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  1. Gopinath SC, Lakshmipriya T, Chen Y, Arshad MK, Kerishnan JP, Ruslinda AR, et al.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 2016 Aug;100(16):6955-69.
    PMID: 27350620 DOI: 10.1007/s00253-016-7686-2
    Aptamers are single-stranded nucleic acids or peptides identified from a randomized combinatorial library through specific interaction with the target of interest. Targets can be of any size, from small molecules to whole cells, attesting to the versatility of aptamers for binding a wide range of targets. Aptamers show drug properties that are analogous to antibodies, with high specificity and affinity to their target molecules. Aptamers can penetrate disease-causing microbial and mammalian cells. Generated aptamers that target surface biomarkers act as cell-targeting agents and intracellular delivery vehicles. Within this context, the "cell-internalizing aptamers" are widely investigated via the process of cell uptake with selective binding during in vivo systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) or by cell-internalization SELEX, which targets cell surface antigens to be receptors. These internalizing aptamers are highly preferable for the localization and functional analyses of multiple targets. In this overview, we discuss the ways by which internalizing aptamers are generated and their successful applications. Furthermore, theranostic approaches featuring cell-internalized aptamers are discussed with the purpose of analyzing and diagnosing disease-causing pathogens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Carriers/metabolism*
  2. Siddiqui NA, Billa N, Roberts CJ
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2017 Jun;28(8):781-793.
    PMID: 28278045 DOI: 10.1080/09205063.2017.1301774
    The principal challenge for the use of boronic acids (BA) as glucose sensors is their lack of specificity for glucose. We examined the selectivity of and insulin release from two boronic acids- (2-formyl-3-thienylboronic acid (FTBA) and 4-formylphenylboronic acid (FPBA)) conjugated chitosan scaffolds to glucose and fructose. Adsorption of glucose to BA: chitosan conjugates was dose-dependent up to 1:1 at 35 and 42% for FPBA and FTBA respectively but the FTBA conjugates adsorbed more glucose and fructose at respective FPBA ratios. The affinity of both BA conjugates to glucose decreased with increase in BA ratio. On the other hand, the affinity of both BA conjugates for fructose decreased from ratio 1:1 to 2:1 then rose again at 3:1. Insulin release from FPBA nanoparticles (FPBAINP) and FTBA nanoparticles (FTBAINP) were both concentration-dependent within glyceamically relevant values (1-3 mg/ml glucose and 0.002 mg/ml fructose). Furthermore, the total amounts of insulin released from FPBAINP in both the media were higher than from FTBAINP. Both FPBAINP and FTBAINP have the potential for development as a glucose-selective insulin delivery system in physiological settings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Carriers/metabolism*
  3. Bor G, Mat Azmi ID, Yaghmur A
    Ther Deliv, 2019 02;10(2):113-132.
    PMID: 30678550 DOI: 10.4155/tde-2018-0062
    The emergence of nanomedicine as an innovative and promising alternative technology shows many advantages over conventional cancer therapies and provides new opportunities for early detection, improved treatment, and diagnosis of cancer. Despite the cancer nanomedicines' capability of delivering chemotherapeutic agents while providing lower systemic toxicity, it is paramount to consider the cancer complexity and dynamics for bridging the translational bench-to-bedside gap. It is important to conduct appropriate investigations for exploiting the tumor microenvironment, and achieving a more comprehensive understanding of the fundamental biological processes in cancer and their roles in modulating nanoparticle-protein interactions, blood circulation, and tumor penetration. This review provides an overview of the current cancer nanomedicines, the major challenges, and the future opportunities in this research area.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Carriers/metabolism
  4. Bera H, Abbasi YF, Yoke FF, Seng PM, Kakoti BB, Ahmmed SKM, et al.
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2019 May 15;129:552-563.
    PMID: 30707999 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.01.171
    Novel diethanolamine-grafted high-methoxyl pectin (DGP)-arabic gum (AG) modified montmorillonite (MMT) composites were developed for intragastric ziprasidone HCl (ZIP) delivery by combining floating and mucoadhesion mechanisms. The ZIP-loaded clay-biopolymer matrices were accomplished by ionotropic gelation protocol utilizing zinc acetate in the presence or absence of covalent crosslinker, glutaraldehyde (GA). Various formulations exhibited excellent drug entrapment efficiency (DEE, %) and sustained drug release profiles, which were influenced by the polymer-blend (DGP:AG) ratios, reinforcing filler (MMT) existence and crosslinking procedure. The optimal composites (F-3) demonstrated DEE of 61% and Q8h of 52% with outstanding buoyancy, mucin adsorption ability and biodegradability. The release profile of F-3 was best fitted in the Korsmeyer-Peppas model with Fickian diffusion driven mechanism. The mucin adsorption to composites F-3 followed Freundlich isotherms. The molar mass between crosslinks of composites (F-3) calculated employing Flory-Rehner equation was increased with temperature. Moreover, the thermal, X-ray and infrared analyses confirmed a compatible environment of drug in the composites, except certain extent of transformation of the crystalline drug to its amorphous form. The SEM studies revealed the spherical morphology of the composites. Thus, the newly developed DGP-AG-MMT composites are appropriate for gastroretentive ZIP delivery over an extended period of time.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Carriers/metabolism*
  5. Liew KB, Tan YT, Peh KK
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2012 Mar;13(1):134-42.
    PMID: 22167416 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-011-9729-4
    The aim of this study was to develop a taste-masked oral disintegrating film (ODF) containing donepezil, with fast disintegration time and suitable mechanical strength, for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, corn starch, polyethylene glycol, lactose monohydrate and crosspovidone served as the hydrophilic polymeric bases of the ODF. The uniformity, in vitro disintegration time, drug release and the folding endurance of the ODF were examined. The in vitro results showed that 80% of donepezil hydrochloride was released within 5 minutes with mean disintegration time of 44 seconds. The result of the film flexibility test showed that the number of folding time to crack the film was 40 times, an indication of sufficient mechanical property for patient use. A single-dose, fasting, four-period, eight-treatment, double-blind study involving 16 healthy adult volunteers was performed to evaluate the in situ disintegration time and palatability of ODF. Five parameters, namely taste, aftertaste, mouthfeel, ease of handling and acceptance were evaluated. The mean in situ disintegration time of ODF was 49 seconds. ODF containing 7 mg of sucralose were more superior than saccharin and aspartame in terms of taste, aftertaste, mouthfeel and acceptance. Furthermore, the ODF was stable for at least 6 months when stored at 40°C and 75% relative humidity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Carriers/metabolism*
  6. Billa N, Yuen KH
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2000;1(4):E30.
    PMID: 14727895
    The purpose of this research was to study processing variables at the laboratory and pilot scales that can affect hydration rates of xanthan gum matrices containing diclofenac sodium and the rate of drug release. Tablets from the laboratory scale and pilot scale proceedings were made by wet granulation. Swelling indices of xanthan gum formulations prepared with different amounts of water were measured in water under a magnifying lens. Granules were thermally treated in an oven at 60 degrees C, 70 degrees C, and 80 degrees C to study the effects of elevated temperatures on drug release from xanthan gum matrices. Granules from the pilot scale formulations were bulkier compared to their laboratory scale counterparts, resulting in more porous, softer tablets. Drug release was linear from xanthan gum matrices prepared at the laboratory scale and pilot scales; however, release was faster from the pilot scales. Thermal treatment of the granules did not affect the swelling index and rate of drug release from tablets in both the pilot and laboratory scale proceedings. On the other hand, the release from both proceedings was affected by the amount of water used for granulation and the speed of the impeller during granulation. The data suggest that processing variables that affect the degree of wetness during granulation, such as increase in impeller speed and increase in amount of water used for granulation, also may affect the swelling index of xanthan gum matrices and therefore the rate of drug release.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Carriers/metabolism
  7. Khan I, Kumar H, Mishra G, Gothwal A, Kesharwani P, Gupta U
    Curr Pharm Des, 2017;23(35):5315-5326.
    PMID: 28875848 DOI: 10.2174/1381612823666170829164828
    BACKGROUND: Delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer is becoming advanced day by day. However, the challenge of the effective delivery system still does exist. In various types of cancers, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women. Breast cancer is a combination of different diseases. It cannot be considered as only one entity because there are many specific patient factors, which are involved in the development of this disease. Nanotechnology has opened a new area in the effective treatment of breast cancer due to the several benefits offered by this technology.

    METHODS: Polymeric nanocarriers are among one of the effective delivery systems, which has given promising results in the treatment of breast cancers. Nanocarriers does exert their anticancer effect either through active or passive targeting mode.

    RESULTS: The use of nanocarriers has been resolute about the adverse effects of chemotherapeutic drugs such as poor solubility and less penetrability in tumor cells.

    CONCLUSION: The present review is focused on recent developments regarding polymeric nanocarriers, such as polymeric micelles, polymeric nanoparticles, dendrimers, liposomes, nanoshells, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes (CNT) and quantum dots, etc. for their recent advancements in breast cancer therapy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Carriers/metabolism
  8. Ruttala HB, Ramasamy T, Madeshwaran T, Hiep TT, Kandasamy U, Oh KT, et al.
    Arch Pharm Res, 2018 Feb;41(2):111-129.
    PMID: 29214601 DOI: 10.1007/s12272-017-0995-x
    The development of novel drug delivery systems based on well-defined polymer therapeutics has led to significant improvements in the treatment of multiple disorders. Advances in material chemistry, nanotechnology, and nanomedicine have revolutionized the practices of drug delivery. Stimulus-responsive material-based nanosized drug delivery systems have remarkable properties that allow them to circumvent biological barriers and achieve targeted intracellular drug delivery. Specifically, the development of novel nanocarrier-based therapeutics is the need of the hour in managing complex diseases. In this review, we have briefly described the fundamentals of drug targeting to diseased tissues, physiological barriers in the human body, and the mechanisms/modes of drug-loaded carrier systems. To that end, this review serves as a comprehensive overview of the recent developments in stimulus-responsive drug delivery systems, with focus on their potential applications and impact on the future of drug delivery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Carriers/metabolism
  9. Qidwai A, Khan S, Md S, Fazil M, Baboota S, Narang JK, et al.
    Drug Deliv, 2016 May;23(4):1476-85.
    PMID: 26978275 DOI: 10.3109/10717544.2016.1165310
    Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising alternative for malignant skin diseases such as basal-cell carcinoma (BCC), due to its simplicity, enhanced patient compliance, and localization of the residual photosensitivity to the site of application. However, insufficient photosensitizer penetration into the skin is the major issue of concern with topical PDT. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to enable penetration of photosensitizer to the different strata of the skin using a lipid nanocarrier system. We have attempted to develop a nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) for the topical delivery of second-generation photosensitizer, 5-amino levulinic acid (5-ALA), whose hydrophilicity and charge characteristic limit its percutaneous absorption. The microemulsion technique was used for preparing 5-ALA-loaded NLC. The mean particle size, polydispersity index, and entrapment efficiency of the optimized NLC of 5-ALA were found to be 185.2 ± 1.20, 0.156 ± 0.02, and 76.8 ± 2.58%, respectively. The results of in vitro release and in vitro skin permeation studies showed controlled drug release and enhanced penetration into the skin, respectively. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and cell line studies respectively demonstrated that encapsulation of 5-ALA in NLC enhanced its ability to reach deeper skin layers and consequently, increased cytotoxicity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Carriers/metabolism
  10. Ng SF, Tan LS, Buang F
    Drug Dev Ind Pharm, 2017 Jan;43(1):108-119.
    PMID: 27588411 DOI: 10.1080/03639045.2016.1224893
    Previous studies have shown that hydroxytyrosol (HT) can be a potential alternative therapeutic agent for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, HT is extensively metabolized following oral administration, which leads to formulating HT in a topical vehicle to prolong drug action as well as to provide a localized effect. Hidrox-6 is a freeze-dried powder derived from fresh olives and contains a high amount of HT (∼3%) and other polyphenols. Alginate bilayer films containing 5% and 10% Hidrox-6 were formulated. The films were characterized with respect to their physical, morphology, rheological properties; drug content uniformity; and in vitro drug release. Acute dermal irritancy tests and a skin sensitization study were carried out in rats. An efficacy study of the bilayer films for RA was conducted using Freund's adjuvant-induced polyarthritis rats. Animal data showed that the bilayer film formulations did not cause skin irritancy. The efficacy in vivo results showed that the Hidrox-6 bilayer films lowered the arthritic scores, paw and ankle circumference, serum IL-6 level and cumulative histological scores compared with those measured for controls. The topical Hidrox-6 bilayer films improve synovitis and inflammatory symptoms in RA and can be a potential alternative to oral RA therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Drug Carriers/metabolism
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