Introduction: This cross-sectional study aimed to determine association of age and gender with dental treatment need among first-visit patients at Dental Outpatient Clinic, IIUM Kuantan in 2016.
Materials and Methods: Ethical approval (IREC 762) was obtained from IIUM Human Ethics Committee. List of first-visit patients who attended clinic from 1st January to 31st December 2016 was retrieved to assess patient's age and gender. Dental treatment need was determined according to the normative need which was professionally defined by dental-officer-in-charge. All first-visit patients were included, except those attended Orthodontic department or with old Malaysian identification card or foreign passport. Included patients were classified into six age groups (≤14, 15-19, 20-34, 35-44, 45-64 and ≥ 65). Pearson's chi square test was used for statistical analysis using SPSS Version 20 software.
Results: From a total number of 2,713 patients (age range of 2 to 87), 1,210 (44.6%) were males and 1,503 (55.4%) were females. Age (p<0.001) and gender (p<0.001) were significantly associated with dental treatment need. Paediatric patients (≤14) majorly received paedodontic care (97.5%). Young-age patients (15-19, 20-34 and 35-44) mostly required conservative care (39.5%, 31.2% & 30.6%, respectively) while elder-age patients (45-64 and ≥ 65) have major need for prosthodontics (30.0% & 40.2%, respectively). Females outnumbered males in all age groups, except for the age group of ≥ 65 whereby the situation was the opposite. Females also outnumbered males in all types of treatment need, except for periodontics which was predominated by males.
Conclusion(s): Age and gender have significant associations with treatment need for dental care.
KEYWORDS: treatment need, dental, association, age, gender
Chronic periodontitis (CP) is an inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of the teeth caused by specific microorganism. Hypertension is one of the major causes of cardiovascular disease whereas periodontitis has recently drawn increasing attention because of its potential relationship with cardiovascular disease. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of the hypertension in CP patients as well as to evaluate the association between hypertension and severity of CP. One hundred and eighty five records of CP patients treated in Dental Clinic, Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital (USM Hospital), Kelantan from 2010 until 2013 were retrieved and reviewed. The diagnosis of periodontal disease and the presence of hypertension were recorded. The severity of chronic periodontitis was classified into mild, moderate and severe according to the clinical attachment loss. The data was obtained and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Majority of the subjects were from Malay ethnic group (94.4%) at the age range between 41 and 61 years (67.8%). In conclusion, the prevalence of hypertension in chronic periodontitis patients was 12.2%. There was no significant association between hypertension and severity of CP (p=0.229).
Light intensity output is one of the determinants for adequate curing of visible light-cured materials. The aim of this survey was to evaluate the light intensity outputs (LIOs) of light curing units (LCUs) in dental clinics of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) and School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). The respective LIOs of all functioning Quartz Tungsten Halogen (QTH) and Light Emitting Diode (LED) LCUs were tested using two light radiometers. For cordless LED LCUs, the testing procedure was done in situ and after being fully charged. Statistical analysis using Kruskal Wallis and Wilcoxon signed ranks tests were performed to compare the LIOs between groups and between the LIOs of in situ and post-charged cordless LED LCUs, respectively. The level of significance was set at 0.05 (p
The aim of the article is to report on the perception of utilizers of government dental services towards the preservation of natural teeth for life and relate it to their past utilization pattern and the associated demographic factors. All patients aged 15 years and over attending ten randomly selected government dental clinics in Selangor, Wilayah Persekutuan and Negri Sembilan during the study period of thirty non consecutive outpatients days were interviewed and examined clinically. Five-hundred and fifty subjects were included in the survey. It was found that the majority of respondents (63%)have a.rather pessimistic perception of their ability to preserve natural teeth for life and most have a very poor past utilization behaviour (90%).The most pessimistic and worst utilization behaviour was reported by the Malay ethnic group, the least formally educated and the lowest income group (p O.O1).It is postulated that one of the main reason for this trend among Malay respondents could be due to their lower educational and income status, rather than cultural influences. Further research into the influence of culture on the utilization pattern of the Malays is therefore recommended.
The objective of this study is to report the occurrence, demographic and clinical findings of lip mucoceles in children. A restrospective study was conducted at the paediatric dental clinic situated at Hospital Sultanah Aminah, Johor Bahru. The period of study was 3 years beginning 2003 to 2005. Out of 1407 new cases seen over the period of study 17 (1.2%) patients presented with lip mucoceles. All lesions occurred in the lower lip. There was no sex or racial predilection. The average duration of the lesion prior to seeking treatment was 2.8 ± 2.8 months. Most patients (76.5%) first saw a medical practitioner for the problem. No spontaneous resolution of the lesions in any of the patients was noted. The preferred method of treatment of lower lip mucoceles in children is surgical excision of the involved minor salivary glands. Salivary gland mucoceles in children predominantly involve the lower lip and can be treated successfully by complete removal of the involved and associated minor salivary glands.
The prevalence of periodontal abscesses in emergency dental clinics was found to be between 8%-14%. The purpose of this study was to study the clinical features of periodontal abscesses seen in a specialist periodontal unit. There were 14 patients with equal distribution of gender. The mean age was 39.6 years. Twelve upper teeth (86%) were found to be involved as compared to two lower teeth (14%). There were more posterior teeth involved, a total of nine teeth (64%) as compared to five anterior teeth (36%). The mean pocket depth associated with the abscesses was found to be 7.4mm. There were ten buccal sites (71%) as compared to four palatal sites (29%). Average temperature of patients was 36.9° C. Only one patient was found to have cervical lympadenopathy (7%). The teeth involved were found to be mostly mobile with mobility of grade I to III (71%).
The objective of this study was to evaluate compliance :0 the cliencs’ charter in a dental clinic and factors that may afect the updating of the charter. Our clients’ charter states that registration time is within IO minutes and waiting-mom time before being seen by the dentist is within 30 minutes. Convenience sampling was carried our over two weeks. Only patients above 12 years treated by dental officers were included. Data recorded included registration and wrziting-room time, treatment time, punctualiry afpaniems and workload of ajcicers. There were a total of 532 patients (407 walk»in/outpatients, 125 appointments). Results show that the mean waiting-mom time for all paticnm was nor compliant to the clients' charter (42.7 x 23.8 min for walking flll 44.9 : 32.7 min for appointments). Only 33% were seen within 30 min whilst about 23% waited for more than 60 minutes. All The mean registration time (17.9 1- 12.8 min) was ncmcomplianr everyday except on Thursdays where there were very few patients. Waiting time for elderly patients was not statistically significant from the younger patients. About 36% of appointment ariems were seen within 30 minutes; althou h hal 0 them were late, Exmzctivns, dentures and examination and diagnosis took the shortest time wrzh about 88%, 91% and 98% completed within 30 minutes respectwely. There was variable individual speed and number of patients managed by different operators, although the majority was flrsnyear dental officers. Factors that may contribute waiting time included number of patients per day, operator and punctualizy of patients.
Self-medication with analgesics in dental pain management is a common practice as most of these medicines are available over-the-counter (OTC). The study aims to examine the relationship between beliefs about medicines and self-medication with analgesics in dental pain management in Malaysia. This cross-sectional study was conducted among conveniently sampled patients attending dental clinics, located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia to assess association between self-medication with analgesics and patient's beliefs about medicines via Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire. Participants were evaluated for their self-medication practices via 4 items. Further assessment was done via Quantitative Analgesic Questionnaire (QAQ) regarding the analgesics taken. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 24, with 0.05 as level of significance. The prevalence of self-medication with analgesics was 29.4%, with 95.6% of the participants took analgesics when necessary. Participants practising self-medication for dental pain reported more positive beliefs in General-Necessity (13.04 vs. 9.98, p = 0.001) than those not practising self-medication. However, these participants had weaker beliefs in General-Harm (12.00 vs. 10.29, p = 0.006) and General-Overuse (11.38 vs. 10.31, p = 0.032) than those not practising self-medication. Participants beliefs in General-Harm (r = -0.243; p = 0.003) and General-Overuse (r = -0.203; p = 0.012) were negatively correlated with total QAQ point. The study found that individuals who practised self-medication had stronger beliefs about the benefits of medicines and weaker beliefs in viewing medicines as harmful and overused. Findings can guide public education to improve the safety aspects of self-medication with analgesics in dental practice.
This study was done to determine the prevalence of dental anomalies and facial profile abnormality and its association with the non-syndromic cleft lip and palate (CLP) as compared to the non-cleft children. A comparative cross sectional study was conducted where the case group consist of 98 non-syndromic CLP children-unilateral (UCLP) and bilateral (BCLP) who attended the Combined Clinic at Kota Bharu Dental Clinic (KBDC) while the comparison group comprised of 109 non-cleft children who attended the outpatient clinic at KBDC. Their ages were between 3 to 12 years old. Clinical oral and facial profile examinations were carried out to look for dental anomalies (morphology, number and alignment of teeth) and facial profile abnormality. The prevalence of anomalies in morphology of teeth in CLP (24.5%) and non-cleft (10.1%), number of teeth in CLP (44.9%) and non-cleft (7.3%), mal-alignment in CLP (79.6%) and non-cleft (27.5%) and facial profile abnormality in CLP (26.5%) and non-cleft (9.1 %). There was a significant association between CLP and anomalies in morphology, number, mal-alignment and abnormality in facial profile; (p < 0.05). Therefore, there was a high prevalence and risk of dental anomalies and facial profile abnormality in the CLP children compared to the non-cleft children.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse, in detail, the distribution of primary dental clinics in relation to the Malaysian population and relative population wealth, to test the hypothesis that an uneven distribution of dental services exists in Malaysia.
METHOD: This 2016 study located every dental practice in Malaysia (private and public) and mapped these practices against population, using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) tools. Population clusters within 5, 10 and 20 km of a dental clinic were identified, and clinic-to-population ratios were ascertained. Population data were obtained from the Population and Housing Census of Malaysia 2010. Population relative wealth was obtained from the 2014 Report on Household Income and Basic Amenities Survey for Malaysia. The physical address for each dental practice in Malaysia was gathered from the Official Portal of Ministry of Health Malaysia. All data for analysis were extracted from the integrated database in Quantum GIS (QGIS) into Microsoft Excel.
RESULT: The population of Malaysia (24.9 million) was distributed across 127 districts, with 119 (94%) having at least one dental clinic. Sixty-four districts had fewer than 10 dental clinics, and 11.3% of Malaysians did not reside in the catchment of 20 km from any dental clinic. The total dental clinic-to-population ratio was 1:9,000: for public dental clinics it was 1:38,000 and for private clinics it was 1:13,000.
CONCLUSION: Dental services were distributed relative to high population density, were unevenly distributed across Malaysia and the majority of people with the highest inaccessibility to a dental service resided in Malaysian Borneo.
The objective of this study is to share cost analysis methodology and to obtain cost estimates for posterior restorations in public sector dental clinics. Two urban and 2 rural dental clinics in Selangor state were selected. Only cases of 1 posterior restoration per visit by dental officers were included over 6 months. One capsulated amalgam type, 1 capsulated tooth-colored, and 1 non-capsulated tooth-colored material were selected. A clinical pathway form was formulated to collect data per patient. Annual capital and recurrent expenditures were collected per clinic. The mean cost of an amalgam restoration was RM 30.96 (sdRM 7.86); and tooth-colored restorations ranged from RM 33.00 (sdRM 8.43) to RM 41.10 (sdRM 10.61). Wherein 1 USD = RM 2.8. Restoration costs were 35% to 55% higher in clinics in rural areas than in urban areas. The findings demonstrate economy of scale for clinic operation and restoration costs with higher patient load. Costs per restoration were higher in rural than in urban dental clinics. More studies are recommended to address the dearth of dental costs data in Malaysia.
This study investigated the sociodemographic profiles of patients attending public and private dental clinics and the types of treatment received. Patients (n=454) were interviewed using a structured questionnaire at two public and four private clinics in Sibu District, Sarawak. Generally, Chinese (74.7%), females (60.0%) and urban dwellers (83.7%) were more likely to visit the dentist. Both clinics had more females and more Chinese but private clinics had a lower percentage of female attendees (53.1% versus 67.0%) but a higher percentage of Chinese (85.0% versus 64.5%). Private attendees were younger (mean age of 31.0 years compared to 41.0 years) and from higher income households (median value of MR 2,000 versus MR 900) than public attendees. Treatments were mostly curative and a third of the visits were associated with painful conditions. Age (p=0.006), gender (p=0.003), ethnicity (p<0.001) and household income (p<0.001) were associated with the type of clinic visited. Choice of clinic was not related to having painful conditions (p=0.970). To ensure a more affordable and equitable distribution of oral healthcare, health planners need to identify disparities in the utilization of services and differences between public and private attendees.
The reasons underlying the need for extraction of 2765 permanent teeth carried out over a 6 month period in the Out-patient Clinic in the Dental Faculty, University of Malaya, was investigated. The present study showed that dental caries (67.4%) is the leading cause for extraction followed by periodontal disease (19.6%). Caries accounted for the highest proportion of extractions up to the age of 50 whereas periodontal disease becomes the major factor beyond this age. The highest frequency of extractions carried out was between the ages of 21-30.
A mucous cyst is a benign, self limiting mucous containing cyst of the salivary glands commonly occuring in the oral cavity. Mucocele may develop following the obstruction of the salivary flow from secretory apparatus of the salivary gland. Mucoceles commonly occur on the lower lip but may occur in other locations too. The objective of the study was to determine the factors associated with mucocele in patients attending the dental clinic of Penang Hospital from January 2000 to December 2005. This is a retrospective record review analysis of all the total 35 cases treated during this period, comprising of 20 males (57.1%) and 15 females (42.9%) with Malays as the largest group of patients treated and, mainly students had seek treatment. Mucocele was frequently treated in patients aged 21 to 24 year old. The site of the mucocele was the lower lip and all of the cases were treated surgically. The size of the mucocele ranged from 0.5 to 5 centimetres with 1.0 cm as the most common size. Most of the patients gave a history of spontaneous development (71.4%), followed by lip biting (25.7%) and trauma (2.9%). Lip biting was more common among students (55.6%) as compared to others. There were only two recorded cases of recurrence.
Enamel demineralization is associated with decrease in saliva pH due to fermentation of sugar by oral commensal. Thus, exploring the changing pattern of saliva pH is meaningful in dental caries prevention. The aim of this study was to compare the changing pattern of saliva pH after consuming different types of sweeteners (sucrose and maltitol). Methods: It was a case-control study involving 14 male patients attending IIUM dental clinic who were selected with the intention of getting seven patients with high caries risk ( DMFT ≥6) and seven patients with low caries risk (DMFT ≤3) with initial saliva pH interval of 6.5 to7.5. Patients were asked to consume snacks containing 8 gram sucrose and 8 gram maltitol as sweeteners. The changing pH values of the saliva were measured by Waterproof pHTestr 10BNC (Oakton, Vernon Hills, USA) seven times consecutively at 0 (before snack consumption), and at 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 60 minutes after snack consumption. The pH values of saliva of patients with low and high caries risk after consuming sucrose and maltitol were statistically analized by using Anova and Tukey-HSD tests at α = 0.05. Result: There were significant differences in saliva pH changes between low-risk group and high-risk group after consuming sucrose and maltitol. Conclusion: The changing patterns of saliva pH in high-risk patients were lower than those of low-risk patients after consuming two types of snacks containing sucrose and maltitol.
Introduction : Major flooding that occurred in Segamat District at the end of 2006 and early 2007 was a natural disaster that has left impact on physical and mental well-being of the victims. The aim of this study is to see the impact of the major flooding to the mental health of the health staff in Segamat District.
Methodology : Cross sectional study was conducted among Segamat health staffs who were involved in the major floods. Structured questionnaire was used to assess the mental health status of the victims. Result : There were 119 health staffs from the district health office, Hospital Segamat, dental clinic and Community Nursing School were interviewed in this study. A total of 6.7% respondents claimed to have stress related symptoms with women were more effected than men. Nurses and married respondents were found to be more stressful in this study.
Conclusion : Based on findings, therefore, top management has to pay more attention to the welfare of the health staff, directly or indirectly, in particular on the psychological aspect. By giving emphasis on continuous in-service training and counseling as well as other relevant support, stress-related symptoms could be minimized which in turn lead to higher individual productivity.