Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 64 in total

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  1. Ali TH, Hussen RS, Heidelberg T
    Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 2014 Nov 1;123:981-5.
    PMID: 25465761 DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2014.10.054
    A series of sugar-based surfactants, involving a single hydrophobic chain (C12) and two side-by-side arranged head groups, was prepared form simple glucose precursors. All surfactants were highly water soluble and exhibited exclusively micellar assemblies. This behavior makes them interesting candidates for oil in water emulsifiers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsions/chemistry*
  2. Yahaya Khan M, Abdul Karim ZA, Hagos FY, Aziz AR, Tan IM
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:527472.
    PMID: 24563631 DOI: 10.1155/2014/527472
    Water-in-diesel emulsion (WiDE) is an alternative fuel for CI engines that can be employed with the existing engine setup with no additional engine retrofitting. It has benefits of simultaneous reduction of both NO x and particulate matters in addition to its impact in the combustion efficiency improvement, although this needs further investigation. This review paper addresses the type of emulsion, the microexplosion phenomenon, emulsion stability and physiochemical improvement, and effect of water content on the combustion and emissions of WiDE fuel. The review also covers the recent experimental methodologies used in the investigation of WiDE for both transport and stationary engine applications. In this review, the fuel injection pump and spray nozzle arrangement has been found to be the most critical components as far as the secondary atomization is concerned and further investigation of the effect of these components in the microexplosion of the emulsion is suggested to be center of focus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsions/chemistry*
  3. Tang SY, Sivakumar M, Nashiru B
    Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 2013 Feb 1;102:653-8.
    PMID: 23107943 DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2012.08.036
    The present investigation focuses in investigating the effect of osmotic pressure, gelling on the mean droplet diameter, polydispersity index, droplet size stability of the developed novel Aspirin containing water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) nano multiple emulsion. The aspirin-loaded nano multiple emulsion formulation was successfully generated using two-stage ultrasonic cavitational emulsification which had been reported in author's previous study. The osmotic behavior of ultrasonically prepared nano multiple emulsions were also examined with different glucose concentrations both in the inner and outer aqueous phases. In addition, introducing gelatin into the formulation also observed to play an important role in preventing the interdroplet coalescence via the formation of interfacial rigid film. Detailed studies were also made on the possible mechanisms of water migration under osmotic gradient which primarily caused by the permeation of glucose. Besides, the experimental results have shown that the interfacial tension between the two immiscible phases decreases with varying the composition of organic phase. Although the W/O/W emulsion prepared with the inner/outer glucose weight ratio of 1-0.5% (w/w) showed an excellent droplet stability, the formulation containing 0.5% (w/w) glucose in the inner aqueous phase appeared to be the most stable with minimum change in the mean droplet size upon one-week storage period. Based on the optimization, nano multiple emulsion droplets with the mean droplet diameter of around 400 nm were produced using 1.25% (w/w) Span 80 and 0.5% Cremophore EL. Overall, our investigation makes a pathway in proving that the use of ultrasound cavitation is an efficient yet promising approach in the generation of stable and uniform nano multiple emulsions and could be used in the encapsulation of various active pharmaceutical ingredients in the near future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsions/chemistry*
  4. Han NS, Basri M, Abd Rahman MB, Abd Rahman RN, Salleh AB, Ismail Z
    J Cosmet Sci, 2012 Sep-Oct;63(5):333-44.
    PMID: 23089355
    Oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsions play an important key role in transporting bioactive compounds into a range of cosmeceutical products to the skin. Small droplet sizes have an inherent stability against creaming, sedimentation, flocculation, and coalescence. O/W emulsions varying in manufacturing process were prepared. The preparation and characterization of O/W nanoemulsions with average diameters of as low as 62.99 nm from palm oil esters were carried out. This was achieved using rotor-stator homogenizer and ultrasonic cavitation. Ultrasonic cell was utilized for the emulsification of palm oil esters and water in the presence of mixed surfactants, Tween 80 and Span 80 emulsions with a mean droplet size of 62.99 nm and zeta potential value at -37.8 mV. Results were comparable with emulsions prepared with rotor-stator homogenizer operated at 6000 rpm for 5 min. The stability of the emulsions was evaluated through rheology measurement properties. This included non-Newtonian viscosity, elastic modulus G', and loss modulus G″. A highly stable emulsion was prepared using ultrasonic cavitation comprising a very small particle size with higher zeta potential value and G' > G″ demonstrating gel-like behavior.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsions/chemistry*
  5. Teh SS, Lau HLN, Mah SH
    J Oleo Sci, 2019 Aug 01;68(8):803-808.
    PMID: 31292345 DOI: 10.5650/jos.ess19098
    Refined palm-pressed mesocarp fibre oil (PPFO), which can be obtained from one of the by-products of palm oil milling, palm-pressed mesocarp fibre, is categorized as palm sludge oil. So far, it has been given less attention and underutilized until some recent scientific reports revealing its high content of phytonutrients, carotenoids and vitamin E, which have been proven scientifically to possess anti-oxidant activity. The study evaluated the stability of PPFO as a carrier for plant-based emulsion. PPFO was extracted and examined for its positional distribution of fatty acids, saturation levels and iodine value (IV) using NMR spectroscopy. The PPFO-based emulsion was then prepared and subjected to stability tests, including temperature variation, centrifuge test, cycle test, pH and slip melting point for 28 days. Phase separation was observed from PPFO-based emulsion stored at 40℃ from day-21 onwards while no creaming found in all the palm olein-based emulsions stored at the three storage temperatures. Nevertheless, results indicated that the PPFO-based emulsion passed all the tests above showing insignificant phase separation (p > 0.05) compared with those of palm olein commonly used in emulsion preparation. The findings suggested that PPFO enriched with valuable phytonutrients could be used as an alternative carrier oil in emulsion formulation, which is an important component in personal care products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsions/chemistry*
  6. Tabatabaee Amid B, Mirhosseini H
    Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 2014 Jan 1;113:107-14.
    PMID: 24060935 DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2013.08.042
    The present work was conducted to investigate the effect of purification and conjugation processes on functional properties of durian seed gum (DSG) used for stabilization of water in oil in water (W/O/W) emulsion. Whey protein isolate (WPI) was conjugated to durian seed gum through the covalent linkage. In order to prepare WPI-DSG conjugate, covalent linkage of whey protein isolate to durian seed gum was obtained by Maillard reaction induced by heating at 60 °C and 80% (±1%) relative humidity. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to test the formation of the covalent linkage between whey protein isolate and durian seed gum after conjugation process. In this study, W/O/W stabilized by WPI-conjugated DSG A showed the highest interface activity and lowest creaming layer among all prepared emulsions. This indicated that the partial conjugation of WPI to DSG significantly improved its functional characteristics in W/O/W emulsion. The addition of WPI-conjugated DSG to W/O/W emulsion increased the viscosity more than non-conjugated durian seed gum (or control). This might be due to possible increment of the molecular weight after linking the protein fraction to the structure of durian seed gum through the conjugation process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsions/chemistry*
  7. Ng SH, Woi PM, Basri M, Ismail Z
    J Nanobiotechnology, 2013;11:27.
    PMID: 24059593 DOI: 10.1186/1477-3155-11-27
    Palm oil esters (POEs) are esters derived from palm oil and oleyl alcohol have great potential in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries due to the excellent wetting behavior of the esters without the oily feel. The role of oil-in-water nanoemulsions loaded with tocotrienol sedimentation behavior was studied. LUMiFuge® 116 particle separation analyzer was used to investigate the sedimentation behavior of POEs/tocotrienol/xanthan gum nanoemulsion system during centrifugation. Analyzing the sedimentation kinetics of dispersions in a centrifugal field also yields information about the rheological behavior and structural stability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsions/chemistry
  8. Abd Rahman NF, Basri M, Rahman MB, Rahman RN, Salleh AB
    Bioresour Technol, 2011 Feb;102(3):2168-76.
    PMID: 21050749 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.10.034
    Engkabang fat esters were produced via alcoholysis reaction between Engkabang fat and oleyl alcohol, catalyzed by Lipozyme RM IM. The reaction was carried out in a 500 ml Stirred tank reactor using heptane and hexane as solvents. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a four-factor-five-level Central composite design (CCD) was applied to evaluate the effects of synthesis parameters, namely temperature, substrate molar ratio (oleyl alcohol: Engkabang fat), enzyme amount and impeller speed. The optimum yields of 96.2% and 91.4% were obtained for heptane and hexane at the optimum temperature of 53.9°C, impeller speeds of 309.5 and 309.0 rpm, enzyme amounts of 4.82 and 5.65 g and substrate molar ratios of 2.94 and 3.39:1, respectively. The actual yields obtained compared well with the predicted values of 100.0% and 91.5%, respectively. Meanwhile, the properties of the esters show that they are suitable to be used as ingredient for cosmetic applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsions/chemistry*
  9. Rehman FU, Shah KU, Shah SU, Khan IU, Khan GM, Khan A
    Expert Opin Drug Deliv, 2017 Nov;14(11):1325-1340.
    PMID: 27485144 DOI: 10.1080/17425247.2016.1218462
    INTRODUCTION: Lipid-based drug delivery systems (LBDDS) are the most promising technique to formulate the poorly water soluble drugs. Nanotechnology strongly influences the therapeutic performance of hydrophobic drugs and has become an essential approach in drug delivery research. Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) are a vital strategy that combines benefits of LBDDS and nanotechnology. SNEDDS are now preferred to improve the formulation of drugs with poor aqueous solubility. Areas covered: The review in its first part shortly describes the LBDDS, nanoemulsions and clarifies the ambiguity between nanoemulsions and microemulsions. In the second part, the review discusses SNEDDS and elaborates on the current developments and modifications in this area without discussing their associated preparation techniques and excipient properties. Expert opinion: SNEDDS have exhibit the potential to increase the bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs. The stability of SNEDDS is further increased by solidification. Controlled release and supersaturation can be achieved, and are associated with increased patient compliance and improved drug loads, respectively. Presence of biodegradable ingredients and ease of large-scale manufacturing combined with a lot of 'drug-targeting opportunities' give SNEDDS a clear distinction and prominence over other solubility enhancement techniques.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsions/chemistry
  10. Choudhury H, Gorain B, Chatterjee B, Mandal UK, Sengupta P, Tekade RK
    Curr Pharm Des, 2017;23(17):2504-2531.
    PMID: 27908273 DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666161201143600
    BACKGROUND: Most of the active pharmaceutical ingredients discovered recently in pharmaceutical field exhibits poor aqueous solubility that pose major problem in their oral administration. The oral administration of these drugs gets further complicated due to their short bioavailability, inconsistent absorption and inter/intra subject variability.

    METHODS: Pharmaceutical emulsion holds a significant place as a primary choice of oral drug delivery system for lipophilic drugs used in pediatric and geriatric patients. Pharmacokinetic studies on nanoemulsion mediated drugs delivery approach indicates practical feasibility in regards to their clinical translation and commercialization.

    RESULTS: This review article is to provide an updated understanding on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic features of nanoemulsion delivered via oral, intravenous, topical and nasal route.

    CONCLUSION: The article is of huge interest to formulation scientists working on range of lipophilic drug molecules intended to be administered through oral, intravenous, topical and nasal routes for vivid medical benefits.

    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsions/chemistry*
  11. Lian Z, Chan Y, Luo Y, Yang X, Koh KS, Wang J, et al.
    Electrophoresis, 2020 06;41(10-11):891-901.
    PMID: 31998972 DOI: 10.1002/elps.201900403
    Scale-up in droplet microfluidics achieved by increasing the number of devices running in parallel or increasing the droplet makers in the same device can compromise the narrow droplet-size distribution, or requires high fabrication cost, when glass- or polymer-based microdevices are used. This paper reports a novel way using parallelization of needle-based microfluidic systems to form highly monodispersed droplets with enhanced production rates yet in cost-effective way, even when forming higher order emulsions with complex inner structure. Parallelization of multiple needle-based devices could be realized by applying commercially available two-way connecters and 3D-printed four-way connectors. The production rates of droplets could be enhanced around fourfold (over 660 droplets/min) to eightfold (over 1300 droplets/min) by two-way connecters and four-way connectors, respectively, for the production of the same kind of droplets than a single droplet maker (160 droplets/min). Additionally, parallelization of four-needle sets with each needle specification ranging from 34G to 20G allows for simultaneous generation of four groups of PDMS microdroplets with each group having distinct size yet high monodispersity (CV < 3%). Up to six cores can be encapsulated in double emulsion using two parallelly connected devices via tuning the capillary number of middle phase in a range of 1.31 × 10-4 to 4.64 × 10-4 . This study leads to enhanced production yields of droplets and enables the formation of groups of droplets simultaneously to meet extensive needs of biomedical and environmental applications, such as microcapsules with variable dosages for drug delivery or drug screening, or microcapsules with wide range of absorbent loadings for water treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsions/chemistry
  12. Manickam S, Sivakumar K, Pang CH
    Ultrason Sonochem, 2020 Dec;69:105258.
    PMID: 32702637 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2020.105258
    O/W nanoemulsions are isotropic colloidal systems constituted of oil droplets dispersed in continuous aqueous media and stabilised by surfactant molecules. Nanoemulsions hold applications in more widespread technological domains, more crucially in the pharmaceutical industry. Innovative nanoemulsion-based drug delivery system has been suggested as a powerful alternative strategy through the useful means of encapsulating, protecting, and delivering the poorly water-soluble bioactive components. Consequently, there is a need to generate an emulsion with small and consistent droplets. Diverse studies acknowledged that ultrasonic cavitation is a feasible and energy-efficient method in making pharmaceutical-grade nanoemulsions. This method offers more notable improvements in terms of stability with a lower Ostwald ripening rate. Meanwhile, a microstructured reactor, for instance, microchannel, has further been realised as an innovative technology that facilitates combinatorial approaches with the acceleration of reaction, analysis, and measurement. The recent breakthrough that has been achieved is the controlled generation of fine and monodispersed multiple emulsions through microstructured reactors. The small inner dimensions of microchannel display properties such as short diffusion paths and high specific interfacial areas, which increase the mass and heat transfer rates. Hence, the combination of ultrasonic cavitation with microstructures (microchannel) provides process intensification of creating a smaller monodispersed nanoemulsion system. This investigation is vital as it will then facilitate the creation of new nanoemulsion based drug delivery system continuously. Following this, the fabrication of microchannel and setup of its combination with ultrasound was conducted in the generation of O/W nanoemulsion, as well as optimisation to analyse the effect of varied operating parameters on the mean droplet diameter and dispersity of the nanoemulsion generated, besides monitoring the stability of the nanoemulsion. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images were also carried out for the droplet size measurements. In short, the outcomes of this study are encouraging, which necessitates further investigations to be carried out to advance a better understanding of coupling microchannel with ultrasound to produce pharmaceutical-grade nanoemulsions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsions/chemistry*
  13. Rehan F, Ahemad N, Gupta M
    Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 2019 Jul 01;179:280-292.
    PMID: 30981063 DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2019.03.051
    Casein nanomicelles, a major fraction of milk protein, are emerging as a novel drug delivery system owing to their various structural and functional properties. Casein is further divided into α-, β- and κ-casein, and to date various models have been proposed to describe casein structure, but still no definite structure presenting a detailed assembly of the casein micelle has been found. Thus far, the submicellar model and Horne and Holt model are the most accepted models. This article presents a detailed review of casein micelles and their fractions, and the physicochemical properties that account for their numerous applications in nutraceutics, pharmaceutics and cosmetics. Due to their nanosize and self-assembling nature, casein nanomicelles are considered as excellent delivery carriers to provide better bioavailability and stability of various compounds such as vitamins, oils, polyphenols, fattyacids and minerals. Their amphiphilic nature also provides a great opportunity to deliver hydrophobic bioactives in various drug delivery systems such as nanoparticles, nanomicelles, nanogels and nanoemulsions to improve drug binding and targeting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsions/chemistry
  14. Surjit Singh CK, Lim HP, Tey BT, Chan ES
    Carbohydr Polym, 2021 Jan 01;251:117110.
    PMID: 33142647 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.117110
    The commercial application of liquid-state Pickering emulsions in food systems remains a major challenge. In this study, we developed a spray-dried Pickering emulsion powder using chitosan as a Pickering emulsifier and alginate as a coating material. The functionality of the powder was evaluated in terms of its oxidative stability, pH-responsiveness, mucoadhesivity, and lipid digestibility. The Pickering emulsion powder was oxidatively more stable than the conventional emulsion powder stabilized by gum Arabic. The powder exhibited pH-responsiveness, whereby it remained intact in acidic pH, but dissolved to release the emulsion in 'Pickering form' at near-neutral pH. The Pickering emulsion powder was also mucoadhesive and could be digested by lipase in a controlled manner. These findings suggested that the multi-functional Pickering emulsion powder could be a potential delivery system for applications in the food industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsions/chemistry
  15. Yang J, Qiu C, Li G, Lee WJ, Tan CP, Lai OM, et al.
    Food Chem, 2020 Oct 15;327:127014.
    PMID: 32434126 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127014
    The influence of diacylglycerol (DAG) combined with polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) on the stability of water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions containing hydrogenated palm oil (HPO) was studied. Polarized light microscope revealed that DAG promoted HPO to crystallize at the water-oil interface, providing the combination of Pickering and network stabilization effects. It was proposed that the molecular compatibility of fatty acids in DAG with HPO accounted for the promotional effect. The interfacial crystallization of DAG together with the surface activity of PGPR led to the formation of emulsions with uniform small droplets and high freeze-thaw stability. Further exploration of physical properties indicated that the combination of DAG and PGPR dramatically improved the emulsion's viscoelasticity and obtained a larger deformation yield. Water droplets in DAG-based emulsions acted as active fillers to improve the network rigidity. Therefore, DAG is a promising material to be used as emulsifier to enhance the physical stability of W/O emulsions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsions/chemistry*
  16. Samiun WS, Ashari SE, Salim N, Ahmad S
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2020;15:1585-1594.
    PMID: 32210553 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S198914
    Background: Aripiprazole, which is a quinolinone derivative, has been widely used to treat schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder.

    Purpose: A Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used purposely to optimize process parameters conditions for formulating nanoemulsion containing aripiprazole using high emulsification methods.

    Methods: This design is used to investigate the influences of four independent variables (overhead stirring time (A), shear rate (B), shear time (C), and the cycle of high-pressure homogenizer (D)) on the response variable namely, a droplet size (Y) of nanoemulsion containing aripiprazole.

    Results: The optimum conditions suggested by the predicted model were: 120 min of overhead stirring time, 15 min of high shear homogenizer time, 4400 rpm of high shear homogenizer rate and 11 cycles of high-pressure homogenizer, giving a desirable droplet size of nanoemulsion containing aripiprazole of 64.52 nm for experimental value and 62.59 nm for predicted value. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed the quadratic polynomial fitted the experimental values with F-value (9.53), a low p-value (0.0003) and a non-significant lack of-fit. It proved that the models were adequate to predict the relevance response. The optimized formulation with a viscosity value of 3.72 mPa.s and pH value of 7.4 showed good osmolality value (297 mOsm/kg) and remained stable for three months in three different temperatures (4°C, 25°C, and 45°C).

    Conclusion: This proven that response surface methodology is an efficient tool to produce desirable droplet size of nanoemulsion containing aripiprazole for parenteral delivery application.

    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsions/chemistry*
  17. Abdul Hadi N, Marefati A, Matos M, Wiege B, Rayner M
    Carbohydr Polym, 2020 Jul 15;240:116264.
    PMID: 32475554 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.116264
    Acetylated, propionylated and butyrylated rice and quinoa starches at different levels of modification and starch concentrations, were used to stabilize oil-in-water starch Pickering emulsions at 10% oil fraction. Short-chain fatty acid modified starch Pickering emulsions (SPEs) were characterized after emulsification and after 50 days of storage. The particle size distribution, microstructure, emulsion index, and stability were evaluated. An increase in starch concentration led to a decrease of emulsion droplet sizes. Quinoa starch has shown the capability of stabilizing Pickering emulsions in both the native and modified forms. The emulsifying capacity of SPEs was improved by increasing the chain length of SCFA. Modified quinoa starch with higher chain lengths (i.e. propionylated and butyrylated), at higher levels of modification, showed higher emulsion index (>71%) and stability over the entire 50 days storage. At optimized formulation, SCFA-starch particles have the potential in stabilizing emulsions for functional foods, pharmaceutical formulations, or industrial food applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsions/chemistry*
  18. Ngan CL, Basri M, Tripathy M, Abedi Karjiban R, Abdul-Malek E
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:219035.
    PMID: 25165736 DOI: 10.1155/2014/219035
    Fullerene nanoemulsions were formulated in palm kernel oil esters stabilized by low amount of mixed nonionic surfactants. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were established in the colloidal system of PKOEs/Tween 80 : Span 80/water incorporated with fullerene as antioxidant. Preformulation was subjected to combination of high and low energy emulsification methods and the physicochemical characteristics of fullerene nanoemulsions were analyzed using electroacoustic spectrometer. Oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsions with particle sizes in the range of 70-160 nm were formed. The rheological characteristics of colloidal systems exhibited shear thinning behavior which fitted well into the power law model. The effect of xanthan gum (0.2-1.0%, w/w) and beeswax (1-3%, w/w) in the estimation of thermodynamics was further studied. From the energetic parameters calculated for the viscous flow, a moderate energy barrier for transport process was observed. Thermodynamic study showed that the enthalpy was positive in all xanthan gum and beeswax concentrations indicating that the formation of nanoemulsions could be endothermic in nature. Fullerene nanoemulsions with 0.6% or higher xanthan gum content were found to be stable against creaming and flocculation when exposed to extreme environmental conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsions/chemistry
  19. Ngan CL, Basri M, Lye FF, Fard Masoumi HR, Tripathy M, Karjiban RA, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2014;9:4375-86.
    PMID: 25258528 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S65689
    This research aims to formulate and to optimize a nanoemulsion-based formulation containing fullerene, an antioxidant, stabilized by a low amount of mixed surfactants using high shear and the ultrasonic emulsification method for transdermal delivery. Process parameters optimization of fullerene nanoemulsions was done by employing response surface methodology, which involved statistical multivariate analysis. Optimization of independent variables was investigated using experimental design based on Box-Behnken design and central composite rotatable design. An investigation on the effect of the homogenization rate (4,000-5,000 rpm), sonication amplitude (20%-60%), and sonication time (30-150 seconds) on the particle size, ζ-potential, and viscosity of the colloidal systems was conducted. Under the optimum conditions, the central composite rotatable design model suggested the response variables for particle size, ζ-potential, and viscosity of the fullerene nanoemulsion were 152.5 nm, -52.6 mV, and 44.6 pascal seconds, respectively. In contrast, the Box-Behnken design model proposed that preparation under the optimum condition would produce nanoemulsion with particle size, ζ-potential, and viscosity of 148.5 nm, -55.2 mV, and 39.9 pascal seconds, respectively. The suggested process parameters to obtain optimum formulation by both models yielded actual response values similar to the predicted values with residual standard error of <2%. The optimum formulation showed more elastic and solid-like characteristics due to the existence of a large linear viscoelastic region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsions/chemistry
  20. Cheong KW, Mirhosseini H, Hamid NS, Osman A, Basri M, Tan CP
    Molecules, 2014 Jun 24;19(6):8691-706.
    PMID: 24962400 DOI: 10.3390/molecules19068691
    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of main emulsion components namely, modified starch, propylene glycol alginate (PGA), sucrose laurate and sucrose stearate on creaming index, cloudiness, average droplet size and conductivity of soursop beverage emulsions. Generally, the use of different emulsifiers or a mixture of emulsifiers has a significant (p < 0.05) effect on the response variables studied. The addition of PGA had a significant (p < 0.05) effect on the creaming index at 55 °C, while PGA-stabilized (PGA1) emulsions showed low creaming stability at both 25 °C and 55 °C. Conversely, the utilization of PGA either as a mixture or sole emulsifier, showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher cloudiness, as larger average droplet size will affect the refractive index of the oil and aqueous phases. Additionally, the cloudiness was directly proportional to the mean droplet size of the dispersed phase. The inclusion of PGA into the formulation could have disrupted the properties of the interfacial film, thus resulting in larger droplet size. While unadsorbed ionized PGA could have contributed to higher conductivity of emulsions prepared at low pH. Generally, emulsions prepared using sucrose monoesters or as a mixture with modified starch emulsions have significantly (p < 0.05) lower creaming index and conductivity values, but higher cloudiness and average droplet size.
    Matched MeSH terms: Emulsions/chemistry
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