Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 56 in total

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  1. Moorhouse DE
    J Med Entomol, 1965 Jun;2(2):109-19.
    PMID: 5827566
    Matched MeSH terms: Entomology
  2. Hawkes F, Manin BO, Ng SH, Torr SJ, Drakeley C, Chua TH, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2017 Jul 18;10(1):338.
    PMID: 28720113 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-017-2277-3
    BACKGROUND: Plasmodium knowlesi is found in macaques and is the only major zoonotic malaria to affect humans. Transmission of P. knowlesi between people and macaques depends on the host species preferences and feeding behavior of mosquito vectors. However, these behaviours are difficult to measure due to the lack of standardized methods for sampling potential vectors attracted to different host species. This study evaluated electrocuting net traps as a safe, standardised method for sampling P. knowlesi vectors attracted to human and macaque hosts. Field experiments were conducted within a major focus on P. knowlesi transmission in Malaysian Borneo to compare the performance of human (HENET) or macaque (MENET) odour-baited electrocuting nets, human landing catches (HLC) and monkey-baited traps (MBT) for sampling mosquitoes. The abundance and diversity of Anopheles sampled by different methods were compared over 40 nights, with a focus on the P. knowlesi vector Anopheles balabancensis.

    RESULTS: HLC caught more An. balabacensis than any other method (3.6 per night). In contrast, no An. balabacensis were collected in MBT collections, which generally performed poorly for all mosquito taxa. Anopheles vector species including An. balabacensis were sampled in both HENET and MENET collections, but at a mean abundance of less than 1 per night. There was no difference between HENET and MENET in the overall abundance (P = 0.05) or proportion (P = 0.7) of An. balabacensis. The estimated diversity of Anopheles species was marginally higher in electrocuting net than HLC collections, and similar in collections made with humans or monkey hosts.

    CONCLUSIONS: Host-baited electrocuting nets had moderate success for sampling known zoonotic malaria vectors. The primary vector An. balabacensis was collected with electrocuting nets baited both with humans and macaques, but at a considerably lower density than the HLC standard. However, electrocuting nets were considerably more successful than monkey-baited traps and representatively characterised anopheline species diversity. Consequently, their use allows inferences about relative mosquito attraction to be meaningfully interpreted while eliminating confounding factors due to trapping method. On this basis, electrocuting net traps should be considered as a useful standardised method for investigating vector contact with humans and wildlife reservoirs.

    Matched MeSH terms: Entomology/methods*; Entomology/standards
  3. Syamsa RA, Ahmad FM, Marwi MA, Zuha RM, Omar B
    Med J Malaysia, 2010 Sep;65(3):192-5.
    PMID: 21939166 MyJurnal
    This study reviews forensic entomological specimens analysed by the Department of Parasitology & Medical Entomology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia for the year 2004. A total of 10 cases (6 males and 4 females) were observed for the entomological specimens. Various types of death scenes were obtained including indoor and outdoor area such as bushes field, rubbish dumping site, and aquatic areas. Identified fly species collected from the death sites were blow flies, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies and Lucilia cuprina and unknown sarcophagid larvae, with Ch. megacephala being the most common species found in the ecologically varied death scene habitats. The post-mortem interval (PMI) estimation ranged from one to five days, based on the entomological specimens collected.
    Matched MeSH terms: Entomology*
  4. Jaal Z, MacDonald WW
    PMID: 1488703
    Collections of adult anopheline mosquitos were made from a cow-baited trap in nine coastal villages located along nearly 160km of northwest peninsular Malaysia. Two collections, separated by 1.5 to 6 months, were made at each site. Nearly 6,000 anophelines of 19 species were collected. The dominant species were Anopheles peditaeniatus. An. sinensis, An. subpictus and An. lesteri paraliae. Small numbers of the malaria vectors An. maculatus (at one site) and An. campestris (at four sites) were collected, but no An. sundaicus were recorded.
    Matched MeSH terms: Entomology/methods
  5. Aruna Devi A, Abu Hassan A, Kumara TK, Che Salmah MR
    Trop Biomed, 2011 Dec;28(3):524-30.
    PMID: 22433881
    The life history of the male and female of the indoor forensic fly, Synthesiomyia nudiseta was studied under fluctuating temperature of indoor environments and analysed based on the age-stage and two sex life table. The life cycle of S. nudiseta was 14.0±1.0 days from the egg stage to adult emergence. The population parameters calculated were; net reproduction rate (R(o)= 108.6), mean generation time (T(o)= 12.2), intrinsic rate of increase (r(m)= 0.38), and finite rate of increase (λ= 1.46). The pre-oviposition period (APOP) was 6.0± 0.1 days. All population parameters suggested that S. nudiseta exhibits the r-strategist characteristics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Entomology/methods
  6. Rozita Hod, Hidayatulfathi Othman, Nurul Azimah Jemain, Mazrura Sahani, Kamarulismail Udin, Zainudin Mohd Ali, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2013;3(2):347-352.
    MyJurnal
    Dengue is a disease propagated by vectors namely Aedes spp. mosquitoes. One of the effective approaches to control dengue is through integrated vector management and intervention programs. COMBI or Communication for Behavioral Impact is a strategic approach to control the Aedes population as well as dengue cases. This study was conducted at Taman Desa Kolej, Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, an suburban residential area to determine the effectiveness of COMBI, by using questionnaire and entomological survey as well as implementation of an intervention program. We carried out activities such as the establishment of COMBI promoter team, clean up events, talk shows with the residential community and distributed pamphlets containing information about dengue. Results indicated significant difference (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Entomology
  7. Heo, Chong Chin, Mohamad Abdullah Marwi, Jeffery, John, Sofian-azirun, M., Chen, Chee Dhang, Wan Omar Abdullah, et al.
    MyJurnal
    An entomological study was conducted in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor, Malaysia in May until September 2007 revealing five species of butterflies (all from family Nymphalidae) were attracted to pig carcasses placed in an oil palm plantation. Euploea mulciber (Cramer 1777), Hypolimnas bolina (Linnaeus 1758), Elymnias hypermnestra (Linnaeus 1763), Mycalesis mineus (Linnaeus 1758) and Ypthima baldus (Fabricius 1775) came to the carcasses at different stages of decomposition. From this study, we know that nymphalid butterflies are attracted to carcasses but their roles are most probably unimportant in post-mortem estimation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Entomology
  8. Williams CR, Gill BS, Mincham G, Mohd Zaki AH, Abdullah N, Mahiyuddin WR, et al.
    Epidemiol Infect, 2015 Oct;143(13):2856-64.
    PMID: 25591942 DOI: 10.1017/S095026881400380X
    We aimed to reparameterize and validate an existing dengue model, comprising an entomological component (CIMSiM) and a disease component (DENSiM) for application in Malaysia. With the model we aimed to measure the effect of importation rate on dengue incidence, and to determine the potential impact of moderate climate change (a 1 °C temperature increase) on dengue activity. Dengue models (comprising CIMSiM and DENSiM) were reparameterized for a simulated Malaysian village of 10 000 people, and validated against monthly dengue case data from the district of Petaling Jaya in the state of Selangor. Simulations were also performed for 2008-2012 for variable virus importation rates (ranging from 1 to 25 per week) and dengue incidence determined. Dengue incidence in the period 2010-2012 was modelled, twice, with observed daily weather and with a 1 °C increase, the latter to simulate moderate climate change. Strong concordance between simulated and observed monthly dengue cases was observed (up to r = 0·72). There was a linear relationship between importation and incidence. However, a doubling of dengue importation did not equate to a doubling of dengue activity. The largest individual dengue outbreak was observed with the lowest dengue importation rate. Moderate climate change resulted in an overall decrease in dengue activity over a 3-year period, linked to high human seroprevalence early on in the simulation. Our results suggest that moderate reductions in importation with control programmes may not reduce the frequency of large outbreaks. Moderate increases in temperature do not necessarily lead to greater dengue incidence.
    Matched MeSH terms: Entomology/methods*
  9. Amir A, Sum JS, Lau YL, Vythilingam I, Fong MY
    Parasit Vectors, 2013;6:81.
    PMID: 23537404 DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-6-81
    Anopheles cracens has been incriminated as a vector for the simian malaria parasite, Plasmodium knowlesi, that is the fifth Plasmodium species infecting humans. Little experimental data exists on this mosquito species due to the lack of its availability in laboratories.
    Matched MeSH terms: Entomology/methods*
  10. Jaal Z, MacDonald WW
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol, 1992 Aug;86(4):419-24.
    PMID: 1463364
    In a coastal village in northwest Malaysia, 3231 fed Anopheles females of eight to 10 species were collected, marked with fluorescent dust, and released on three consecutive nights. In collections made on the 10 nights after the first release, 58 mosquitoes of three species, An. lesteri paraliae, An. subpictus and An. vagus, were recaptured; the recapture rates were 3.42%, 1.19% and 0.97%, respectively. The data for An. subpictus and An. vagus were insufficient for further analysis. Those for An. l. paraliae were plotted against time of recapture and, from the regression coefficient, an estimate of 0.68 was obtained for the daily survival rate. An independent estimate based on the parous rate during the previous year was 0.55. The temporal distribution of the recaptures strongly suggested a gonotrophic cycle and oviposition cycle of two days.
    Matched MeSH terms: Entomology/methods
  11. Zuha RM, Jenarthanan LX, Disney RH, Omar B
    Trop Biomed, 2015 Sep;32(3):568-72.
    PMID: 26695221 MyJurnal
    In forensic entomology, larval rearing usually includes the presence of biological contaminants including scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae). Scuttle flies are recognized as forensically important insects and have been reported causing nuisance and contamination in laboratory environments. This paper reports for the first time the finding of multiple scuttle fly species affecting colonies of third instar larvae of the Oriental latrine blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), reared indoors at the Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Adult scuttle flies were discovered inside a rearing container after the emergence of adult C. megacephala., The scuttle fly species are Megaselia scalaris (Loew), M. spiracularis Schmitz and Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler). Notes on the life history and biology of these species are discussed herein.
    Matched MeSH terms: Entomology/methods*
  12. Heo CC, Aisha S, Kurahashi H, Omar B
    Trop Biomed, 2013 Mar;30(1):159-63.
    PMID: 23665723 MyJurnal
    Isomyia paurogonita Fang & Fan, 1986 (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a rare species of the subfamily Rhiniinae (tribe Cosminini) was recorded for the first time in Malaysia. We collected one male and two females during a field trip conducted at Genting Highland, Pahang, peninsular Malaysia in May 2011. A 3-day old cow liver was offered as attractant and dipterans collected were transferred to the laboratory for specimens processing and identification. The adults of I. paurogonita were attracted to the odour and then captured by using a sweep net. Isomyia paurogonita was also recorded from two other localities in Peninsular and Malaysian Borneo, namely Gombak Utara, Selangor and Sibu, Sarawak.
    Matched MeSH terms: Entomology/methods
  13. Heo CC, Mohamad AM, John J, Baharudin O
    Trop Biomed, 2008 Apr;25(1):93-5.
    PMID: 18600210 MyJurnal
    During a forensic entomological study conducted in a palm oil plantation in Tg.Sepat, Selangor in September 2007, a spider (Arachnida), Oxyopes sp. (Oxyopidae) was found to predate on a calliphorid fly (Chrysomya rufifacies). The female spider laid a silk thread, or "drag line", behind it as it moved. This spider bites its prey by using a pairs of chelicerae, and injecting venom into the fly. The fly was moving its wing trying to escape, however, it succumbed to the deadly bite.
    Matched MeSH terms: Entomology/methods
  14. Kumara TK, Disney RH, Abu Hassan A, Flores M, Hwa TS, Mohamed Z, et al.
    J. Vector Ecol., 2012 Jun;37(1):62-8.
    PMID: 22548537 DOI: 10.1111/j.1948-7134.2012.00200.x
    Flies attracted to human remains during death investigations were surveyed in north Peninsular Malaysia. Six families, eight genera, and 16 species were identified from human remains, with the greatest fly diversity occurring on remains recovered indoors. The total relative frequency of species was led by Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (46%), followed by Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart, 1842) (22%), Sarcophaga (Liopygia) ruficornis (Fabricius, 1974) (5%), Sarcophaga spp. (4%), Synthesiomyia nudiseta Wulp, 1883 (6%), Megaselia spp. (3%), Megaselia scalaris (Loew, 1866), (2%), Megaselia spiracularis Schmitz, 1938 (2%), and Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton, 1922 (2%). Hemipyrellia tagaliana (Bigot, 1877), Desmometopa sp., Megaselia curtineura (Brues, 1909), Hemipyrellia ligurriens Wiedemann 1830, Ophyra sp., Sarcophaga princeps Wiedemann 1830, Piophila casei (Linnaeus, 1758), and unidentified pupae each represented 1%, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Entomology
  15. Noor Afizah A., Mohd Arif A.K., Nazni W.A., Lee, H.L.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: Entomological surveillance is crucial to determine the abundance of dengue vector and to evaluate breeding areas of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The objective of this study is to determine the distribution and breeding preference for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in dengue endemic areas. Materials and Methods: Ovitraps surveillance was conducted in two dengue endemic areas; AU2, Keramat and Seksyen 7, Shah Alam, Selangor. A minimum number of 100 ovitraps were deployed for 5 days in the study sites. Samples collected were brought back to the lab and all larvae recovered were identified to species level. Results: The ovitap index (OI) in both localities exceeded the transmission threshold of 10% with the OI recorded ranged from 42.3-79.8% in AU2, Keramat and 16.7-42.9% in Seksyen 7, Shah Alam. Ae. albopictus was the dominant species in AU2 Keramat with the highest ratio Ae. aegypti to Ae. albopictus recorded was 1.00:22.79. Nonetheless, in Seksyen 7, Shah Alam the difference in Ae. aegypti to Ae. albopictus ratio is not really prominent with 1.00:3.61 for ovitraps deployed outdoor and 3.40:1.00 for ovitraps set indoor. It was determined that single infestation of either Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus is more frequent for ovitraps deployed indoor and/or outdoor, respectively. It was also determined that mixed infestations were found in this study indicating that both species can oviposit in the same container. Conclusion: This study indicates that OI is still above transmission threshold in both study sites. While Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus remain as a dominant indoor and outdoor breeder, respectively, mixed breeding of Aedes species in a same container was also observed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Entomology
  16. Elamathi N, Barik TK, Verma V, Velamuri PS, Bhatt RM, Sharma SK, et al.
    Parasitol Res, 2014 Oct;113(10):3859-66.
    PMID: 25098343 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-014-4054-y
    The WHO adult susceptibility test is in use for insecticide resistance monitoring. Presently, materials are being imported from the Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia and sometimes it is cost prohibitive. As an alternative, we present here a method of bottle bioassay using indigenous material. Different aspects related to the assay were studied and validated in the field. Bottle assay was standardized in the laboratory by using locally sourced material and laboratory-maintained insecticide-susceptible Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti strains against technical grade deltamethrin and cyfluthrin insecticides dissolved in ethanol in a range of different concentrations. The frequency of use of the deltamethrin-coated bottles and shelf-life were determined. Discriminating dose for deltamethrin and cyfluthrin was 10 μg against An. stephensi and 2 μg against Ae. aegypti females. Insecticide-coated bottles stored at 25 to 35 °C can be used for three exposures within 7 days of coating. The study carried out in the laboratory was validated on wild caught An. culicifacies in the states of Odisha and Chhattisgarh against deltamethrin-coated bottles in comparison to WHO adult susceptibility test. Results of the study indicated that deltamethrin-coated bottles were effective up to three exposures within 7 days of coating for field population and 100% mortality was recorded within 35 min as observed in laboratory studies for field collected susceptible population. Also in the WHO adult susceptibility test, 100% knock-down within 35 min and 100% mortality after 24 h holding period were observed in susceptible population, while in it was 50% knock-down in 1 h and 64% mortality after 24 h holding period for resistant population (50% mortality in bottle assay in 60 min). The bottle assay can be used as an alternative to the WHO adult susceptibility test both in the laboratory and field for monitoring insecticide resistance in mosquito vectors using locally sourced material.
    Matched MeSH terms: Entomology/instrumentation; Entomology/methods*
  17. Zuha RM, See HW, Disney RH, Omar B
    Forensic Sci Int, 2014 Dec;245:e36-7.
    PMID: 25466156 DOI: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2014.10.034
    Scuttle flies of genus Puliciphora Dahl (Diptera: Phoridae) are recorded for the first time in Malaysia from rabbit carcasses placed in concealed environments. They consist of Puliciphora borinquenensis Wheeler ♂♀, Puliciphora obtecta Meijere ♀ and Puliciphora beckeri Meijere ♀. All species were obtained from rabbit carcasses in used luggage and garbage bin placed at Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor. The specimens were collected from the carcasses using a modified Malaise trap, an entomological aspirator and preserved in 70% ethanol. This report expands the geographical distributions of these species and their microhabitat, suggests its possible important role in forensic entomology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Entomology
  18. Ahmad A, Ahmad AH, Dieng H, Satho T, Ahmad H, Aziz AT, et al.
    J Med Entomol, 2011 Nov;48(6):1236-46.
    PMID: 22238885
    There is accumulating evidence that criminals wrap dead bodies in an attempt to conceal evidence. To anticipate the forensic implications of this phenomenon, we examined whether flies that are naturally associated with cadavers exhibit a delay in attendance or differ in species composition and abundance patterns because of the presence of wrapping material. Wrapped and exposed carcasses of dead monkeys placed in an oil plantation in Kedah, Malaysia, were visited over 50 d. On daily visits to each of the six carcasses, visiting adult flies were sampled using hand nets. Flies of 12 families were encountered. Calliphoridae (Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart and C. megacephala (F.) was the most prevalent family, followed by Sphaeroceridae. Some families tended to be more abundant in WRCs (i.e., Calliphoridae, Muscidae, and Phoridae), whereas others (i.e., Piophilidae, Sepsidae, and Psychodidae) were more prevalent in exposed carcasses. Wrapping delayed the arrival of all fly species encountered, with delays varying from 1 to 13 d depending on species. Wrapping did not affect species composition of flies, but prolong the occurrence of some species. The results of the current study emphasize the need to take into consideration the presence of a wrap when estimating postmortem interval.
    Matched MeSH terms: Entomology
  19. Mahat NA, Zainol-Abidin NL, Nordin NH, Abdul-Wahab R, Jayaprakash PT
    Forensic Sci Int, 2016 Mar;260:9-13.
    PMID: 26779962 DOI: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2015.12.047
    Considering that crimes against animals such as illegal killing and cruelty have been alarmingly increasing and since burning is one of the common ways for disposing cadavers, ability to estimate minimum postmortem interval (PMI) using entomological data merits consideration. Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies are common necrophagous species recovered from cadavers in many countries including Malaysia. Specific studies focusing on the oviposition and developmental patterns of both species on cadavers manifesting different levels of burn as described by the Crow-Glassman Scale (CGS) remain scarce. In four replicates, rabbit carcasses were burned to CGS levels #1, #2 and #3 by varying the amount of petrol used and duration of burning. Oviposition by C. megacephala and C. rufifacies was delayed by one day in the case of carcasses burned to the CGS level #3 (p<0.05) when compared with that of controls. Such delay in oviposition was not observed in the CGS level #1 and #2 carcasses. No significant differences (p>0.05) in the duration of development were found between control and burned carcasses. These findings deserve consideration while estimating minimum PMI since burning as a mean for disposing animal and human cadavers is gaining popularity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Entomology
  20. Ezlan Elias, Khairul Osman, Sharifa Abdul Aziz, Abdul Halim Mansar, Siti Fatimah Ibrahim, Jamaludin Mohamed
    MyJurnal
    Establishing time of death has been extensively studied for the last 30 years. Parameters that have been studied included body temperature, biochemistry of rigor mortis, putrefactive changes and entomology. Despite an extensive study in these parameters it was found that all of the parameters were very much dependent on external factors like changes in surrounding temperature and activities done prior to death. To solve this problem, we decided to monitor the mechanism that occurs during death. Until now, various researches have found that during the early stage of death, heart and perfusion to the cells will stop. This will cause the cells to start the death process. The death of the cell will occurs either through apoptosis or necrosis. During apoptosis the cells will switch on and off a few proteins in a sequence. Based on this understanding, a study was conducted to determine if area ratio of apoptosis: necrosis and apoptotic p53 and Bcl-2 markers can be used as a reliable postmortem interval marker (PMI). Sampling of the study had involved 100 dead human skins with a known PMI. All samples were obtained from forensic unit of Hospital Kuala Lumpur (UFHKL). Ratio of apoptosis: necrosis areas were determined using hematoxilin and eosin staining while apoptosis p53 and Bcl-2 markers were done using an apoptosis kit. All staining were then indexed and plotted against PMI data obtained from UFHKL. Results indicated that there were no significant correlations between ratio of apoptosis: necrosis area against PMI (p = 0.144). Whereas for both apoptotic markers p53 and Bcl-2 PMI had shown a significant correlation (p < 0.000 for both results). In conclusion, we suggest that p53 and Bcl-2 parameters should be studied further since it is very likely that it could be a good indicator for PMI.
    Matched MeSH terms: Entomology
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