Displaying all 20 publications

  1. Lu S, Shih JY, Jang TW, Liam CK, Yu Y
    Adv Ther, 2021 05;38(5):2038-2053.
    PMID: 33730350 DOI: 10.1007/s12325-021-01696-9
    Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR TKIs) are a standard of care in the first-line treatment of patients with EGFR mutation-positive metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). EGFR mutations are relatively common in Asian patients with NSCLC, and there is an increasing number of studies supporting the effectiveness of the second-generation TKI afatinib in routine clinical practice in Asia. This article reviews these real-world studies investigating afatinib as first-line treatment for EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC in Asian patients. Evidence from real-world studies with afatinib in this patient population supports findings from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showing that afatinib is associated with more favorable outcomes compared with the first-generation EGFR TKIs. The effectiveness of afatinib has also been shown in real-world studies in Asian patients with poor prognostic factors, who are often under-represented or excluded from RCTs, such as those with uncommon EGFR mutations, brain metastases, or poor performance status, and elderly patients. The tolerability profile of afatinib in the real-world setting reflects that seen in RCTs, with no new safety signals reported in real-world studies in Asian patients with EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC. Dose-modification strategies also seem to be effective in the real world, with results of the RealGido study, which included 44% Asian patients, confirming findings from prospective clinical trials showing that tolerability-guided afatinib dose modifications can reduce the incidence of adverse events without adversely affecting clinical outcomes. While further research, including clinical trial data, is needed, real-world data have also demonstrated the feasibility of sequential afatinib followed by the third-generation TKI osimertinib in T790M-positive EGFR mutation-positive patients, which showed longer overall survival. Together, these real-world results demonstrate the real-world clinical effectiveness of afatinib as first-line treatment for patients with EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC.
    Matched MeSH terms: ErbB Receptors/genetics
  2. Ninomiya K, Arimura H, Tanaka K, Chan WY, Kabata Y, Mizuno S, et al.
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2023 Jun;236:107544.
    PMID: 37148668 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2023.107544
    OBJECTIVES: To elucidate a novel radiogenomics approach using three-dimensional (3D) topologically invariant Betti numbers (BNs) for topological characterization of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) Del19 and L858R mutation subtypes.

    METHODS: In total, 154 patients (wild-type EGFR, 72 patients; Del19 mutation, 45 patients; and L858R mutation, 37 patients) were retrospectively enrolled and randomly divided into 92 training and 62 test cases. Two support vector machine (SVM) models to distinguish between wild-type and mutant EGFR (mutation [M] classification) as well as between the Del19 and L858R subtypes (subtype [S] classification) were trained using 3DBN features. These features were computed from 3DBN maps by using histogram and texture analyses. The 3DBN maps were generated using computed tomography (CT) images based on the Čech complex constructed on sets of points in the images. These points were defined by coordinates of voxels with CT values higher than several threshold values. The M classification model was built using image features and demographic parameters of sex and smoking status. The SVM models were evaluated by determining their classification accuracies. The feasibility of the 3DBN model was compared with those of conventional radiomic models based on pseudo-3D BN (p3DBN), two-dimensional BN (2DBN), and CT and wavelet-decomposition (WD) images. The validation of the model was repeated with 100 times random sampling.

    RESULTS: The mean test accuracies for M classification with 3DBN, p3DBN, 2DBN, CT, and WD images were 0.810, 0.733, 0.838, 0.782, and 0.799, respectively. The mean test accuracies for S classification with 3DBN, p3DBN, 2DBN, CT, and WD images were 0.773, 0.694, 0.657, 0.581, and 0.696, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: 3DBN features, which showed a radiogenomic association with the characteristics of the EGFR Del19/L858R mutation subtypes, yielded higher accuracy for subtype classifications in comparison with conventional features.

    Matched MeSH terms: ErbB Receptors/genetics
  3. Shi Yeen TN, Pathmanathan R, Shiran MS, Ahmad Zaid FA, Cheah YK
    J Biomed Sci, 2013 Apr 16;20:22.
    PMID: 23590575 DOI: 10.1186/1423-0127-20-22
    BACKGROUND: Somatic mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are reportedly associated with various responses in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients receiving the anti-EGFR agents. Detection of the mutation therefore plays an important role in therapeutic decision making. The aim of this study was to detect EGFR mutations in formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) samples using both Scorpion ARMS and high resolution melt (HRM) assay, and to compare the sensitivity of these methods.

    RESULTS: All of the mutations were found in adenocarcinoma, except one that was in squamous cell carcinoma. The mutation rate was 45.7% (221/484). Complex mutations were also observed, wherein 8 tumours carried 2 mutations and 1 tumour carried 3 mutations.

    CONCLUSIONS: Both methods detected EGFR mutations in FFPE samples. HRM assays gave more EGFR positive results compared to Scorpion ARMS.

    Matched MeSH terms: ErbB Receptors/genetics*
  4. Ramanathan S, Gopinath SCB, Arshad MKM, Poopalan P, Anbu P
    Mikrochim Acta, 2019 07 18;186(8):546.
    PMID: 31321546 DOI: 10.1007/s00604-019-3696-y
    A genomic DNA-based colorimetric assay is described for the detection of the early growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation, which is the protruding reason for non-small cell lung cancer. A DNA sequence was designed and immobilized on unmodified gold nanoparticles (GNPs). The formation of the respective duplex indicates the presence of an EGFR mutation. It is accompanied by the aggregation of the GNPs in the presence of monovalent ions, and it indicates the presence of an EGFR mutation. This is accompanied by a color change from red (520 nm) to purple (620 nm). Aggregation was evidenced by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The limit of detection is 313 nM of the mutant target strand. A similar peak shift was observed for 2.5 μM concentrations of wild type target. No significant peak shift was observed with probe and non-complementary DNA. Graphical abstract Schematic representation of high-specific genomic DNA sequence on gold nanoparticle (GNP) aggregation with sodium chloride (NaCl). It illustrates the detection method for EGFR mutation on lung cancer detection. Red and purple colors of tubes represent dispersed and aggregated GNP, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: ErbB Receptors/genetics*
  5. Ahn MJ, Mendoza MJL, Pavlakis N, Kato T, Soo RA, Kim DW, et al.
    Clin Lung Cancer, 2022 Dec;23(8):670-685.
    PMID: 36151006 DOI: 10.1016/j.cllc.2022.07.012
    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a heterogeneous disease, with many oncogenic driver mutations, including de novo mutations in the Mesenchymal Epithelial Transition (MET) gene (specifically in Exon 14 [ex14]), that lead to tumourigenesis. Acquired alterations in the MET gene, specifically MET amplification is also associated with the development of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance in patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC. Although MET has become an actionable biomarker with the availability of MET-specific inhibitors in selected countries, there is differential accessibility to diagnostic platforms and targeted therapies across countries in Asia-Pacific (APAC). The Asian Thoracic Oncology Research Group (ATORG), an interdisciplinary group of experts from Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Mainland China, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam, discussed testing for MET alterations and considerations for using MET-specific inhibitors at a consensus meeting in January 2022, and in subsequent offline consultation. Consensus recommendations are provided by the ATORG group to address the unmet need for standardised approaches to diagnosing MET alterations in NSCLC and for using these therapies. MET inhibitors may be considered for first-line or second or subsequent lines of treatment for patients with advanced and metastatic NSCLC harbouring MET ex14 skipping mutations; MET ex14 testing is preferred within multi-gene panels for detecting targetable driver mutations in NSCLC. For patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC and MET amplification leading to EGFR TKI resistance, enrolment in combination trials of EGFR TKIs and MET inhibitors is encouraged.
    Matched MeSH terms: ErbB Receptors/genetics
  6. Dzul Keflee R, Leong KH, Ogawa S, Bignon J, Chan MC, Kong KW
    Biochem Pharmacol, 2022 Nov;205:115262.
    PMID: 36191627 DOI: 10.1016/j.bcp.2022.115262
    The role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been vastly studied over the last decade. This has led to the rapid development of many generations of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). However, patients treated with third-generation TKIs (osimertinib, avitinib and rociletinib) targeting the EGFR T790M mutation have shown emerging resistances and relapses. Therefore, further molecular understanding of NSCLC mutations, bypass signalling, tumour microenvironment and the existence of cancer stem cells to overcome such resistances is warranted. This will pave the way for designing novel and effective chemotherapies to improve patients' overall survival. In this review, we provide an overview of the multifaceted mechanisms of resistance towards EGFR-TKIs, as well as the challenges and perspectives that should be addressed in strategising chemotherapeutic treatments to overcome the ever-evolving and adaptive nature of NSCLC.
    Matched MeSH terms: ErbB Receptors/genetics
  7. Rohilla S, Singh M, Alzarea SI, Almalki WH, Al-Abbasi FA, Kazmi I, et al.
    PMID: 36734951 DOI: 10.1615/JEnvironPatholToxicolOncol.2022042983
    Treatment of lung cancer with conventional therapies, which include radiation, surgery, and chemotherapy results in multiple undesirable adverse or side effects. The major clinical challenge in developing new drug therapies for lung cancer is resistance, which involves mutations and disturbance in various signaling pathways. Molecular abnormalities related to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (B-RAF) Kirsten rat sarcoma virus (KRAS) mutations, translocation of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene, mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (MET) amplification have been studied to overcome the resistance and to develop new therapies for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). But, inevitable development of resistance presents limits the clinical benefits of various new drugs. Here, we review current progress in the development of molecularly targeted therapies, concerning six clinical biomarkers: EGFR, ALK, MET, ROS-1, KRAS, and B-RAF for NSCLC treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: ErbB Receptors/genetics
  8. Liam CK, Ahmad AR, Hsia TC, Zhou J, Kim DW, Soo RA, et al.
    Clin Cancer Res, 2023 May 15;29(10):1879-1886.
    PMID: 36971777 DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-22-3318
    PURPOSE: The final analyses of the INSIGHT phase II study evaluating tepotinib (a selective MET inhibitor) plus gefitinib versus chemotherapy in patients with MET-altered EGFR-mutant NSCLC (data cut-off: September 3, 2021).

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: Adults with advanced/metastatic EGFR-mutant NSCLC, acquired resistance to first-/second-generation EGFR inhibitors, and MET gene copy number (GCN) ≥5, MET:CEP7 ≥2, or MET IHC 2+/3+ were randomized to tepotinib 500 mg (450 mg active moiety) plus gefitinib 250 mg once daily, or chemotherapy. Primary endpoint was investigator-assessed progression-free survival (PFS). MET-amplified subgroup analysis was preplanned.

    RESULTS: Overall (N = 55), median PFS was 4.9 months versus 4.4 months [stratified HR, 0.67; 90% CI, 0.35-1.28] with tepotinib plus gefitinib versus chemotherapy. In 19 patients with MET amplification (median age 60.4 years; 68.4% never-smokers; median GCN 8.8; median MET/CEP7 2.8; 89.5% with MET IHC 3+), tepotinib plus gefitinib improved PFS (HR, 0.13; 90% CI, 0.04-0.43) and overall survival (OS; HR, 0.10; 90% CI, 0.02-0.36) versus chemotherapy. Objective response rate was 66.7% with tepotinib plus gefitinib versus 42.9% with chemotherapy; median duration of response was 19.9 months versus 2.8 months. Median duration of tepotinib plus gefitinib was 11.3 months (range, 1.1-56.5), with treatment >1 year in six (50.0%) and >4 years in three patients (25.0%). Seven patients (58.3%) had treatment-related grade ≥3 adverse events with tepotinib plus gefitinib and five (71.4%) had chemotherapy.

    CONCLUSIONS: Final analysis of INSIGHT suggests improved PFS and OS with tepotinib plus gefitinib versus chemotherapy in a subgroup of patients with MET-amplified EGFR-mutant NSCLC, after progression on EGFR inhibitors.

    Matched MeSH terms: ErbB Receptors/genetics
  9. Ramanathan S, Gopinath SCB, Arshad MKM, Poopalan P, Anbu P, Lakshmipriya T, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2019 11 19;9(1):17013.
    PMID: 31745155 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-53573-9
    Lung cancer is one of the most serious threats to human where 85% of lethal death caused by non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) induced by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation. The present research focuses in the development of efficient and effortless EGFR mutant detection strategy through high-performance and sensitive genosensor. The current amplified through 250 µm sized fingers between 100 µm aluminium electrodes indicates the voltammetry signal generated by means of the mutant DNA sequence hybridization. To enhance the DNA immobilization and hybridization, ∼25 nm sized aluminosilicate nanocomposite synthesized from the disposed joss fly ash was deposited on the gaps between aluminium electrodes. The probe, mutant (complementary), and wild (single-base pair mismatch) targets were designed precisely from the genomic sequences denote the detection of EGFR mutation. Fourier-transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis was performed at every step of surface functionalization evidences the relevant chemical bonding of biomolecules on the genosensor as duplex DNA with peak response at 1150 cm-1 to 1650 cm-1. Genosensor depicts a sensitive EGFR mutation as it is able to detect apparently at 100 aM mutant against 1 µM DNA probe. The insignificant voltammetry signal generated with wild type strand emphasizes the specificity of genosensor in the detection of single base pair mismatch. The inefficiency of genosensor in detecting EGFR mutation in the absence of aluminosilicate nanocomposite implies the insensitivity of genosensing DNA hybridization and accentuates the significance of aluminosilicate. Based on the slope of the calibration curve, the attained sensitivity of aluminosilicate modified genosensor was 3.02E-4 A M-1. The detection limit of genosensor computed based on 3σ calculation, relative to the change of current proportional to the logarithm of mutant concentration is at 100 aM.
    Matched MeSH terms: ErbB Receptors/genetics
  10. Liam CK, Leow HR, How SH, Pang YK, Chua KT, Lim BK, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(1):321-6.
    PMID: 24528049
    BACKGROUND: Mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in non- small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are predictive of response to EGFR-targeted therapy in advanced stages of disease. This study aimed to determine the frequency of EGFR mutations in NSCLCs and to correlate their presence with clinical characteristics in multiethnic Malaysian patients.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, EGFR mutations in exons 18, 19, 20 and 21 in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens of consecutive NSCLC patients were asessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    RESULTS: EGFR mutations were detected in NSCLCs from 55 (36.4%) of a total of 151 patients, being significantly more common in females (62.5%) than in males (17.2%) [odds ratio (OR), 8.00; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.77-16.98; p<0.001] and in never smokers (62.5%) than in ever smokers (12.7%) (OR, 11.50; 95%CI, 5.08-26.03; p<0.001). Mutations were more common in adenocarcinoma (39.4%) compared to non-adenocarcinoma NSCLCs (15.8%) (p=0.072). The mutation rates in patients of different ethnicities were not significantly different (p=0.08). Never smoking status was the only clinical feature that independently predicted the presence of EGFR mutations (adjusted OR, 5.94; 95%CI, 1.94- 18.17; p=0.002).

    CONCLUSIONS: In Malaysian patients with NSCLC, the EGFR mutation rate was similar to that in other Asian populations. EGFR mutations were significantly more common in female patients and in never smokers. Never smoking status was the only independent predictor for the presence of EGFR mutations.

    Matched MeSH terms: ErbB Receptors/genetics*
  11. Zhou Q, Cheung YB, Jada SR, Lim WT, Kuo WL, Gray JW, et al.
    Cancer Biol. Ther., 2006 Nov;5(11):1445-9.
    PMID: 17102595
    AIM: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis if longer CA dinucleotide repeats are more common in the Asian population and also to gain insights into the interplay between the CA dinucleotide repeats and the frequencies of EGFR gene expression and amplifications as this might have therapeutic implications with regards to treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The EGFR intron 1 polymorphism was analysed in three distinct healthy Asian subjects, namely, Chinese (N = 96), Malays (N = 98) and Indians (N = 100). Comparative genomic hybridisation was performed to investigate for changes in DNA copy number in relation to the polymorphic CA dinucleotide repeats in breast tumor tissues (N = 22).

    RESULTS: The frequency of short alleles with 14 and 15 CA repeats were most common in the Asian populations and significantly higher than those reported for Caucasians. The frequency of 20 CA repeats was 5%, almost 13-fold lower than previous reports. EGFR amplifications were detected in 23% and 11% of breast tumor tissues harboring short and long CA repeats, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Our results show that the frequency of alleles encoding for short CA dinucleotide repeats is common in Asian populations. EGFR expression and amplification levels were also higher in Asian breast tumor tissues with short CA dinucleotide repeats. These findings suggest that the EGFR intron 1 polymorphism may influence response to treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors in breast cancer patients and further studies are warranted.

    Matched MeSH terms: ErbB Receptors/genetics*
  12. Naidu R, Yadav M, Nair S, Kutty MK
    Br. J. Cancer, 1998 Nov;78(10):1385-90.
    PMID: 9823984
    Expression of c-erbB3 protein was investigated in 104 primary breast carcinomas comprising nine comedo ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), 91 invasive ductal carcinomas and four invasive lobular carcinomas using two monoclonal antibodies, RTJ1 and RTJ2. Of the 91 invasive ductal carcinomas, seven contained the comedo DCIS component adjacent to the invasive component. An immunohistochemical technique was used to evaluate the association between expression of c-erbB3 and clinical parameters and tumour markers such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), c-erbB2, cathepsin-D and p53 in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour tissues. Our results indicated that RTJ1 and RTJ2 gave identical staining patterns and concordant results. It was found that the overexpression of c-erbB3 protein was observed in 67% (6/9) of comedo DCIS, 52% (44/84) of invasive ductal carcinomas, 71% (5/7) of carcinomas containing both the in situ and invasive lesions and 25% (1/4) of invasive lobular carcinomas. A significant relationship (P < 0.05) was observed between strong immunoreactivity of c-erbB3 protein and histological grade, EGFR and cathepsin-D, but not with expression of c-erbB2, p53, oestrogen receptor status, lymph node metastases or age of patient. However, we noted that a high percentage of oestrogen receptor-negative tumours (59%), lymph node-positive tumours (63%) and c-erbB2 (63%) were strongly positive for c-erbB3 protein. We have also documented that a high percentage of EGFR (67%), c-erbB2 (67%), p53 (75%) and cathepsin-D-positive DCIS (60%) were strongly positive for c-erbB3. These observations suggest that overexpression of c-erbB3 protein could play an important role in tumour progression from non-invasive to invasive and, also, that it may have the potential to be used as a marker for poor prognosis of breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: ErbB Receptors/genetics*
  13. Ho GF, Chai CS, Alip A, Wahid MIA, Abdullah MM, Foo YC, et al.
    BMC Cancer, 2019 Sep 09;19(1):896.
    PMID: 31500587 DOI: 10.1186/s12885-019-6107-1
    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy, side-effects and resistance mechanisms of first-line afatinib in a real-world setting.

    METHODS: This is a multicenter observational study of first-line afatinib in Malaysian patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients' demographic, clinical and treatment data, as well as resistance mechanisms to afatinib were retrospectively captured. The statistical methods included Chi-squared test and independent t-test for variables, Kaplan-Meier curve and log-rank test for survival, and Cox regression model for multivariate analysis.

    RESULTS: Eighty-five patients on first-line afatinib from 1st October 2014 to 30th April 2018 were eligible for the study. EGFR mutations detected in tumors included exon 19 deletion in 80.0%, exon 21 L858R point mutation in 12.9%, and rare or complex EGFR mutations in 7.1% of patients. Among these patients, 18.8% had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2-4, 29.4% had symptomatic brain metastases and 17.6% had abnormal organ function. Afatinib 40 mg or 30 mg once daily were the most common starting and maintenance doses. Only one-tenth of patients experienced severe side-effects with none having grade 4 toxicities. The objective response rate was 76.5% while the disease control rate was 95.3%. At the time of analysis, 56 (65.9%) patients had progression of disease (PD) with a median progression-free survival (mPFS) of 14.2 months (95% CI, 11.85-16.55 months). Only 12.5% of the progressed patients developed new symptomatic brain metastases. The overall survival (OS) data was not mature. Thirty-three (38.8%) patients had died with a median OS of 28.9 months (95% CI, 19.82-37.99 months). The median follow-up period for the survivors was 20.0 months (95% CI, 17.49-22.51 months). Of patients with PD while on afatinib, 55.3% were investigated for resistance mechanisms with exon 20 T790 M mutation detected in 42.0% of them.

    CONCLUSIONS: Afatinib is an effective first-line treatment for patients with EGFR-mutant advanced NSCLC with a good response rate and long survival, even in patients with unfavorable clinical characteristics. The side-effects of afatinib were manageable and T790 M mutation was the most common resistance mechanism causing treatment failure.

    Matched MeSH terms: ErbB Receptors/genetics
  14. Ninomiya K, Arimura H, Chan WY, Tanaka K, Mizuno S, Muhammad Gowdh NF, et al.
    PLoS One, 2021;16(1):e0244354.
    PMID: 33428651 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0244354
    OBJECTIVES: To propose a novel robust radiogenomics approach to the identification of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations among patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using Betti numbers (BNs).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) images of 194 multi-racial NSCLC patients (79 EGFR mutants and 115 wildtypes) were collected from three different countries using 5 manufacturers' scanners with a variety of scanning parameters. Ninety-nine cases obtained from the University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) in Malaysia were used for training and validation procedures. Forty-one cases collected from the Kyushu University Hospital (KUH) in Japan and fifty-four cases obtained from The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA) in America were used for a test procedure. Radiomic features were obtained from BN maps, which represent topologically invariant heterogeneous characteristics of lung cancer on CT images, by applying histogram- and texture-based feature computations. A BN-based signature was determined using support vector machine (SVM) models with the best combination of features that maximized a robustness index (RI) which defined a higher total area under receiver operating characteristics curves (AUCs) and lower difference of AUCs between the training and the validation. The SVM model was built using the signature and optimized in a five-fold cross validation. The BN-based model was compared to conventional original image (OI)- and wavelet-decomposition (WD)-based models with respect to the RI between the validation and the test.

    RESULTS: The BN-based model showed a higher RI of 1.51 compared with the models based on the OI (RI: 1.33) and the WD (RI: 1.29).

    CONCLUSION: The proposed model showed higher robustness than the conventional models in the identification of EGFR mutations among NSCLC patients. The results suggested the robustness of the BN-based approach against variations in image scanner/scanning parameters.

    Matched MeSH terms: ErbB Receptors/genetics
  15. Gan BK, Rullah K, Yong CY, Ho KL, Omar AR, Alitheen NB, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2020 10 08;10(1):16867.
    PMID: 33033330 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-73967-4
    Chemotherapy is widely used in cancer treatments. However, non-specific distribution of chemotherapeutic agents to healthy tissues and normal cells in the human body always leads to adverse side effects and disappointing therapeutic outcomes. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to develop a targeted drug delivery system based on the hepatitis B virus-like nanoparticle (VLNP) for specific delivery of 5-fluorouracil-1-acetic acid (5-FA) to cancer cells expressing epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR). 5-FA was synthesized from 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and it was found to be less toxic than the latter in cancer cells expressing different levels of EGFR. The cytotoxicity of 5-FA increased significantly after being conjugated on the VLNP. A cell penetrating peptide (CPP) of EGFR was displayed on the VLNP via the nanoglue concept, for targeted delivery of 5-FA to A431, HT29 and HeLa cells. The results showed that the VLNP displaying the CPP and harboring 5-FA internalized the cancer cells and killed them in an EGFR-dependent manner. This study demonstrated that the VLNP can be used to deliver chemically modified 5-FU derivatives to cancer cells overexpressing EGFR, expanding the applications of the VLNP in targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to cancer cells overexpressing this transmembrane receptor.
    Matched MeSH terms: ErbB Receptors/genetics
  16. Wu YL, Zhou C, Liam CK, Wu G, Liu X, Zhong Z, et al.
    Ann Oncol, 2015 Sep;26(9):1883-1889.
    PMID: 26105600 DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdv270
    BACKGROUND: The phase III, randomized, open-label ENSURE study (NCT01342965) evaluated first-line erlotinib versus gemcitabine/cisplatin (GP) in patients from China, Malaysia and the Philippines with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients ≥18 years old with histologically/cytologically confirmed stage IIIB/IV EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-2 were randomized 1:1 to receive erlotinib (oral; 150 mg once daily until progression/unacceptable toxicity) or GP [G 1250 mg/m(2) i.v. days 1 and 8 (3-weekly cycle); P 75 mg/m(2) i.v. day 1, (3-weekly cycle) for up to four cycles]. Primary end point: investigator-assessed progression-free survival (PFS). Other end points include objective response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), and safety.

    RESULTS: A total of 217 patients were randomized: 110 to erlotinib and 107 to GP. Investigator-assessed median PFS was 11.0 months versus 5.5 months, erlotinib versus GP, respectively [hazard ratio (HR), 0.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22-0.51; log-rank P < 0.0001]. Independent Review Committee-assessed median PFS was consistent (HR, 0.42). Median OS was 26.3 versus 25.5 months, erlotinib versus GP, respectively (HR, 0.91, 95% CI 0.63-1.31; log-rank P = .607). ORR was 62.7% for erlotinib and 33.6% for GP. Treatment-related serious adverse events (AEs) occurred in 2.7% versus 10.6% of erlotinib and GP patients, respectively. The most common grade ≥3 AEs were rash (6.4%) with erlotinib, and neutropenia (25.0%), leukopenia (14.4%), and anemia (12.5%) with GP.

    CONCLUSION: These analyses demonstrate that first-line erlotinib provides a statistically significant improvement in PFS versus GP in Asian patients with EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC (NCT01342965).

    Matched MeSH terms: ErbB Receptors/genetics
  17. Wu YL, Lee V, Liam CK, Lu S, Park K, Srimuninnimit V, et al.
    Lung Cancer, 2018 12;126:1-8.
    PMID: 30527172 DOI: 10.1016/j.lungcan.2018.10.004
    OBJECTIVE: Patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with an adenocarcinoma component are recommended to undergo epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation testing when being considered for EGFR targeted therapy. We conducted an exploratory analysis to inform the clinical utility of EGFR mutation testing in blood cell-free DNA using the cobas®EGFR Mutation Test v2.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two EGFR mutation tests, a tissue-based assay (cobas® v1) and a tissue- and blood-based assay (cobas® v2) were used to analyze matched biopsy and blood samples (897 paired samples) from three Asian studies of first-line erlotinib with similar intent-to-treat populations. ENSURE was a phase III comparison of erlotinib and gemcitabine/platinum, FASTACT-2 was a phase III study of gemcitabine/platinum plus erlotinib or placebo, and ASPIRATION was a single-arm phase II study of erlotinib. Agreement statistics were evaluated, based on sensitivity and specificity between the two assays in subgroups of patients with increasing tumor burden.

    RESULTS: Patients with discordant EGFR (tissue+/plasma-) mutation status achieved longer progression-free and overall survival than those with concordant (tissue+/plasma+) mutation status. Tumor burden was significantly greater in patients with concordant versus discordant mutations. Pooled analyses of data from the three studies showed a sensitivity of 72.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 67.8-76.1) and a specificity of 97.9% (95% CI 96.0-99.0) for blood-based testing; sensitivity was greatest in patients with larger baseline tumors.

    CONCLUSIONS: Blood-based EGFR mutation testing demonstrated high specificity and good sensitivity, and offers a convenient and easily accessible diagnostic method to complement tissue-based tests. Patients with a discordant mutation status in plasma and tissue, had improved survival outcomes compared with those with a concordant mutation status, which may be due to their lower tumor burden. These data help to inform the clinical utility of this blood-based assay for the detection of EGFR mutations.

    Matched MeSH terms: ErbB Receptors/genetics
  18. Zhang XC, Wang J, Shao GG, Wang Q, Qu X, Wang B, et al.
    Nat Commun, 2019 04 16;10(1):1772.
    PMID: 30992440 DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-09762-1
    Deep understanding of the genomic and immunological differences between Chinese and Western lung cancer patients is of great importance for target therapy selection and development for Chinese patients. Here we report an extensive molecular and immune profiling study of 245 Chinese patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte estimated using immune cell signatures is found to be significantly higher in adenocarcinoma (ADC, 72.5%) compared with squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC, 54.4%). The correlation of genomic alterations with immune signatures reveals that low immune infiltration was associated with EGFR mutations in ADC samples, PI3K and/or WNT pathway activation in SQCC. While KRAS mutations are found to be significantly associated with T cell infiltration in ADC samples. The SQCC patients with high antigen presentation machinery and cytotoxic T cell signature scores are found to have a prolonged overall survival time.
    Matched MeSH terms: ErbB Receptors/genetics
  19. Soria JC, Ohe Y, Vansteenkiste J, Reungwetwattana T, Chewaskulyong B, Lee KH, et al.
    N Engl J Med, 2018 01 11;378(2):113-125.
    PMID: 29151359 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1713137
    BACKGROUND: Osimertinib is an oral, third-generation, irreversible epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) that selectively inhibits both EGFR-TKI-sensitizing and EGFR T790M resistance mutations. We compared osimertinib with standard EGFR-TKIs in patients with previously untreated, EGFR mutation-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

    METHODS: In this double-blind, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 556 patients with previously untreated, EGFR mutation-positive (exon 19 deletion or L858R) advanced NSCLC in a 1:1 ratio to receive either osimertinib (at a dose of 80 mg once daily) or a standard EGFR-TKI (gefitinib at a dose of 250 mg once daily or erlotinib at a dose of 150 mg once daily). The primary end point was investigator-assessed progression-free survival.

    RESULTS: The median progression-free survival was significantly longer with osimertinib than with standard EGFR-TKIs (18.9 months vs. 10.2 months; hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37 to 0.57; P<0.001). The objective response rate was similar in the two groups: 80% with osimertinib and 76% with standard EGFR-TKIs (odds ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.90; P=0.24). The median duration of response was 17.2 months (95% CI, 13.8 to 22.0) with osimertinib versus 8.5 months (95% CI, 7.3 to 9.8) with standard EGFR-TKIs. Data on overall survival were immature at the interim analysis (25% maturity). The survival rate at 18 months was 83% (95% CI, 78 to 87) with osimertinib and 71% (95% CI, 65 to 76) with standard EGFR-TKIs (hazard ratio for death, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.45 to 0.88; P=0.007 [nonsignificant in the interim analysis]). Adverse events of grade 3 or higher were less frequent with osimertinib than with standard EGFR-TKIs (34% vs. 45%).

    CONCLUSIONS: Osimertinib showed efficacy superior to that of standard EGFR-TKIs in the first-line treatment of EGFR mutation-positive advanced NSCLC, with a similar safety profile and lower rates of serious adverse events. (Funded by AstraZeneca; FLAURA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02296125 .).

    Matched MeSH terms: ErbB Receptors/genetics*
  20. Saeed MEM, Boulos JC, Elhaboub G, Rigano D, Saab A, Loizzo MR, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2019 Sep;62:152945.
    PMID: 31132750 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2019.152945
    BACKGROUND: Cucurbitacin E (CuE) is an oxygenated tetracyclic triterpenoid isolated from the fruits of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad.

    PURPOSE: This study outlines CuE's cytotoxic activity against drug-resistant tumor cell lines. Three members of ABC transporters superfamily, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and ABCB5 were investigated, whose overexpression in tumors is tightly linked to multidrug resistance. Further factors of drug resistance studied were the tumor suppressor TP53 and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR).

    METHODS: Cytotoxicity assays (resazurin assays) were used to investigate the activity of Citrullus colocynthis and CuE towards multidrug resistant cancer cells. Molecular docking (In silico) has been carried out to explore the CuE's mode of binding to ABC transporters (P-gp, BCRP and ABCB5). The visualization of doxorubicin uptake was done by a Spinning Disc Confocal Microscope. The assessment of proteins expression was done by western blotting analysis. COMPARE and hierarchical cluster analyses were applied to identify, which genes correlate with sensitivity or resistance to cucurbitacins (CuA, CuB, CuE, CuD, CuI, and CuK).

    RESULTS: Multidrug-resistant cells overexpressing P-gp or BCRP were cross-resistant to CuE. By contrast, TP53 knock-out cells were sensitive to CuE. Remarkably, resistant cells transfected with oncogenic ΔEGFR or ABCB5 were hypersensitive (collateral sensitive) to CuE. In silico analyses demonstrated that CuE is a substrate for P-gp and BCRP. Immunoblot analyses highlighted that CuE targeted EGFR and silenced its downstream signaling cascades. The most striking result that emerged from the doxorubicin uptake by ABCB5 overexpressing cells is that CuE is an effective inhibitor for ABCB5 transporter when compared with verapamil. The COMPARE analyses of transcriptome-wide expression profiles of tumor cell lines of the NCI identified common genes involved in cell cycle regulation, cellular adhesion and intracellular communication for different cucurbitacins.

    CONCLUSION: CuE represents a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of certain types of refractory tumors. To best of our knowledge, this is the first time to identify CuE and verapamil as inhibitors for ABCB5 transporter.

    Matched MeSH terms: ErbB Receptors/genetics
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