Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 33 in total

  1. Khoo XH, Chong CW, Talha AM, Philip K, Teh CS, Isa AM, et al.
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2023 Aug;38(8):1259-1268.
    PMID: 36908030 DOI: 10.1111/jgh.16174
    BACKGROUND AND AIM: The gut microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is known to vary with diet. We aim to (i) analyze the gut microbiota composition of IBS patients from a multi-ethnic population and (ii) explore the impact of a low FODMAP diet on gastrointestinal symptoms and gut microbiota composition among IBS patients.

    METHODS: A multi-center study of multi-ethnic Asian patients with IBS was conducted in two phases: (i) an initial cross-sectional gut microbiota composition study of IBS patients and healthy controls, followed by (ii) a single-arm 6-week dietary interventional study of the IBS patients alone, exploring clinical and gut microbiota changes.

    RESULTS: A total of 34 adult IBS patients (IBS sub-types of IBS-D 44.1%, IBS-C 32.4%, and IBS-M 23.5%) and 15 healthy controls were recruited. A greater abundance of Parabacteroides species with lower levels of bacterial fermenters and short-chain fatty acids producers were found among IBS patients compared with healthy controls. Age and ethnicity were found to be associated with gut microbiota composition. Following a low FODMAP dietary intervention, symptom and quality of life improvement were observed in 24 (70.6%) IBS patients. Symptom improvement was associated with adherence to the low FODMAP diet (46.7% poor adherence vs 92.9% good adherence, P = 0.014), and gut microbiota patterns, particularly with a greater abundance of Bifidobacterium longum, Anaerotignum propionicum, and Blautia species post-intervention.

    CONCLUSION: Gut microbiota variation in multi-ethnic IBS patients may be related to dietary intake and may be helpful to identify patients who are likely to respond to a low FODMAP diet.

    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/adverse effects
  2. Mahdy ZA, Basri H, Md Isa Z, Ahmad S, Shamsuddin K, Mohd Amin R
    J Obstet Gynaecol Res, 2014 Apr;40(4):983-7.
    PMID: 24320794 DOI: 10.1111/jog.12277
    To determine the adequacy of antenatal calcium intake in Malaysia, and the influencing factors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/adverse effects*
  3. Bhoo-Pathy N, Uiterwaal CS, Dik VK, Jeurnink SM, Bech BH, Overvad K, et al.
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2013 Nov;11(11):1486-92.
    PMID: 23756220 DOI: 10.1016/j.cgh.2013.05.029
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Few modifiable risk factors have been implicated in the etiology of pancreatic cancer. There is little evidence for the effects of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or tea intake on risk of pancreatic cancer. We investigated the association of total coffee, caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and tea consumption with risk of pancreatic cancer.

    METHODS: This study was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer cohort, comprising male and female participants from 10 European countries. Between 1992 and 2000, there were 477,312 participants without cancer who completed a dietary questionnaire and were followed up to determine pancreatic cancer incidence. Coffee and tea intake was calibrated with a 24-hour dietary recall. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were computed using multivariable Cox regression.

    RESULTS: During a mean follow-up period of 11.6 y, 865 first incidences of pancreatic cancers were reported. When divided into fourths, neither total intake of coffee (HR, 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83-1.27; high vs low intake), decaffeinated coffee (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.76-1.63; high vs low intake), nor tea were associated with risk of pancreatic cancer (HR, 1.22, 95% CI, 0.95-1.56; high vs low intake). Moderately low intake of caffeinated coffee was associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer (HR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.02-1.74), compared with low intake. However, no graded dose response was observed, and the association attenuated after restriction to histologically confirmed pancreatic cancers.

    CONCLUSIONS: Based on an analysis of data from the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer cohort, total coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and tea consumption are not related to the risk of pancreatic cancer.

    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/adverse effects*
  4. Yusof AS, Isa ZM, Shah SA
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(2):1151-4.
    PMID: 23621204
    BACKGROUND: Changes in dietary practices are known to be associated with changes in the health and disease pattern of a population. This study aimed to qualitatively explore the perception of colorectal cancer patients regarding causes of colorectal cancer and the influence of diet.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve respondents from three major ethnicities in Malaysia were selected from the quantitative study on dietary pattern and colorectal cancer carried out earlier in this study. In-depth interviews (IDI), conducted from April until June 2012, were mainly in the Malay language with additional use of English and continued until the saturation point was reached. All interviews were autorecorded so that verbatim transcriptions could be created.

    RESULTS: Causes of colorectal cancer were categorized into internal and external factors. The majority of respondents agreed that there is an association between Western foods and colorectal cancer. Malaysian traditional diet was not related to colorectal cancer as less preservative agents were used. Malaysian diet preparation consisting of taste of cooking (spicy, salty and sour foods) plus type of cooking (fry, grilled and smoked) were considered causes of colorectal cancer. All respondents changed their dietary pattern to healthy food after being diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Advice from doctors regarding suitable food for colorectal cancer was useful in this regard.

    CONCLUSIONS: Eating outside, use of food flavoring ingredients and preservative agents were considered to be the main factors causing colorectal cancer. All respondents admitted that they changed to a healthy diet after being diagnosed with colorectal cancer.

    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/adverse effects*
  5. Med J Malaysia, 1988 Dec;43(4):348-9.
    PMID: 2853823
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/adverse effects*
  6. Jenkins DJA, Dehghan M, Mente A, Bangdiwala SI, Rangarajan S, Srichaikul K, et al.
    N Engl J Med, 2021 04 08;384(14):1312-1322.
    PMID: 33626252 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2007123
    BACKGROUND: Most data regarding the association between the glycemic index and cardiovascular disease come from high-income Western populations, with little information from non-Western countries with low or middle incomes. To fill this gap, data are needed from a large, geographically diverse population.

    METHODS: This analysis includes 137,851 participants between the ages of 35 and 70 years living on five continents, with a median follow-up of 9.5 years. We used country-specific food-frequency questionnaires to determine dietary intake and estimated the glycemic index and glycemic load on the basis of the consumption of seven categories of carbohydrate foods. We calculated hazard ratios using multivariable Cox frailty models. The primary outcome was a composite of a major cardiovascular event (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure) or death from any cause.

    RESULTS: In the study population, 8780 deaths and 8252 major cardiovascular events occurred during the follow-up period. After performing extensive adjustments comparing the lowest and highest glycemic-index quintiles, we found that a diet with a high glycemic index was associated with an increased risk of a major cardiovascular event or death, both among participants with preexisting cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio, 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25 to 1.82) and among those without such disease (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.34). Among the components of the primary outcome, a high glycemic index was also associated with an increased risk of death from cardiovascular causes. The results with respect to glycemic load were similar to the findings regarding the glycemic index among the participants with cardiovascular disease at baseline, but the association was not significant among those without preexisting cardiovascular disease.

    CONCLUSIONS: In this study, a diet with a high glycemic index was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death. (Funded by the Population Health Research Institute and others.).

    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/adverse effects*
  7. Abubakar B, Zawawi N, Omar AR, Ismail M
    PLoS One, 2017;12(7):e0181309.
    PMID: 28727791 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0181309
    Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder with established, well-defined precursors. Obesity and insulin resistance are amongst most important factors in predisposition to diabetes. Rice is a staple for about half the global population and its consumption has been strongly linked with diabetogenesis. We assert that tackling the prevalence of predisposing factors by modifying certain rice cultivars could reduce the global burden of obesity and insulin resistance, and by extension type 2 diabetes. Several rice cultivars with various properties were fed to nulliparous rats (five weeks old at the start of the experiment) for 90 days. They were then returned to a diet of standard pellets and mated with males raised on a standard diet. The resulting pups and dams were investigated for obesity and insulin resistance markers. We found that germination did more to reduce predisposition to obesity and insulin resistance than high amylose content. The combined reducing effect of germination and high amylose content on predisposition to obesity and insulin resistance was greater than the sum of their independent effects. Polished (white) rice with a low amylose content predisposed dams on a high-fat diet to markers of insulin resistance and obesity and this predisposition was inherited (in biochemical terms) by their F1 offspring. Overall, the results suggest that harnessing the beneficial properties of germination and amylose in rice would reduce the burden of obesity and insulin resistance, which are known to be key risk factors for development of type 2 diabetes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/adverse effects*
  8. Dehghan M, Mente A, Rangarajan S, Mohan V, Swaminathan S, Avezum A, et al.
    Am J Clin Nutr, 2023 Jan;117(1):55-63.
    PMID: 36789944 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajcnut.2022.10.014
    BACKGROUND: Higher intake of ultra-processed foods (UPFs) has been associated with increased risk of CVD and mortality in observational studies from Western countries but data from non-Western countries are limited.

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the association between consumption of UPFs and risk of mortality and major CVD in a cohort from multiple world regions.

    DESIGN: This analysis includes 138,076 participants without a history of CVD between the ages of 35 and 70 y living on 5 continents, with a median follow-up of 10.2 y. We used country-specific validated food-frequency questionnaires to determine individuals' food intake. We classified foods and beverages based on the NOVA classification into UPFs. The primary outcome was total mortality (CV and non-CV mortality) and secondary outcomes were incident major cardiovascular events. We calculated hazard ratios using multivariable Cox frailty models and evaluated the association of UPFs with total mortality, CV mortality, non-CV mortality, and major CVD events.

    RESULTS: In this study, 9227 deaths and 7934 major cardiovascular events were recorded during the follow-up period. We found a diet high in UPFs (≥2 servings/d compared with 0 intake) was associated with higher risk of mortality (HR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.15, 1.42; P-trend < 0.001), CV mortality (HR: 1.17; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.41; P-trend = 0.04), and non-CV mortality (HR: 1.32; 95% CI 1.17, 1.50; P-trend < 0.001). We did not find a significant association between UPF intake and risk of major CVD.

    CONCLUSIONS: A diet with a high intake of UPFs was associated with a higher risk of mortality in a diverse multinational study. Globally, limiting the consumption of UPFs should be encouraged.

    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/adverse effects
  9. Agudo A, Cayssials V, Bonet C, Tjønneland A, Overvad K, Boutron-Ruault MC, et al.
    Am J Clin Nutr, 2018 04 01;107(4):607-616.
    PMID: 29635497 DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy002
    Background: Chronic inflammation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of the 2 major types of gastric cancer. Several foods, nutrients, and nonnutrient food components seem to be involved in the regulation of chronic inflammation.

    Objective: We assessed the association between the inflammatory potential of the diet and the risk of gastric carcinoma, overall and for the 2 major subsites: cardia cancers and noncardia cancers.

    Design: A total of 476,160 subjects (30% men, 70% women) from the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study were followed for 14 y, during which 913 incident cases of gastric carcinoma were identified, including 236 located in the cardia, 341 in the distal part of the stomach (noncardia), and 336 with overlapping or unknown tumor site. The dietary inflammatory potential was assessed by means of an inflammatory score of the diet (ISD), calculated with the use of 28 dietary components and their corresponding inflammatory scores. The association between the ISD and gastric cancer risk was estimated by HRs and 95% CIs calculated by multivariate Cox regression models adjusted for confounders.

    Results: The inflammatory potential of the diet was associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. The HR (95% CI) for each increase in 1 SD of the ISD were 1.25 (1.12, 1.39) for all gastric cancers, 1.30 (1.06, 1.59) for cardia cancers, and 1.07 (0.89, 1.28) for noncardia cancers. The corresponding values for the highest compared with the lowest quartiles of the ISD were 1.66 (1.26, 2.20), 1.94 (1.14, 3.30), and 1.07 (0.70, 1.70), respectively.

    Conclusions: Our results suggest that low-grade chronic inflammation induced by the diet may be associated with gastric cancer risk. This pattern seems to be more consistent for gastric carcinomas located in the cardia than for those located in the distal stomach. This study is listed on the ISRCTN registry as ISRCTN12136108.

    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/adverse effects*
  10. Ismail NH, Manaf ZA, Azizan NZ
    BMC Dermatol., 2012;12:13.
    PMID: 22898209 DOI: 10.1186/1471-5945-12-13
    BACKGROUND: The role of dietary factors in the pathophysiology of acne vulgaris is highly controversial. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the association between dietary factors and acne vulgaris among Malaysian young adults.
    METHODS: A case-control study was conducted among 44 acne vulgaris patients and 44 controls aged 18 to 30 years from October 2010 to January 2011. Comprehensive acne severity scale (CASS) was used to determine acne severity. A questionnaire comprising items enquiring into the respondent's family history and dietary patterns was distributed. Subjects were asked to record their food intake on two weekdays and one day on a weekend in a three day food diary. Anthropometric measurements including body weight, height and body fat percentage were taken. Acne severity was assessed by a dermatologist.
    RESULTS: Cases had a significantly higher dietary glycemic load (175 ± 35) compared to controls (122 ± 28) (p  0.05).
    CONCLUSIONS: Glycemic load diet and frequencies of milk and ice cream intake were positively associated with acne vulgaris.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/adverse effects
  11. Agusa T, Kunito T, Sudaryanto A, Monirith I, Kan-Atireklap S, Iwata H, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2007 Feb;145(3):766-77.
    PMID: 16828209
    Concentrations of 20 trace elements were determined in muscle and liver of 34 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas of Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Large regional difference was observed in the levels of trace elements in liver of one fish family (Carangidae): the highest mean concentration was observed in fish from the Malaysian coastal waters for V, Cr, Zn, Pb and Bi and those from the Java Sea side of Indonesia for Sn and Hg. To assess the health risk to the Southeast Asian populations from consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated. Some marine fish showed Hg levels higher than the guideline values by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). This suggests that consumption of these fish may be hazardous to the people.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/adverse effects
  12. Osman BA, Ng ML, Bakar AA, Khalid BA
    East Afr Med J, 1993 May;70(5):314-5.
    PMID: 8306912
    The effect of consuming large amounts of cassava leaves on thyroid function and urinary iodine was studied. Twenty volunteers were given 200 gm of boiled cassava leaves twice a day for 12 consecutive days. Thyroid hormones triiodothyronine and thyroxine were significantly lower by 9 days. Urinary iodine excretion was also significantly decreased. Cassava leaves, consumed in large amounts by aborigines, probably caused goitres by decreasing iodine absorption.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/adverse effects*
  13. Khor GL, Tan SY, Tan KL, Chan PS, Amarra MS
    Nutrients, 2016 Dec 01;8(12).
    PMID: 27916932
    BACKGROUND: The 2010 World Health Organisation (WHO) Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) indicators are useful for monitoring feeding practices.

    METHODS: A total sample of 300 subjects aged 6 to 23 months was recruited from urban suburbs of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya. Compliance with each IYCF indicator was computed according to WHO recommendations. Dietary intake based on two-day weighed food records was obtained from a sub-group (N = 119) of the total sample. The mean adequacy ratio (MAR) value was computed as an overall measure of dietary intake adequacy. Contributions of core IYCF indicators to MAR were determined by multinomial logistic regression.

    RESULTS: Generally, the subjects showed high compliance for (i) timely introduction of complementary foods at 6 to 8 months (97.9%); (ii) minimum meal frequency among non-breastfed children aged 6 to 23 months (95.2%); (iii) consumption of iron-rich foods at 6 to 23 months (92.3%); and minimum dietary diversity (78.0%). While relatively high proportions achieved the recommended intake levels for protein (87.4%) and iron (71.4%), lower proportions attained the recommendations for calcium (56.3%) and energy (56.3%). The intake of micronutrients was generally poor. The minimum dietary diversity had the greatest contribution to MAR (95% CI: 3.09, 39.87) (p = 0.000) among the core IYCF indicators.

    CONCLUSION: Malaysian urban infants and toddlers showed moderate to high compliance with WHO IYCF indicators. The robustness of the analytical approach in this study in quantifying contributions of IYCF indicators to MAR should be further investigated.

    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/adverse effects*
  14. Tan PC, Kartik B, Thanendran P, Zakaria R, Win ST, Omar SZ
    Sci Rep, 2020 03 10;10(1):4445.
    PMID: 32157169 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-61114-y
    A case-controlled study was performed to evaluate taste and smell impairment, nausea or vomiting (NV) response to taste and smell and toleration to food texture, item and cooking method in hyperemesis gravidarum patients (HG) compared to gestation-matched controls from a university hospital and primary care clinic in Malaysia. Taste strips (4 base tastes), sniff sticks (16 selected smells) and a food-related questionnaire were used. 124 participants were recruited. Taste impairment was found in 13%(8/62) vs. 0%(0/62) P = 0.003 and the median for correct smell identification was 5[4-6] vs. 9[7-9] P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/adverse effects*
  15. Racine A, Carbonnel F, Chan SS, Hart AR, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Oldenburg B, et al.
    Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2016 Feb;22(2):345-54.
    PMID: 26717318 DOI: 10.1097/MIB.0000000000000638
    BACKGROUND: Specific nutrients or foods have been inconsistently associated with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD) risks. Thus, we investigated associations between diet as a whole, as dietary patterns, and UC and CD risks.

    METHODS: Within the prospective EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer) study, we set up a nested matched case-control study among 366,351 participants with inflammatory bowel disease data, including 256 incident cases of UC and 117 of CD, and 4 matched controls per case. Dietary intake was recorded at baseline from validated food frequency questionnaires. Incidence rate ratios of developing UC and CD were calculated for quintiles of the Mediterranean diet score and a posteriori dietary patterns produced by factor analysis.

    RESULTS: No dietary pattern was associated with either UC or CD risks. However, when excluding cases occurring within the first 2 years after dietary assessment, there was a positive association between a "high sugar and soft drinks" pattern and UC risk (incidence rate ratios for the fifth versus first quintile, 1.68 [1.00-2.82]; Ptrend = 0.02). When considering the foods most associated with the pattern, high consumers of sugar and soft drinks were at higher UC risk only if they had low vegetables intakes.

    CONCLUSIONS: A diet imbalance with high consumption of sugar and soft drinks and low consumption of vegetables was associated with UC risk. Further studies are needed to investigate whether microbiota alterations or other mechanisms mediate this association.

    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/adverse effects*
  16. Chakraborty C, Das S
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2016;16(15):1258-1268.
    PMID: 27145852 DOI: 10.2174/1389557516666160505115512
    The incidence of diabetes in developing countries in Asia has increased over the last few years. The economic development is radically changing the lifestyle of the younger generation who prefer to embrace the western lifestyle of eating high calorie fast food with minimal physical exercise. Previously, the rate of diabetes was very low but it is increasing at an alarming rate in the developing countries in Asia. Admittedly, there is paucity of literature on the prevalence of patients with type-1 diabetes in Asian developing countries due to lower field surveys and lack of quantitative data. Few contributing factors such as body mass index (BMI) and its relation with obesity and diabetes, energy dense diet, excessive caloric intake, sedentary behaviors, lifestyle and family history, gene and genomewide association of diabetes, genes and gene polymorphisms are being discussed especially with regard to the Asian population. Dynamics of the diabetes and obesity was depicted for the population of Asian developing countries with special emphasis on China and India. Diabetes has become widespread among the low-income communities. Hence, it is necessary to develop appropriate healthcare policies in order to mitigate this rampant epidemic before it is too late.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/adverse effects
  17. Merritt MA, Tzoulaki I, van den Brandt PA, Schouten LJ, Tsilidis KK, Weiderpass E, et al.
    Am J Clin Nutr, 2016 Jan;103(1):161-7.
    PMID: 26607939 DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.115.118588
    BACKGROUND: Studies of the role of dietary factors in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) development have been limited, and no specific dietary factors have been consistently associated with EOC risk.

    OBJECTIVE: We used a nutrient-wide association study approach to systematically test the association between dietary factors and invasive EOC risk while accounting for multiple hypothesis testing by using the false discovery rate and evaluated the findings in an independent cohort.

    DESIGN: We assessed dietary intake amounts of 28 foods/food groups and 29 nutrients estimated by using dietary questionnaires in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study (n = 1095 cases). We selected 4 foods/nutrients that were statistically significantly associated with EOC risk when comparing the extreme quartiles of intake in the EPIC study (false discovery rate = 0.43) and evaluated these factors in the NLCS (Netherlands Cohort Study; n = 383 cases). Cox regression models were used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs.

    RESULTS: None of the 4 dietary factors that were associated with EOC risk in the EPIC study (cholesterol, polyunsaturated and saturated fat, and bananas) were statistically significantly associated with EOC risk in the NLCS; however, in meta-analysis of the EPIC study and the NLCS, we observed a higher risk of EOC with a high than with a low intake of saturated fat (quartile 4 compared with quartile 1; overall HR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.41).

    CONCLUSION: In the meta-analysis of both studies, there was a higher risk of EOC with a high than with a low intake of saturated fat.

    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/adverse effects*
  18. Hussain Z, Yusoff ZM, Sulaiman SA
    Prim Care Diabetes, 2015 Jun;9(3):184-90.
    PMID: 25132140 DOI: 10.1016/j.pcd.2014.07.007
    AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge about GDM and its corresponding relation with glycaemic level in GDM patients.
    METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted in antenatal clinic of Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia from June 2013 to December 2013 using Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Knowledge Questionnaire (GDMKQ) on the sample of 175 GDM patients. Three most recent fasting plasma glucose (FPG) values (mmol/l) were taken from patients profiles and mean was calculated.
    RESULTS: A total of 166 patients were included in final analysis. A total mean knowledge score of 166 patients was 10.01±3.63 and total mean FPG value was 5.50±1.13. Knowledge had a significant negative association with FPG (r=- 0.306, P<0.01). Among different knowledge domains, highest mean score was seen for diet/food values domain and lowest for management of GDM. Educational level seems to be the most significant predictor of GDM knowledge and glycaemic control. Highest mean knowledge score and lowest mean glycaemic levels were recorded for patients aged 25-29 years, Malay ethnicity, working women and family history of DM.
    CONCLUSION: Higher Knowledge about GDM is related to better glycaemic control. New educational strategies should be developed to improve the lower health literacy.
    KEYWORDS: Educational level; GDM; Glycaemic level; Knowledge

    Study site: antenatal clinic of Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/adverse effects
  19. Sulaiman N, Shariff ZM, Jalil RA, Taib MN, Kandiah M, Samah AA
    Food Nutr Bull, 2011 Dec;32(4):354-64.
    PMID: 22590969
    Food insecurity occurs whenever people are not able to access enough food at all times for an active and healthy life or when adequate and safe food acquired by socially acceptable ways is not available.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/adverse effects
  20. Helen-Ng LC, Razak IA, Ghani WM, Marhazlinda J, Norain AT, Raja Jallaludin RL, et al.
    Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 2012 Dec;40(6):560-6.
    PMID: 22679921 DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0528.2012.00704.x
    The role of diet in cancer risk has mainly been investigated based on intake of individual food items. However, food consumption is made up of a combination of various food items. This study aims to determine the association of dietary patterns with oral cancer risk.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diet/adverse effects*
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