PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis was to analyze the data on the survival of dental implants in patients with HIV.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A search for relevant articles published up to November 2019 was performed in PubMed/Medline and Cochrane databases, Clinicaltrials.gov, and Google Scholar. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were adopted for the conduct of the systematic review. The most pertinent data were extracted and pooled for qualitative and quantitative analyses with 95% confidence intervals. Heterogeneity was analyzed by using I-squared statistics.
RESULTS: A total of 8 studies involving 411 individuals with HIV and 1109 implants were included in the meta-analysis. The mean follow-up period was 2.8 years. A pooled estimate of 95% of implant survival rate with 95% confidence interval(92% to 96%) was noted. Heterogeneity across the 8 studies was found to be 41% with moderate true variability.
CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review demonstrated that HIV infection does not pose a serious threat to implant survival on short-term evaluation, but the evidence is of low quality.
DESIGN: A split-mouth randomised clinical trial.
SETTING: Subjects were recruited and treated in the outpatient clinic, Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Cairo University.
PARTICIPANTS: Fifteen subjects with mean age 20.9 (±3.4) years who required extraction of maxillary first premolar teeth and mini-implant-supported canine retraction.
METHODS: Thirty orthodontic mini-implants were inserted bilaterally in the maxillary arches of recruited subjects following alignment and levelling. Mini-implants were immediately loaded with a force of 150 g using nickel titanium coil springs with split-mouth randomisation to a low-intensity laser-treated side and control side. The experimental sides were exposed to low-intensity laser therapy from a diode laser with a wavelength of 940 nm at (0, 7, 14, 21 days) after mini-implant placement. Mini-implant stability was measured using resonance frequency analysis at (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10 weeks) after implant placement.
RESULTS: A total sample of 28 mini-implants were investigated with 14 in each group. Clinically, both mini-implant groups had the same overall success rate of 78.5%. There were no significant differences in resonance frequency scores between low-intensity laser and control sides from baseline to week 2. However, from week 3 to 10, the low-intensity laser sides showed significantly increased mean resonance frequency values compared to control (P > 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Despite evidence of some significant differences in resonance frequency between mini-implants exposed to low-intensity laser light over a 10 weeks period there were no differences in mini-implant stability. Low-intensity laser light cannot be recommended as a clinically useful adjunct to promoting mini-implant stability during canine retraction.
METHODS: Retrospective data from clinical worksheets given to participants during two implant courses held between the periods of 2013 to 2014 were evaluated. A total of 61 implants were considered based on the inclusion criteria. The effects of parameters such as implant diameter, implant length, age, gender, implant location and osteotomy protocol on ISQ values were analyzed.
RESULTS: Mean ISQ value for all implants was 67.21±9.13. Age of patients (P=0.016) and location of implants (P=0.041) had a significant linear relationship with the ISQ values. Within the age limit of the patients in this study, it was found that an increase in one year of patient's age results in 0.20 decrease in ISQ value (95% CI: -0.36, -0.04). However, placing an implant in the posterior maxilla may negatively affect the ISQ with a likely decrease in primary stability by 6.76 ISQ value (95% CI: -13.22, -0.30).
CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the mean ISQ achieved by the participants were comparable with the range reported for this particular type of implants. The patient's age and location of implants were elucidated as the determinant factors of primary implant stability.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: An auricular prosthesis, a complete denture, and anterior and posterior crowns were constructed using conventional methods and laser scanned to create computerized 3D meshes. The meshes were optimized independently by four computer-aided design software (Meshmixer, Meshlab, Blender, and SculptGL) to 100%, 90%, 75%, 50%, and 25% levels of original file size. Upon optimization, the following parameters were virtually evaluated and compared; mesh vertices, file size, mesh surface area (SA), mesh volume (V), interpoint discrepancies (geometric similarity based on virtual point overlapping), and spatial similarity (volumetric similarity based on shape overlapping). The influence of software and optimization on surface area and volume of each prosthesis was evaluated independently using multiple linear regression.
RESULTS: There were clear observable differences in vertices, file size, surface area, and volume. The choice of software significantly influenced the overall virtual parameters of auricular prosthesis [SA: F(4,15) = 12.93, R2 = 0.67, p < 0.001. V: F(4,15) = 9.33, R2 = 0.64, p < 0.001] and complete denture [SA: F(4,15) = 10.81, R2 = 0.67, p < 0.001. V: F(4,15) = 3.50, R2 = 0.34, p = 0.030] across optimization levels. Interpoint discrepancies were however limited to <0.1mm and volumetric similarity was >97%.
CONCLUSION: Open-source mesh optimization of smaller dental prostheses in this study produced minimal loss of geometric and volumetric details. SculptGL models were most influenced by the amount of optimization performed.
METHODS: Selected T2DM participants with peri-implantitis were distributed into 3 groups: Group-1: received a single session of adjunctive (aPDT); Group-2: received a single session of adjunctive (aAGT) (metronidazole 400 mg and amoxicillin 500 mg); and Group-3: received MD alone. Clinical (probing depth [PD], bleeding on probing [BOP], and plaque scores [PS]) and radiographic (crestal bone loss [CBL]) peri-implant variables were recorded. Levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were assessed after the collection of peri-implant sulcular fluid (PISF). All the evaluations were carried out at baseline, 3- and 6-months. The significance level was set to p < 0.05.
RESULTS: At 3-and 6-months of follow-up, all the three groups showed significant alleviation in PS (p < 0.05), BOP (p < 0.05), and PD (p < 0.05) when compared with the baseline. At baseline, no significant variation was observed in all clinical and radiographic peri-implant parameters among all three research groups. At 3-months follow-up, a considerable alleviation of in PS, BOP, PD, and CBL was noticeable in group-1 patients when compared with the baseline. At 6-months follow-up, a comparable difference was observed in BOP, PD, and CBL between group-1 and group-2. At baseline, no significant variation was observed in the PISF levels of IL-6 and TNF-α among all three research groups. At 3- and 6-months follow-up, a considerable alleviation of TNF-α and IL-6 levels was observed in group-1 and group-2 patients, respectively, when compared with the baseline.
CONCLUSION: The application of aPDT demonstrated improved clinical, radiographic, and immunological peri-implant parameters for the treatment of peri-implantitis among T2DM patients.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this finite element analysis study was to evaluate the biomechanical behavior (stress distribution pattern) in the mandibular overdenture, mucosa, bone, and implants when retained with 2 standard implants or 2 mini implants under unilateral or bilateral loading conditions.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A patient with edentulous mandible and his denture was scanned with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), and a 3D mandibular model was created in the Mimics software program by using the CBCT digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) images. The model was transferred to the 3Matics software program to form a 2-mm-thick mucosal layer and to assemble the denture DICOM file. A 12-mm-long standard implant (Ø3.5 mm) and a mini dental implant (Ø2.5 mm) along with the LOCATOR male attachments (height 4 mm) were designed by using the SOLIDWORKS software program. Two standard or 2 mini implants in the canine region were embedded separately in the 3D assembled model. The base of the mandible was fixed, and vertical compressive loads of 100 N were applied unilaterally and bilaterally in the first molar region. The material properties for acrylic resin (denture), titanium (implants), mucosa (tissue), and bone (mandible) were allocated. Maximum von Mises stress and strain values were obtained and analyzed.
RESULTS: Maximum stresses of 9.78 MPa (bilaterally) and 11.98 MPa (unilaterally) were observed in 2 mini implants as compared with 3.12 MPa (bilaterally) and 3.81 MPa (unilaterally) in 2 standard implants. The stress values in the mandible were observed to be almost double the mini implants as compared with the standard implants. The stresses in the denture were in the range of 3.21 MPa and 3.83 MPa and in the mucosa of 0.68 MPa and 0.7 MPa for 2 implants under unilateral and bilateral loading conditions. The strain values shown similar trends with both implant types under bilateral and unilateral loading.
CONCLUSIONS: Two mini implants generated an average of 68.15% more stress than standard implants. The 2 standard implant-retained overdenture showed less stress concentration in and around implants than mini implant-retained overdentures.