes to further validate CNVs using 2 different CNV detection tools using WES data. We confirmed 18 pathogenic CNVs, and 2 deletions and 2 duplications at chr15q11.2 of clinically unknown significance. Of note, we were able to identify small CNVs less than 10 kb in size, which might be difficult to detect by conventional microarray. We revealed 2 cases with pathogenic CNVs that one of the 2 CNV detection tools failed to find, suggesting that using different CNV tools is recommended to increase diagnostic yield. Considering a relatively high discovery rate of CNVs (18 out of 168 families, 10.7%) and successful detection of CNV with <10 kb in size, CNV detection by WES may be able to surrogate, or at least complement, conventional microarray analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA Copy Number Variations*
  20. Yong RY, Mustaffa SB, Wasan PS, Sheng L, Marshall CR, Scherer SW, et al.
    Hum. Mutat., 2016 Jul;37(7):669-78.
    PMID: 27068483 DOI: 10.1002/humu.22996
    The human amylase gene locus at chromosome 1p21.1 is structurally complex. This region contains two pancreatic amylase genes, AMY2B, AMY2A, and a salivary gene AMY1. The AMY1 gene harbors extensive copy number variation (CNV), and recent studies have implicated this variation in adaptation to starch-rich diets and in association to obesity for European and Asian populations. In this study, we showed that by combining quantitative PCR and digital PCR, coupled with careful experimental design and calibration, we can improve the resolution of genotyping CNV with high copy numbers (CNs). In two East Asian populations of Chinese and Malay ethnicity studied, we observed a unique non-normal distribution of AMY1 diploid CN genotypes with even:odd CNs ratio of 4.5 (3.3-4.7), and an association between the common AMY2A CN = 2 genotype and odd CNs of AMY1, that could be explained by the underlying haplotypic structure. In two further case-control cohorts (n = 932 and 145, for Chinese and Malays, respectively), we did not observe the previously reported association between AMY1 and obesity or body mass index. Improved methods for accurately genotyping multiallelic CNV loci and understanding the haplotype complexity at the AMY1 locus are necessary for population genetics and association studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: DNA Copy Number Variations*
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