Displaying all 20 publications

  1. Thaddius Herman Maling, Jennifer Geraldine Doss, Low, Wah Yun
    This study was to obtain baseline information and its associated factors on oral
    cancer awareness, practice of risk habits and mouth self-examination (MSE) among selected highrisk
    indigenous community in Sarawak. (Copied from article).
    Matched MeSH terms: Diagnosis, Oral
  2. Omar-Ahmad UD, Lopez CG, Ramanathan K, Keat TC
    Dent J Malaysia Singapore, 1968 Feb;8(1):43-53.
    PMID: 5248557
    Matched MeSH terms: Diagnosis, Oral
  3. Abd Rahman N, Abdullah N, Samsudin AR, Naing Mohd Ayub Sadiq L
    Malays J Med Sci, 2004 Jul;11(2):41-51.
    PMID: 22973126
    This study was done to determine the prevalence of dental anomalies and facial profile abnormality and its association with the non-syndromic cleft lip and palate (CLP) as compared to the non-cleft children. A comparative cross sectional study was conducted where the case group consist of 98 non-syndromic CLP children-unilateral (UCLP) and bilateral (BCLP) who attended the Combined Clinic at Kota Bharu Dental Clinic (KBDC) while the comparison group comprised of 109 non-cleft children who attended the outpatient clinic at KBDC. Their ages were between 3 to 12 years old. Clinical oral and facial profile examinations were carried out to look for dental anomalies (morphology, number and alignment of teeth) and facial profile abnormality. The prevalence of anomalies in morphology of teeth in CLP (24.5%) and non-cleft (10.1%), number of teeth in CLP (44.9%) and non-cleft (7.3%), mal-alignment in CLP (79.6%) and non-cleft (27.5%) and facial profile abnormality in CLP (26.5%) and non-cleft (9.1 %). There was a significant association between CLP and anomalies in morphology, number, mal-alignment and abnormality in facial profile; (p < 0.05). Therefore, there was a high prevalence and risk of dental anomalies and facial profile abnormality in the CLP children compared to the non-cleft children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diagnosis, Oral
  4. Seman, K., Abdul Manaf, H., Ismail, A.R.
    Limited information is available about the oral health of elderly people living in “Pondok” in Kelantan. This study aimed to assess the dentition status of elderly population staying in Islamic Religious Community Setup, “Pondok” in Kelantan. A cross sectional study involving 369 elderly people was carried out. A simple random sampling method was utilized for the selection of the subjects. Oral examination was done to assess the dentition status and data was analyzed using SPSS 11.5 version. The response rate was 95.6%. Majority of the subjects were edentulous (81.0%). The mean number of natural teeth, functional natural teeth, decayed teeth (D), missing teeth (M) and teeth indicated for extraction (X) were 3.22 (SD 7.54), 2.75 (SD 6.70), 0.06 (SD 0.48), 28.80 (SD 7.51) and 0.41 (SD 1.60) respectively. Among 70 dentate subjects, the mean number of natural teeth, functional natural teeth, occluding pair of functional natural teeth, decayed teeth (D), missing teeth (M), teeth indicated for extraction (X) and DMFX(T) index were 17.1 (SD 8.00), 14.5 (SD 8.11), 6.3 (SD 4.22), 0.3 (SD 1.06), 15.1 (SD 8.20), 2.2 (SD 3.14) and 17.6 (SD 8.08) respectively. There was no teeth had been filled (F). The proportion of subjects having minimum 20 functional natural teeth was 7.3%. The above results indicate that dental caries status of elderly people living in “Pondok” in Kelantan was unsatisfactory with high percentage of edentulism, contributing to the high value of the mean DMFX(T) index, 29.3 (SD 6.63).
    Matched MeSH terms: Diagnosis, Oral
  5. Mohamad I, Zulkifli S, Soleh M, Rahman R
    Malays Fam Physician, 2012;7(2-3):51-3.
    PMID: 25606258 MyJurnal
    Neck mass is a common condition in primary care. The most common affected area is the cervical lymph node. The neck region is also prone infection as structurally the nodes and spaces are in close contact with the upper respiratory tract and the alimentary tract. Oral cavity is one of the most common route for harbouring infection. Poor oral hygeine and periapical dental problems are the main causes. Thus, it is important to perform a complete oral cavity examination even when trismus is present. Besides dental caries, floor of the mouth should be inspected for oedema that may impose threat to the upper airway. We report a case of Ludwig's angina originating from a periapical lesion of the lower molar stressing the importance of oral examination in patient with neck mass.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diagnosis, Oral
  6. Che Ibrahim NH, Md Shukri N
    Malays Fam Physician, 2017;12(1):35-36.
    PMID: 28503274 MyJurnal
    A common bony protrusion that occurs over the hard palate is sometimes mistaken for a malignancy especially when it is large. This bony growth is a torus palatinus (TP), which is a benign bony prominence over the hard palate. It occurs most commonly in bilateral multiple form, and is often located at the canine to premolar area. A basic knowledge of the assessment and management of TP is important, particularly for the first-line family physician to ensure that the correct information is given to the patient.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diagnosis, Oral
  7. Samuel ED, Griffiths GS, Petrie A
    J. Clin. Periodontol., 1997 May;24(5):340-5.
    PMID: 9178114
    The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy and reproducibility of experienced and inexperienced examiners using 3 automated periodontal probes (Florida Pocket Probe, Florida Disk Probe, Peri Probe) in comparison with 3 conventional periodontal probes (Marquis, Williams and EN-15 probes). Test blocks of aluminium had 30 holes of diameter 1.10 mm and depths ranging from 2.75 to 10.0 mm. machined with a tolerance of +/- 0.01 mm. 8 experienced examiners and 8 inexperienced examiners were selected to perform duplicate measurements on the blocks over 6 visits using each of the 6 probes. 1 automated and 1 conventional probe were used at each examination. The % accuracy and reproducibility for each of the duplicate measurements was calculated and analysed using Friedman 2-way analysis of variance and the Wilcoxon matched pairs test. On average, all probes showed high reproducibility, with the Florida Disk Probe, the Florida Pocket Probe and the Williams probe ranked best and the other 3 probes were less reproducible. On average, all probes showed a high degree of accuracy, automated probes were ranked best and were significantly better than conventional probes. Experience had little effect on reproducibility, with only the Peri Probe showing significant differences at the 5% level between the groups. Experience appeared to be more important for accuracy, as experienced examiners were more accurate than inexperienced examiners, with significant differences at the 5% level for the EN-15, Florida Disk Probe and Peri Probe. However, inexperienced examiners were significantly more accurate using the Williams probe. This in vitro study has shown that automated probes offer increased accuracy over conventional probes and the Florida Pocket and disk probes compare well with conventional probes for reproducibility.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diagnosis, Oral/instrumentation*
  8. Kathariya R, Devanoorkar A, Golani R, Shetty N, Vallakatla V, Bhat MY
    J Int Acad Periodontol, 2016 Apr 08;18(2):45-56.
    PMID: 27128157
    Loss of tooth-supporting structures results in tooth mobility. Increased tooth mobility adversely affects function, aesthetics, and the patient's comfort. Splints are used to over-come all these problems. When faced with the dilemma of how to manage periodontally compromised teeth, splinting of mobile teeth to stronger adjacent teeth is a viable option. This prolongs the life expectancy of loose teeth, gives stability for the periodontium to reattach, and improves comfort, function and aesthetics. Although splinting has been used since ancient times, it has been a topic of controversy because of its ill effects on oral health, including poor oral hygiene and adverse effects on supporting teeth. There have been considerable advancements in the materials used for splinting, resulting in fewer ill effects. This article is intended to provide the clinicians with an updated overview of splinting, types and classification of splints, with their indications, contraindications,rationale and effects on oral health.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diagnosis, Oral
  9. Normastura Abd Rahman, Azizah Yusoff, Normastura Abd Rahman, Fatin Noor Kamaruzaman
    Dental caries is the main oral health problem in hearing-impaired (HI) children and remains the most neglected need. The present study aimed to determine caries prevalence and treatment needs in HI children and the association with salivary parameters. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 63 HI children aged between 7-14 years who attended a special school for the deaf. Clinical oral examination was done and salivary parameters (resting flow rate and resting pH) were measured. Caries experience was charted using the index of decay-filled teeth (dft) and Decay-Missing-Filled Teeth (DMFT) for primary and permanent dentition respectively. Data were analysed using SPSS version 12.0. The mean age was 11.5 (SD 2.39) years and 53.8% were female. Dental caries prevalence was 88.0% (95% Cl: 73.0, 100.0) in primary dentition and 85.0% (95% Cl: 73.0, 96.0) in permanent dentition. The mean dft was 6.1 (SD 4.14) and the mean DMFT was 4.9 (SD 3.28). The mean resting flow rate was 0.14 (SD 0.08) ml/min while mean pH was 6.8 (SD 0.79). Both pit and fissure sealants and restorations were the highest (83.1%) treatment needs. Only 3.1% of the children did not require any treatment. There were no significant association between both salivary flow rate and salivary pH with caries experience in the primary (p=0.342, p=0.610 respectively) and permanent (p= 0.99, p=0.70 respectively) teeth. In conclusion, children with HI have high caries prevalence and unmet need for dental treatments. Salivary pH and resting flow rate of the children were not associated with their caries experience.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diagnosis, Oral
  10. Law, C.H., Razak, I.A., Saub, R.
    Ann Dent, 2000;7(1):-.
    A cross-sectional study was conducted to ascertain the relationship between parental oral health perception on the importance of the deciduous dentition and the dental caries status of their preschool children. Clinical oral examination of the preschool children was performed and self-administered questionnaires were given to the parents to be completed. Four hundred and eight preschool children were examined and 390 of their parents responded to the self-administered questionnaire. Those parents who brought their children for regular dental check-up at least once a year; favoured restorative treatment and practised tooth brushing habit before bedtime were more likely to have children with significantly lower mean 'dft' as well as higher proportions of caries free mouth (> 50 %). Those children who started early in practising tooth brushing also had better dental caries status but the differences were not significant. However, there were no significant and appreciable differences in their mean 'dft' with respect to the frequencies of tooth brushing per day. It was concluded that parents with better oral health perception as reflected by those parents who (a) practiced regular dental check-up for their children; (b) favoured restorative treatment for their children's decayed deciduous teeth; (c) ensured their children brushed their teeth before bedtime are associated with better dental caries status of their preschool children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diagnosis, Oral
  11. Irfan Mohamad, Shamina Sara Moses, Rose linda Abdul Rahman
    A 69-year-old lady was diagnosed to have mucoepidermoid carcinoma of hard palate 3 years ago. She completed 20 cycles of external beam radiotherapy and 5 cycles of mould brachytherapy and remained asymptomatic until she again presented to us with the recurrence of a painless mass at the hard palate. The hard mass appeared as an ulcerated dimple measuring 2 x 1 cm located at the junction of the hard and soft palate, more towards the right. Excision biopsy of the mass was done with a 1cm circumferential margin deep to the periosteum, with the resulting exposed bony defect covered with a rotational flap from the soft palate. During follow-up, the patient complained that the saliva came up into the nose whenever she swallowed. Oral examination (Figure 1) and flexible nasopharyngolaryngoscopy (FNPLS) (Figure 2) were performed. What is your diagnosis?
    Matched MeSH terms: Diagnosis, Oral
  12. Rahman HA, Che Ani AI, Harun SW, Yasin M, Apsari R, Ahmad H
    J Biomed Opt, 2012 Jul;17(7):071308.
    PMID: 22894469 DOI: 10.1117/1.JBO.17.7.071308
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of intensity modulated fiber optic displacement sensor scanning system for the imaging of dental cavity. Here, we discuss our preliminary results in the imaging of cavities on various teeth surfaces, as well as measurement of the diameter of the cavities which are represented by drilled holes on the teeth surfaces. Based on the analysis of displacement measurement, the sensitivities and linear range for the molar, canine, hybrid composite resin, and acrylic surfaces are obtained at 0.09667 mV/mm and 0.45 mm; 0.775 mV/mm and 0.4 mm; 0.5109 mV/mm and 0.5 mm; and 0.25 mV/mm and 0.5 mm, respectively, with a good linearity of more than 99%. The results also show a clear distinction between the cavity and surrounding tooth region. The stability, simplicity of design, and low cost of fabrication make it suitable for restorative dentistry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diagnosis, Oral/instrumentation*
  13. Haron N, Zain RB, Nabillah WM, Saleh A, Kallarakkal TG, Ramanathan A, et al.
    Telemed J E Health, 2017 03;23(3):192-199.
    PMID: 27541205 DOI: 10.1089/tmj.2016.0128
    INTRODUCTION: This study examined the concordance in clinical diagnosis of high-risk lesions in the oral cavity and referral decisions between clinical oral examination (COE) and teledentistry.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen individuals with a range of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) and normal oral mucosa were included. Five areas of the oral cavity were photographed by three dentists using mobile phone cameras with 5 MP-13 MP resolutions. On the same day, the patients were given COE by two oral medicine specialists (OMS) and 3 weeks later, they reviewed the images taken using the phone, and concordance was examined between the two by Kappa statistics. The sensitivity and specificity of clinical diagnosis using the phone images were also measured. Pre- and post-program questionnaires were answered by both the dentists and the OMS to determine the feasibility of integrating teledentistry in their clinical practice.

    RESULTS: The Kappa values in determining the presence of lesion, category of lesion (OPMD or not), and making referral decision were moderate to strong (0.64-1.00). The overall sensitivity was more than 70% and specificity was 100%. The false negative rate decreased as the camera resolution increased. All dentists agreed that the process could facilitate early detection of oral mucosal lesion, and was easy to use in the clinic.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that teledentistry can be used for communication between primary care and OMS and could be readily integrated into clinical setting for patient management.

    Matched MeSH terms: Diagnosis, Oral/methods*
  14. Esa, R., Razak, I.A.
    Ann Dent, 2001;8(1):-.
    Several national studies have been undertaken to assess the prevalence of fluorosis utilizing the Dean's Index. However, the latest national study undertaken in 1997 (1) had utilized the DDE Index and hence does not allow comparisons to be made with the earlier set of national data. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of dental fluorosis using the Dean's Index in a sample of 12-13 year-old schoolchildren and to assess the relationship between fluorosis and their caries status. The sampling procedure involved a multistage, clustered and stratified random sampling. The sample comprised of 1519 schoolchildren attending 20 secondary government and governmentaided schools in fluoridated urban and rural areas of Klang District in Peninsular Malaysia. There were 772 males and 747 females. Each subject was administered a questionnaire to elicit the demographic information. Intra-oral examination for dental fluorosis and caries was performed for each subject. The results demonstrated that more than half of the subjects (54 %) had no fluorosis, 13.2% had questionable fluorosis, 31.3% had very mild to mild fluorosis, 1.4% had moderate fluorosis and only 0.1 % exhibited severe fluorosis. The mouth prevalence was 32.8 %. The Community Fluorosis Index was 0.48 indicating a borderline score for public health significance. Fifty-two percent of the children were caries free. The mean DMFT for all subjects was 1.1, F(0.6) being the main component. Although girls had a higher mean DMFT score as compared to boys this difference was not significant. Significant differences in DMFT scores were observed by urbani rural distributions and ethnic groups (p < 0.01). No significant correlation was found between fluorosis and caries status. It is concluded that dental fluorosis does not appear to be a public health problem. Further coordinated in-depth research using similar criterias for assessing dental fluorosis is highly recommended.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diagnosis, Oral
  15. Jaafar, N, Razak, I.A.
    Ann Dent, 2002;9(1):-.
    The objective of the study was to attempt to verify the cause of self-reported oro-facial pain among 12-yearold children, objectively via a clinical examination. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional survey using a combination of self-reported questionnaire, face-to-face interview and clinical oral examination. The children were first asked to answer a self-filled questionnaire about their oro-facial pain experience in the past 4- weeks. In order to verify its cause, a clinical examination and an interview followed. Normative oral health status data was also collected. The sample was 1492 Malay schoolchildren with diverse socioeconomic background from the states of Johore, Kelantan and Sabah. The sample size for each state was calculated to give a sampling error of not more than 5 %. In each state, quota sampling was done to achieve a balanced distribution between gender and location. The data collected were normative status for caries, periodontal disease and traumatized teeth. Orofacial pain experience represented the subjective status for oral well-being. The cause of pain was confirmed through a clinical examination. The normative oral health status data implies a very low untreated disease and good oral health among the schoolchildren. However the subjective health status, as reflected by the prevalence of pain suggested that oro-facial pain and suffering was high (27.3%) with about 49% "of moderate and severe" intensity. The two main causes were caries and mouth ulcers. However in about onequarter of pain cases, diagnosis cannot be confirmed in the field survey setting. More than one-half of those with pain experienced disturbed sleep and study. It was concluded that overall oral health status and well-being can be better described if normative data is complemented with subjective data such as pain prevalence. The study shows that the majority (more than 75 %) of cases of subjective pain can be objectively verified in a field epidemiology survey setting. The reliability of the subjective data can be improved by a clinical examination as compared to unverified self-report. The study also confirms that the major source of oro-facial pain among the 12 year-olds were caries and mouth ulcers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diagnosis, Oral
  16. Fadilla, Y.I., Sutan, R.
    This study was conducted to determine the proportion and factors associated with periodontal disease among younger adult attended Al Fatah Dental Faculty in Libya. A cross sectional study with universal sampling methods was carried out from July 2010 until September 2010 among 70 Libyan subjects aged between 20-35 years. The data in this study was collected using self administrated questionnaire, followed by oral examination done by trained dentists. The results of this study showed that, the prevalence of periodontal disease in Libyan subjects was 75.7%. Gender, oral care habits, smoking were found significantly associated with presence of periodontal disease. Gingivitis has been found the most common types of periodontal disease (94%). High percentage of periodontal disease in this study was among men (87.9%) compared to women (69.9%). In conclusion, modifiable factors like changing lifestyle such as avoiding smoking and practicing oral care can be promoted to prevent periodontitis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diagnosis, Oral
  17. Hasan Ruhaya, Nasruddin Jaafar, Marhazlinda Jamaluddin, Abdul Rashid Ismail, Noorliza Mastura Ismail, Tambi Chek Badariah, et al.
    This is a cross-sectional study in a representative sample of preschool children from 12 preschools (TADIKA KEMAS) Pasir Mas, Kelantan, Malaysia. Data on socioeconomic status and sources of water supply at home were collected through interview with mothers. Children’s anthropometric data (height and weight) and body-mass-index-for-age (BMI-for-age) was calculated. Oral examinations of ECC status was based on the dmft index (WHO, 1997). The results showed mean
    carious teeth were very high (dmft 11.1±4.8) and almost every preschool child was affected with ECC (prevalence 98.1%). The majority were in “high caries” category (i.e. dmft >7) and about 51.4% of preschoolers was underweight and only a few was overweight/obese. Preschool children with high caries mostly were underweight and normal of BMI. The BMI-for-age, household income and household expenditure for food were significant correlation with ECC experience (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Diagnosis, Oral
  18. Loke, S.T., Jalil, N.A., Giant, E.W., Lee, S.H.C.
    The main objective of the study was to determine the oral health status and possible factors influencing oral hygiene in the institutionalized elderly in Sabah. A cross sectional study in all four institutions for the elderly in QM ii Sabah was conducted using oral examination and interview/questionnaires. Qualitative assessment using Focus Group Discussion was carried out in the caregivers of the institutions. Plaque score was used to assess oral hygiene status. A total of 94.0% of inmates were above 55 years old. There were 13.4 % non-respondents in the total sample of 284. Of the n0n—respondents, 42.4 % had mental disorders and this was statistically signnicant. Of those who responded 34.6% had good 33.3% fair and 32.1% poor oral hygiene. 33.5% were completely edentulous, 86.4% had gingivitis which required scaling, 22.0% had decayed teeth and 54.9% required extraction. Gingivitis, decayed teeth and number of teeth for extraction were signwcantly associated with poor oral hygiene. 14.2% had at least one type of oral disease. Dental abscess was the most common muco»cutaneous lesion found. Mental disorders showed a trend towards poor oral hygiene and this was statistically signyicant. Although 40.8% had physical handicap, 23.3% visual impairment and 8.2% hearing impairment, there was no significant association with oral hygiene status. In conclusion, oral health status of the population is poor and treatment needs are high. Although there was high objective need for oral care (88.6%), perceived need was low (32.0%).
    Matched MeSH terms: Diagnosis, Oral
  19. Ghani WMN, Razak IA, Doss JG, Ramanathan A, Tahir Z, Ridzuan NA, et al.
    J Public Health Dent, 2019 Mar 08.
    PMID: 30848842 DOI: 10.1111/jphd.12313
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of mouth self-examination (MSE) as a self-screening tool for detection of oral mucosal lesions among an Indigenous population in Malaysia at high risk for oral premalignant and malignant disorders.

    METHODS: Two villages were selected as the sampling frame based on prevalence of tobacco and betel quid chewing habit. Respondents were asked to check their mouth for presence of lesion or abnormalities. Education on oral cancer, including MSE, was provided. Subsequently, respondents were asked to perform MSE. Finally, a clinical oral examination (COE) was done by a specialist and the presence of oral mucosal lesions was recorded.

    RESULTS: Almost 64.5 percent of respondents exhibited high levels of difficulty and low mucosal visualization and retracting ability, whereas 3.0 percent demonstrated high attention level when performing MSE. Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions was 59.0 percent, whereas the prevalence of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) was 9.0 percent. Detection of oral lesions by respondents using MSE was lower than detection by the gold standard. Sensitivity and specificity of MSE for detection of all types of lesions were 8.6 and 95.0 percent respectively. When analyzing each lesion type separately, MSE was found to be most sensitive in detection of swellings (10.0 percent), and most specific in identifying white lesions (97.8 percent). For detection of OPMDs, although specificity was high (98.9 percent), sensitivity (0 percent), and +LR (0) was poor.

    CONCLUSION: MSE is not an effective self-screening tool for early detection of potentially malignant lesions for this population.

    Matched MeSH terms: Diagnosis, Oral
  20. Chong JA, Chew JK, Ravindranath S, Pau A
    J Dent Educ, 2014 Feb;78(2):206-12.
    PMID: 24489028
    This study investigated the impact of clinical audit training on record-keeping behavior of dental students and students' perceptions of the clinical audit training. The training was delivered to Year 4 and Year 5 undergraduates at the School of Dentistry, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It included a practical audit exercise on patient records. The results were presented by the undergraduates, and guidelines were framed from the recommendations proposed. Following this, an audit of Year 4 and Year 5 students' patient records before and after the audit training was carried out. A total of 100 records were audited against a predetermined set of criteria by two examiners. An email survey of the students was also conducted to explore their views of the audit training. Results showed statistically significant improvements in record-keeping following audit training. Responses to the email survey were analyzed qualitatively. Respondents reported that the audit training helped them to identify deficiencies in their record-keeping practice, increased their knowledge in record-keeping, and improved their record-keeping skills. Improvements in clinical audit teaching were also proposed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diagnosis, Oral
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