Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 88 in total

  1. Dondero TJ, Lim BL
    PMID: 1027105
    Preliminary studies have shown that Lymnaea rubiginosa, a common fresh-water snail in Peninsular Malaysia, which is easily colonized and reared in the laboratory, is a capable experimental intermediate host for Angiostrongylus malaysiensis. Overall 73% of the snails tested became infected following 6 hours exposure to infective rat faeces. Higher infection rates, up to 100%, and heavier worm loads, occurred among the larger sized snails. Snail attrition was low except when very heavy worm loads were acquired.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disease Reservoirs*
  2. Boo-Liat L, Joon-Wah M
    PMID: 4432109
    Matched MeSH terms: Disease Reservoirs/parasitology*
  3. Lee J, Hughes T, Lee MH, Field H, Rovie-Ryan JJ, Sitam FT, et al.
    Ecohealth, 2020 09;17(3):406-418.
    PMID: 33226526 DOI: 10.1007/s10393-020-01503-x
    The legal and illegal trade in wildlife for food, medicine and other products is a globally significant threat to biodiversity that is also responsible for the emergence of pathogens that threaten human and livestock health and our global economy. Trade in wildlife likely played a role in the origin of COVID-19, and viruses closely related to SARS-CoV-2 have been identified in bats and pangolins, both traded widely. To investigate the possible role of pangolins as a source of potential zoonoses, we collected throat and rectal swabs from 334 Sunda pangolins (Manis javanica) confiscated in Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah between August 2009 and March 2019. Total nucleic acid was extracted for viral molecular screening using conventional PCR protocols used to routinely identify known and novel viruses in extensive prior sampling (> 50,000 mammals). No sample yielded a positive PCR result for any of the targeted viral families-Coronaviridae, Filoviridae, Flaviviridae, Orthomyxoviridae and Paramyxoviridae. In the light of recent reports of coronaviruses including a SARS-CoV-2-related virus in Sunda pangolins in China, the lack of any coronavirus detection in our 'upstream' market chain samples suggests that these detections in 'downstream' animals more plausibly reflect exposure to infected humans, wildlife or other animals within the wildlife trade network. While confirmatory serologic studies are needed, it is likely that Sunda pangolins are incidental hosts of coronaviruses. Our findings further support the importance of ending the trade in wildlife globally.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disease Reservoirs/virology
  4. Chua KB
    Microbes Infect., 2003 May;5(6):487-90.
    PMID: 12758277
    During the outbreak of Nipah virus encephalitis involving pigs and humans in peninsular Malaysia in 1998/1999, a conventional approach was initially undertaken to collect specimens from fruit bats by mist-netting and shooting, as an integral part of wildlife surveillance of the natural reservoir host of Nipah virus. This study describes a novel method of collecting fruit bats' urine samples using plastic sheets for isolation of Nipah virus. This novel approach resulted in the isolation of several other known and unidentified infectious agents besides Nipah virus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disease Reservoirs/veterinary
  5. Solomon T, Ooi MH, Beasley DW, Mallewa M
    BMJ, 2003 Apr 19;326(7394):865-9.
    PMID: 12702624
    Matched MeSH terms: Disease Reservoirs
  6. Kolomytsev AA, Kurinnov VV, Mikolaĭchuk SV, Zakutskiĭ NI
    Vopr. Virusol., 2008 Mar-Apr;53(2):10-3.
    PMID: 18450103
    Nipah encephalitis is a particular dangerous disease that affects animals and man. Fatal cases of the disease have been identified in the persons looking after pigs in the villages of Malaysia. The causative agent is presumably referred to as morbilliviruses of the Paramixoviridae family. Two hundred persons died among the ill patients with the signs of encephalitis. The principal hosts of the virus were fox-bats (Megaschiroptera) inhabiting in the surrounding forests. The present paper descries the epidemiological features of the disease, its clinical manifestations, abnormal anatomic changes, diagnosis, and implemented controlling measures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disease Reservoirs/veterinary*; Disease Reservoirs/virology
  7. Field HE, Mackenzie JS, Daszak P
    PMID: 17848064
    Two related, novel, zoonotic paramyxoviruses have been described recently. Hendra virus was first reported in horses and thence humans in Australia in 1994; Nipah virus was first reported in pigs and thence humans in Malaysia in 1998. Human cases of Nipah virus infection, apparently unassociated with infection in livestock, have been reported in Bangladesh since 2001. Species of fruit bats (genus Pteropus) have been identified as natural hosts of both agents. Anthropogenic changes (habitat loss, hunting) that have impacted the population dynamics of Pteropus species across much of their range are hypothesised to have facilitated emergence. Current strategies for the management of henipaviruses are directed at minimising contact with the natural hosts, monitoring identified intermediate hosts, improving biosecurity on farms, and better disease recognition and diagnosis. Investigation of the emergence and ecology of henipaviruses warrants a broad, cross-disciplinary ecosystem health approach that recognises the critical linkages between human activity, ecological change, and livestock and human health.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disease Reservoirs/veterinary*; Disease Reservoirs/virology
  8. Fu ZF
    Dev Biol (Basel), 2008;131:55-61.
    PMID: 18634466
    This study evaluated rabies epidemiology in Far EastAsia. Questionnaires were sent by the OIE to Far East Asian countries and eight questionnaires were returned. Data were collected from these returns, as well as from recent publications, to gather information regarding rabies epidemiology in these countries. More than 29,000 human deaths were reported in 2006 in Far East Asia, representing more than 50% of all human rabies cases around the globe. There are only a few countries or regions from which no human rabies was reported in 2006 such as Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Malaysia, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. In many of these rabies endemic countries, the number of human rabies cases has not changed much during the past decade. The only country with a steady decline is Thailand, where the number of cases has decreased from around 200 to about 20 cases per year. The most dramatic changes were observed in China. Human rabies cases declined from around 5,000 cases per year in the 1980s to about 160 in the mid-1990s. However, these trends have since been reversed. A steady increase has been reported over the past 10 years with more than 3,200 cases reported in 2006. Although there are many factors that contribute to the epidemic or endemic nature of rabies in these countries, the single most important factor is the failure to immunize domestic dogs, which transmit rabies to humans. Dog vaccination is at or below 5% in many of these countries, and cannot stop the transmission of rabies from dogs to dogs, thus to humans. It is thus most importantforthese countries to initiate mass vaccination campaigns in dog populations in order to stop the occurrence of human rabies in Far East Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disease Reservoirs/veterinary*; Disease Reservoirs/virology
  9. Ambat AS, Zubair SM, Prasad N, Pundir P, Rajwar E, Patil DS, et al.
    J Infect Public Health, 2019 02 23;12(5):634-639.
    PMID: 30808593 DOI: 10.1016/j.jiph.2019.02.013
    The objectives of this review were to understand the epidemiology and outbreak of NiV infection and to discuss the preventive and control measures across different regions. We searched PubMed and Scopus for relevant articles from January 1999 to July 2018 and identified 927 articles which were screened for titles, abstracts and full texts by two review authors independently. The screening process resulted in 44 articles which were used to extract relevant information. Information on epidemiology of NiV, outbreaks in Malaysia, Singapore, Bangladesh, India and Philippines, including diagnosis, prevention, treatment, vaccines, control, surveillance and economic burden due to NiV were discussed. Interdisciplinary and multi sectoral approach is vital in preventing the emergence of NiV. It is necessary to undertake rigorous research for developing vaccines and medicines to prevent and treat NiV.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disease Reservoirs/veterinary*; Disease Reservoirs/virology
  10. Drexler JF, Corman VM, Gloza-Rausch F, Seebens A, Annan A, Ipsen A, et al.
    PLoS One, 2009;4(7):e6367.
    PMID: 19636378 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006367
    Henipaviruses (Hendra and Nipah virus) are highly pathogenic members of the family Paramyxoviridae. Fruit-eating bats of the Pteropus genus have been suggested as their natural reservoir. Human Henipavirus infections have been reported in a region extending from Australia via Malaysia into Bangladesh, compatible with the geographic range of Pteropus. These bats do not occur in continental Africa, but a whole range of other fruit bats is encountered. One of the most abundant is Eidolon helvum, the African Straw-coloured fruit bat.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disease Reservoirs
  11. Hayman DT, Gurley ES, Pulliam JR, Field HE
    PMID: 23160861 DOI: 10.1007/82_2012_276
    Henipaviruses cause fatal infection in humans and domestic animals. Transmission from fruit bats, the wildlife reservoirs of henipaviruses, is putatively driven (at least in part) by anthropogenic changes that alter host ecology. Human and domestic animal fatalities occur regularly in Asia and Australia, but recent findings suggest henipaviruses are present in bats across the Old World tropics. We review the application of the One Health approach to henipavirus research in three locations: Australia, Malaysia and Bangladesh. We propose that by recognising and addressing the complex interaction among human, domestic animal and wildlife systems, research within the One Health paradigm will be more successful in mitigating future human and domestic animal deaths from henipavirus infection than alternative single-discipline approaches.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disease Reservoirs
  12. Marchette NJ
    J Med Entomol, 1966 Jan;2(4):339-71.
    PMID: 5951938
    Matched MeSH terms: Disease Reservoirs
  13. Moyes CL, Henry AJ, Golding N, Huang Z, Singh B, Baird JK, et al.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2014 Mar;8(3):e2780.
    PMID: 24676231 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002780
    BACKGROUND: The simian malaria parasite, Plasmodium knowlesi, can cause severe and fatal disease in humans yet it is rarely included in routine public health reporting systems for malaria and its geographical range is largely unknown. Because malaria caused by P. knowlesi is a truly neglected tropical disease, there are substantial obstacles to defining the geographical extent and risk of this disease. Information is required on the occurrence of human cases in different locations, on which non-human primates host this parasite and on which vectors are able to transmit it to humans. We undertook a systematic review and ranked the existing evidence, at a subnational spatial scale, to investigate the potential geographical range of the parasite reservoir capable of infecting humans.

    METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After reviewing the published literature we identified potential host and vector species and ranked these based on how informative they are for the presence of an infectious parasite reservoir, based on current evidence. We collated spatial data on parasite occurrence and the ranges of the identified host and vector species. The ranked spatial data allowed us to assign an evidence score to 475 subnational areas in 19 countries and we present the results on a map of the Southeast and South Asia region.

    CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have ranked subnational areas within the potential disease range according to evidence for presence of a disease risk to humans, providing geographical evidence to support decisions on prevention, management and prophylaxis. This work also highlights the unknown risk status of large parts of the region. Within this unknown category, our map identifies which areas have most evidence for the potential to support an infectious reservoir and are therefore a priority for further investigation. Furthermore we identify geographical areas where further investigation of putative host and vector species would be highly informative for the region-wide assessment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Disease Reservoirs*
  14. Kouadio IK, Aljunid S, Kamigaki T, Hammad K, Oshitani H
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther, 2012 Jan;10(1):95-104.
    PMID: 22149618 DOI: 10.1586/eri.11.155
    Natural disasters may lead to infectious disease outbreaks when they result in substantial population displacement and exacerbate synergic risk factors (change in the environment, in human conditions and in the vulnerability to existing pathogens) for disease transmission. We reviewed risk factors and potential infectious diseases resulting from prolonged secondary effects of major natural disasters that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Natural disasters including floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, tropical cyclones (e.g., hurricanes and typhoons) and tornadoes have been secondarily described with the following infectious diseases including diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, malaria, leptospirosis, measles, dengue fever, viral hepatitis, typhoid fever, meningitis, as well as tetanus and cutaneous mucormycosis. Risk assessment is essential in post-disaster situations and the rapid implementation of control measures through re-establishment and improvement of primary healthcare delivery should be given high priority, especially in the absence of pre-disaster surveillance data.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disease Reservoirs*
  15. Field HE
    Zoonoses Public Health, 2009 Aug;56(6-7):278-84.
    PMID: 19497090 DOI: 10.1111/j.1863-2378.2008.01218.x
    Nearly 75% of all emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) that impact or threaten human health are zoonotic. The majority have spilled from wildlife reservoirs, either directly to humans or via domestic animals. The emergence of many can be attributed to predisposing factors such as global travel, trade, agricultural expansion, deforestation/habitat fragmentation, and urbanization; such factors increase the interface and/or the rate of contact between human, domestic animal, and wildlife populations, thereby creating increased opportunities for spillover events to occur. Infectious disease emergence can be regarded as primarily an ecological process. The epidemiological investigation of EIDs associated with wildlife requires a trans-disciplinary approach that includes an understanding of the ecology of the wildlife species, and an understanding of human behaviours that increase risk of exposure. Investigations of the emergence of Nipah virus in Malaysia in 1999 and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in China in 2003 provide useful case studies. The emergence of Nipah virus was associated with the increased size and density of commercial pig farms and their encroachment into forested areas. The movement of pigs for sale and slaughter in turn led to the rapid spread of infection to southern peninsular Malaysia, where the high-density, largely urban pig populations facilitated transmission to humans. Identifying the factors associated with the emergence of SARS in southern China requires an understanding of the ecology of infection both in the natural reservoir and in secondary market reservoir species. A necessary extension of understanding the ecology of the reservoir is an understanding of the trade, and of the social and cultural context of wildlife consumption. Emerging infectious diseases originating from wildlife populations will continue to threaten public health. Mitigating and managing the risk requires an appreciation of the connectedness between human, livestock and wildlife health, and of the factors and processes that disrupt the balance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disease Reservoirs/veterinary
  16. Shah-Majid M, Maria AR, Shahidayani S, Salwani AM, Khairani S
    Vet. Rec., 2007 May 19;160(20):702-3.
    PMID: 17513839
    Matched MeSH terms: Disease Reservoirs/veterinary
  17. Shah-Majid M, Azlina AM, Ana Maria AR, Zaharah B, Norhaliza AH
    Vet. Rec., 2004 Nov 20;155(21):680-1.
    PMID: 15581146
    Matched MeSH terms: Disease Reservoirs/veterinary
  18. Lam SK, Chua KB
    Clin Infect Dis, 2002 May 1;34 Suppl 2:S48-51.
    PMID: 11938496 DOI: 10.1086/338818
    Emerging infectious diseases involving zoonosis have become important global health problems. The 1998 outbreak of severe febrile encephalitis among pig farmers in Malaysia caused by a newly emergent paramyxovirus, Nipah virus, is a good example. This disease has the potential to spread to other countries through infected animals and can cause considerable economic loss. The clinical presentation includes segmental myoclonus, areflexia, hypertension, and tachycardia, and histologic evidence includes endothelial damage and vasculitis of the brain and other major organs. Magnetic resonance imaging has demonstrated the presence of discrete high-signal-intensity lesions disseminated throughout the brain. Nipah virus causes syncytial formation in Vero cells and is antigenically related to Hendra virus. The Island flying fox (Pteropus hypomelanus; the fruit bat) is a likely reservoir of this virus. The outbreak in Malaysia was controlled through the culling of >1 million pigs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Disease Reservoirs*
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