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  1. Yu CY, Ang GY, Chong TM, Chin PS, Ngeow YF, Yin WF, et al.
    J Antimicrob Chemother, 2017 04 01;72(4):1253-1255.
    PMID: 28031273 DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkw541
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics*
  2. Cheng KK, Lee BS, Masuda T, Ito T, Ikeda K, Hirayama A, et al.
    Nat Commun, 2014;5:3233.
    PMID: 24481126 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms4233
    Comparative whole-genome sequencing enables the identification of specific mutations during adaptation of bacteria to new environments and allelic replacement can establish their causality. However, the mechanisms of action are hard to decipher and little has been achieved for epistatic mutations, especially at the metabolic level. Here we show that a strain of Escherichia coli carrying mutations in the rpoC and glpK genes, derived from adaptation in glycerol, uses two distinct metabolic strategies to gain growth advantage. A 27-bp deletion in the rpoC gene first increases metabolic efficiency. Then, a point mutation in the glpK gene promotes growth by improving glycerol utilization but results in increased carbon wasting as overflow metabolism. In a strain carrying both mutations, these contrasting carbon/energy saving and wasting mechanisms work together to give an 89% increase in growth rate. This study provides insight into metabolic reprogramming during adaptive laboratory evolution for fast cellular growth.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics*
  3. Mohd Yusoff MZ, Hashiguchi Y, Maeda T, Wood TK
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2013 Oct 4;439(4):576-9.
    PMID: 24025676 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.09.016
    Pseudogenes are considered to be nonfunctional genes that lack a physiological role. By screening 3985 Escherichia coli mutants using chemochromic membranes, we found four pseudogenes involved in hydrogen metabolism. Knockouts of pseudogenes ydfW and ypdJ had a defective hydrogen phenotype on glucose and formate, respectively. Also, the knockout of pseudogene yqiG formed hydrogen from formate but not from glucose. For the yqiG mutant, 100% hydrogen recovery was obtained by the complementation of YqiG via a plasmid. The knockout of pseudogene ylcE showed hydrogen deficiency in minimal media which suggested that the role of YlcE is associated with cell growth. Hence, the products of these four pseudogenes play an important physiological role in hydrogen production in E. coli.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics*
  4. Rahman RN, Leow TC, Basri M, Salleh AB
    Protein Expr. Purif., 2005 Apr;40(2):411-6.
    PMID: 15766884
    The extracellular production of T1 lipase was performed by co-expression of pJL3 vector encoding bacteriocin release protein in prokaryotic system. Secretory expression was optimized by considering several parameters, including host strains, inducer (IPTG) concentration, media, induction at A(600 nm), temperature, and time of induction. Among the host strains tested, Origami B excreted out 18,100 U/ml of lipase activity into culture medium when induced with 50 microM IPTG for 12 h. The Origami B harboring recombinant plasmid pGEX/T1S and pJL3 vector was chosen for further study. IPTG at 0.05 mM, YT medium, induction at A(600 nm) of 1.25, 30 degrees C, and 32 h of induction time were best condition for T1 lipase secretion with Origami B as a host.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics*
  5. Mienda BS, Shamsir MS, Md Illias R
    J Biomol Struct Dyn, 2016 Aug;34(8):1705-16.
    PMID: 26513379 DOI: 10.1080/07391102.2015.1090341
    Succinic acid is an important platform chemical with a variety of applications. Model-guided metabolic engineering strategies in Escherichia coli for strain improvement to increase succinic acid production using glucose and glycerol remain largely unexplored. Herein, we report what are, to our knowledge, the first metabolic knockout of the atpE gene to have increased succinic acid production using both glucose and alternative glycerol carbon sources in E. coli. Guided by a genome-scale metabolic model, we engineered the E. coli host to enhance anaerobic production of succinic acid by deleting the atpE gene, thereby generating additional reducing equivalents by blocking H(+) conduction across the mutant cell membrane. This strategy produced 1.58 and .49 g l(-1) of succinic acid from glycerol and glucose substrate, respectively. This work further elucidates a model-guided and/or system-based metabolic engineering, involving only a single-gene deletion strategy for enhanced succinic acid production in E. coli.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics*
  6. Lai YM, Zaw MT, Shamsudin SB, Lin Z
    J Microbiol Immunol Infect, 2016 Aug;49(4):591-4.
    PMID: 26212311 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmii.2015.06.002
    The putative pathogenicity island (PAI) containing the uropathogenic specific protein (usp) gene and three small open reading frames (orfU1, orfU2, and orfU3) encoding 98, 97, and 96 amino acid proteins is widely distributed among uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains. This PAI was designated as PAIusp. Sequencing analysis of PAIusp has revealed that the usp gene can be divided into two types - uspI and uspII - based on sequence variation at the 3' terminal region and the number and position of orfUs differ from strain to strain. Based on usp gene types and orfU sequential patterns, PAIusp can be divided into four subtypes. Subtyping of PAIusp is a useful method to characterize UPEC strains. In this study, we developed a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method to differentiate usp gene types. This method could correctly identify the usp gene type in usp-positive UPEC strains in our laboratory.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics*
  7. Ho WS, Ou HY, Yeo CC, Thong KL
    BMC Genomics, 2015;16:199.
    PMID: 25879448 DOI: 10.1186/s12864-015-1421-8
    Strains of Escherichia coli that are non-typeable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) due to in-gel degradation can influence their molecular epidemiological data. The DNA degradation phenotype (Dnd(+)) is mediated by the dnd operon that encode enzymes catalyzing the phosphorothioation of DNA, rendering the modified DNA susceptible to oxidative cleavage during a PFGE run. In this study, a PCR assay was developed to detect the presence of the dnd operon in Dnd(+) E. coli strains and to improve their typeability. Investigations into the genetic environments of the dnd operon in various E. coli strains led to the discovery that the dnd operon is harboured in various diverse genomic islands.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics*
  8. Asi AM, Rahman NA, Merican AF
    J Mol Graph Model, 2004 Mar;22(4):249-62.
    PMID: 15177077
    Protein-ligand binding free energy values of wild-type and mutant C-terminal domain of Escherichia coli arginine repressor (ArgRc) protein systems bound to L-arginine or L-citrulline molecules were calculated using the linear interaction energy (LIE) method by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The binding behaviour predicted by the dissociation constant (K(d)) calculations from the binding free energy values showed preferences for binding of L-arginine to the wild-type ArgRc but not to the mutant ArgRc(D128N). On the other hand, L-citrulline do not favour binding to wild-type ArgRc but prefer binding to mutant ArgRc(D128N). The dissociation constant for the wild-type ArgRc-L-arginine complex obtained in this study is in agreement with reported experimental results. Our results also support the experimental data for the binding of L-citrulline to the mutant ArgRc(D128N). These showed that LIE method for protein-ligand binding free energy calculation could be applied to the wild-type and the mutant E. coli ArgRc-L-arginine and ArgRc-L-citrulline protein-ligand complexes and possibly to other transcriptional repressor-co-repressor systems as well.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics
  9. Yu CY, Ang GY, Chin PS, Ngeow YF, Yin WF, Chan KG
    Int J Antimicrob Agents, 2016 Jun;47(6):504-5.
    PMID: 27208898 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2016.04.004
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics*
  10. Hancock SJ, Phan MD, Peters KM, Forde BM, Chong TM, Yin WF, et al.
    PMID: 27872077 DOI: 10.1128/AAC.01740-16
    Plasmids of incompatibility group A/C (IncA/C) are becoming increasingly prevalent within pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae They are associated with the dissemination of multiple clinically relevant resistance genes, including blaCMY and blaNDM Current typing methods for IncA/C plasmids offer limited resolution. In this study, we present the complete sequence of a blaNDM-1-positive IncA/C plasmid, pMS6198A, isolated from a multidrug-resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain. Hypersaturated transposon mutagenesis, coupled with transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS), was employed to identify conserved genetic elements required for replication and maintenance of pMS6198A. Our analysis of TraDIS data identified roles for the replicon, including repA, a toxin-antitoxin system; two putative partitioning genes, parAB; and a putative gene, 053 Construction of mini-IncA/C plasmids and examination of their stability within E. coli confirmed that the region encompassing 053 contributes to the stable maintenance of IncA/C plasmids. Subsequently, the four major maintenance genes (repA, parAB, and 053) were used to construct a new plasmid multilocus sequence typing (PMLST) scheme for IncA/C plasmids. Application of this scheme to a database of 82 IncA/C plasmids identified 11 unique sequence types (STs), with two dominant STs. The majority of blaNDM-positive plasmids examined (15/17; 88%) fall into ST1, suggesting acquisition and subsequent expansion of this blaNDM-containing plasmid lineage. The IncA/C PMLST scheme represents a standardized tool to identify, track, and analyze the dissemination of important IncA/C plasmid lineages, particularly in the context of epidemiological studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics
  11. Abuelhassan NN, Mutalib SA, Gimba FI, Yusoff WM
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2016 Sep;23(17):17553-62.
    PMID: 27234829 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-016-6954-0
    This study aimed at determining the presence and characterization of Escherichia coli and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) from imported frozen beef meats. Seventy-four (74) frozen imported beef meat samples from two countries, India (42 samples) and Australia (32 samples), were collected and tested for E. coli. These samples were purchased from the frozen meat sections of five different supermarkets in different locations in Selangor, Malaysia, from April 2012 to October 2014. A total of 222 E. coli strains were isolated from the meat samples; 126 strains were isolated from country A (India), and 96 E. coli strains were from country of origin B (Australia), respectively. A total of 70 E. coli strains were identified and characterized. All E. coli strains were isolated into Fluorocult medium and identified using API 20E kit. All selected E. coli strains were characterized for Shiga toxin genes (stx1 and stx2). All biochemically identified E. coli in this study were further subjected to molecular detection through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and characterization using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli. Of the 70 E. coli strains, 11 strains were positive for both Shiga toxin genes (stx1 and stx2) and 11 (11/70) strains were positive for stx1 gene, while 25 (25/70) strains were positive for stx2 gene. The analysis of 16S rRNA gene of all the E. coli isolates in this study was successfully sequenced and analyzed, and based on sequence data obtained, a phylogenetic tree of the 16S rRNA gene was performed using Clustal W programme in MEGA 6.06 software. Phylogenetic tree showed that the E. coli isolates in our study cluster with the strain of E. coli isolated in other countries, which further confirm that the isolates of E. coli in this study are similar to those obtained in other studies. As a result, all the strains obtained in this study proved to be a strain of pathogenic E. coli, which may cause a serious outbreak of food-borne disease. The isolation of pathogenic E. coli strains from the imported meat samples calls for prudent management of imported meats by the relevant authorities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics*
  12. Ali SA, Chew YW, Omar TC, Azman N
    PLoS One, 2015;10(12):e0144189.
    PMID: 26642325 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0144189
    Maintenance of recombinant plasmid vectors in host bacteria relies on the presence of selection antibiotics in the growth media to suppress plasmid -free segregants. However, presence of antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotics themselves is not acceptable in several applications of biotechnology. Previously, we have shown that FabV-Triclosan selection system can be used to select high and medium copy number plasmid vectors in E. coli. Here, we have extended our previous work and demonstrated that expression vectors containing FabV can be used efficiently to express heterologous recombinant proteins in similar or better amounts in E. coli host when compared with expression vectors containing β-lactamase. Use of small amount of non-antibiotic Triclosan as selection agent in growth medium, enhanced plasmid stability, applicability in various culture media, and compatibility with other selection systems for multiple plasmid maintenance are noteworthy features of FabV-Triclosan selection system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics
  13. Ahmad KA, Mohanmmed AS, Abas F, Chin SC
    Virol Sin, 2015 Feb;30(1):73-5.
    PMID: 25662886 DOI: 10.1007/s12250-014-3541-8
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics
  14. Nhu NTK, Phan MD, Peters KM, Lo AW, Forde BM, Min Chong T, et al.
    mBio, 2018 08 21;9(4).
    PMID: 30131362 DOI: 10.1128/mBio.01462-18
    Curli are bacterial surface-associated amyloid fibers that bind to the dye Congo red (CR) and facilitate uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) biofilm formation and protection against host innate defenses. Here we sequenced the genome of the curli-producing UPEC pyelonephritis strain MS7163 and showed it belongs to the highly virulent O45:K1:H7 neonatal meningitis-associated clone. MS7163 produced curli at human physiological temperature, and this correlated with biofilm growth, resistance of sessile cells to the human cationic peptide cathelicidin, and enhanced colonization of the mouse bladder. We devised a forward genetic screen using CR staining as a proxy for curli production and identified 41 genes that were required for optimal CR binding, of which 19 genes were essential for curli synthesis. Ten of these genes were novel or poorly characterized with respect to curli synthesis and included genes involved in purine de novo biosynthesis, a regulator that controls the Rcs phosphorelay system, and a novel repressor of curli production (referred to as rcpA). The involvement of these genes in curli production was confirmed by the construction of defined mutants and their complementation. The mutants did not express the curli major subunit CsgA and failed to produce curli based on CR binding. Mutation of purF (the first gene in the purine biosynthesis pathway) and rcpA also led to attenuated colonization of the mouse bladder. Overall, this work has provided new insight into the regulation of curli and the role of these amyloid fibers in UPEC biofilm formation and pathogenesis.IMPORTANCE Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains are the most common cause of urinary tract infection, a disease increasingly associated with escalating antibiotic resistance. UPEC strains possess multiple surface-associated factors that enable their colonization of the urinary tract, including fimbriae, curli, and autotransporters. Curli are extracellular amyloid fibers that enhance UPEC virulence and promote biofilm formation. Here we examined the function and regulation of curli in a UPEC pyelonephritis strain belonging to the highly virulent O45:K1:H7 neonatal meningitis-associated clone. Curli expression at human physiological temperature led to increased biofilm formation, resistance of sessile cells to the human cationic peptide LL-37, and enhanced bladder colonization. Using a comprehensive genetic screen, we identified multiple genes involved in curli production, including several that were novel or poorly characterized with respect to curli synthesis. In total, this study demonstrates an important role for curli as a UPEC virulence factor that promotes biofilm formation, resistance, and pathogenesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics*
  15. Lai YM, Zaw MT, Shamsudin SB, Lin Z
    J Infect Dev Ctries, 2016 Oct 31;10(10):1053-1058.
    PMID: 27801366 DOI: 10.3855/jidc.6944
    INTRODUCTION: Uropathogenic virulence factors have been identified by comparing the prevalence of these among urinary tract isolates and environmental strains. The uropathogenic-specific protein (USP) gene is present on the pathogenicity island (PAI) of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and, depending on its two diverse gene types and the sequential patterns of three open reading frame units (orfUs) following it, there is a method to characterize UPEC epidemiologically called PAIusp subtyping.
    METHODOLOGY: A total of 162 UPEC isolates from Sabah, Malaysia, were tested for the presence of the usp gene and the sequential patterns of three orfUs following it using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, by means of triplex PCR, the prevalence of the usp gene was compared with other two VFs of UPEC, namely alpha hemolysin (α-hly) and cytotoxic necrotizing factor (cnf-1) genes encoding two toxins.
    RESULTS: The results showed that the usp gene was found in 78.40% of UPEC isolates, indicating that its prevalence was comparable to that found in a previous study in Japan. The two or three orfUs were also associated with the usp gene in this study. All the PAIusp subtypes observed in Japan were present in this study, while subtype IIa was the most common in both studies. The usp gene was observed in a higher percentage of isolates when compared with α-hly and cnf-1 genes.
    CONCLUSIONS: The findings in Japan and Sabah, East Malaysia, were similar, indicating that PAIusp subtyping is applicable to the characterization of UPEC strains epidemiologically elsewhere in the world.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics*
  16. Saad SM, Abdullah J, Rashid SA, Fen YW, Salam F, Yih LH
    Mikrochim Acta, 2019 11 19;186(12):804.
    PMID: 31745737 DOI: 10.1007/s00604-019-3913-8
    A fluorometric assay is described for highly sensitive quantification of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Reporter oligos were immobilized on graphene quantum dots (GQDs), and quencher oligos were immobilized on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Target DNA was co-hybridized with reporter oligos on the GQDs and quencher oligos on AuNPs. This triggers quenching of fluorescence (with excitation/emission peaks at 400 nm/530 nm). On introducing target into the system, fluorescence is quenched by up to 95% by 100 nM concentrations of target oligos having 20 bp. The response to the fliC gene of E. coli O157:H7 increases with the logarithm of the concentration in the range from 0.1 nM to 150 nM. The limit of detection is 1.1 ± 0.6 nM for n = 3. The selectivity and specificity of the assay was confirmed by evaluating the various oligos sequences and PCR product (fliC gene) amplified from genomic DNA of the food samples spiked with E. coli O157:H7. Graphical abstractSchematic representation of fluorometric assay for highly sensitive quantification of Escherichia coli O157:H7 based on fluorescence quenching gene assay for fliC gene of E. coli O157:H7.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics
  17. Goh KGK, Phan MD, Forde BM, Chong TM, Yin WF, Chan KG, et al.
    mBio, 2017 10 24;8(5).
    PMID: 29066548 DOI: 10.1128/mBio.01558-17
    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is a major cause of urinary tract and bloodstream infections and possesses an array of virulence factors for colonization, survival, and persistence. One such factor is the polysaccharide K capsule. Among the different K capsule types, the K1 serotype is strongly associated with UPEC infection. In this study, we completely sequenced the K1 UPEC urosepsis strain PA45B and employed a novel combination of a lytic K1 capsule-specific phage, saturated Tn5 transposon mutagenesis, and high-throughput transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS) to identify the complement of genes required for capsule production. Our analysis identified known genes involved in capsule biosynthesis, as well as two additional regulatory genes (mprA and lrhA) that we characterized at the molecular level. Mutation of mprA resulted in protection against K1 phage-mediated killing, a phenotype restored by complementation. We also identified a significantly increased unidirectional Tn5 insertion frequency upstream of the lrhA gene and showed that strong expression of LrhA induced by a constitutive Pcl promoter led to loss of capsule production. Further analysis revealed loss of MprA or overexpression of LrhA affected the transcription of capsule biosynthesis genes in PA45B and increased sensitivity to killing in whole blood. Similar phenotypes were also observed in UPEC strains UTI89 (K1) and CFT073 (K2), demonstrating that the effects were neither strain nor capsule type specific. Overall, this study defined the genome of a UPEC urosepsis isolate and identified and characterized two new regulatory factors that affect UPEC capsule production.IMPORTANCE Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in humans and are primarily caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Many UPEC strains express a polysaccharide K capsule that provides protection against host innate immune factors and contributes to survival and persistence during infection. The K1 serotype is one example of a polysaccharide capsule type and is strongly associated with UPEC strains that cause UTIs, bloodstream infections, and meningitis. The number of UTIs caused by antibiotic-resistant UPEC is steadily increasing, highlighting the need to better understand factors (e.g., the capsule) that contribute to UPEC pathogenesis. This study describes the original and novel application of lytic capsule-specific phage killing, saturated Tn5 transposon mutagenesis, and high-throughput transposon-directed insertion site sequencing to define the entire complement of genes required for capsule production in UPEC. Our comprehensive approach uncovered new genes involved in the regulation of this key virulence determinant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics*
  18. Goulter RM, Taran E, Gentle IR, Gobius KS, Dykes GA
    Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 2014 Jul 1;119:90-8.
    PMID: 24880987 DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2014.04.003
    The role of Escherichia coli H antigens in hydrophobicity and attachment to glass, Teflon and stainless steel (SS) surfaces was investigated through construction of fliC knockout mutants in E. coli O157:H7, O1:H7 and O157:H12. Loss of FliC(H12) in E. coli O157:H12 decreased attachment to glass, Teflon and stainless steel surfaces (p<0.05). Complementing E. coli O157:H12 ΔfliC(H12) with cloned wildtype (wt) fliC(H12) restored attachment to wt levels. The loss of FliCH7 in E. coli O157:H7 and O1:H7 did not always alter attachment (p>0.05), but complementation with cloned fliC(H12), as opposed to cloned fliCH7, significantly increased attachment for both strains compared with wt counterparts (p<0.05). Hydrophobicity determined using bacterial adherence to hydrocarbons and contact angle measurements differed with fliC expression but was not correlated to the attachment to materials included in this study. Purified FliC was used to functionalise silicone nitride atomic force microscopy probes, which were used to measure adhesion forces between FliC and substrates. Although no significant difference in adhesion force was observed between FliC(H12) and FliCH7 probes, differences in force curves suggest different mechanism of attachment for FliC(H12) compared with FliCH7. These results indicate that E. coli strains expressing flagellar H12 antigens have an increased ability to attach to certain abiotic surfaces compared with E. coli strains expressing H7 antigens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics
  19. Lim KT, Yasin R, Yeo CC, Puthucheary S, Thong KL
    J. Biomed. Biotechnol., 2009;2009:165637.
    PMID: 19672454 DOI: 10.1155/2009/165637
    The emergence of Escherichia coli that produce extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and are multidrug resistant (MDR) poses antibiotic management problems. Forty-seven E. coli isolates from various public hospitals in Malaysia were studied. All isolates were sensitive to imipenem whereas 36 were MDR (resistant to 2 or more classes of antibiotics). PCR detection using gene-specific primers showed that 87.5% of the ESBL-producing E. coli harbored the blaTEM gene. Other ESBL-encoding genes detected were blaOXA, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M. Integron-encoded integrases were detected in 55.3% of isolates, with class 1 integron-encoded intI1 integrase being the majority. Amplification and sequence analysis of the 5'CS region of the integrons showed known antibiotic resistance-encoding gene cassettes of various sizes that were inserted within the respective integrons. Conjugation and transformation experiments indicated that some of the antibiotic resistance genes were likely plasmid-encoded and transmissible. All 47 isolates were subtyped by PFGE and PCR-based fingerprinting using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), repetitive extragenic palindromes (REPs), and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC). These isolates were very diverse and heterogeneous. PFGE, ERIC, and REP-PCR methods were more discriminative than RAPD in subtyping the E. coli isolates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics
  20. Palasubramaniam S, Muniandy S, Navaratnam P
    J Microbiol Immunol Infect, 2009 Apr;42(2):129-33.
    PMID: 19597644
    In addition to beta-lactamase production, loss of porins confers resistance to extended-spectrum beta-lactams in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli infection. This study describes the detection of SHV-12 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) subtype and the loss of OmpK35 porin in 4 strains of K. pneumoniae and E. coli.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics*
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