Displaying all 19 publications

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  1. Zamzuri NA, Abd-Aziz S
    J Sci Food Agric, 2013 Feb;93(3):429-38.
    PMID: 23208984 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.5962
    This review provides an overview of biovanillin production from agro wastes as an alternative food flavour. Biovanillin is one of the widely used flavour compounds in the foods, beverages and pharmaceutical industries. An alternative production approach for biovanillin as a food flavour is hoped for due to the high and variable cost of natural vanillin as well as the limited availability of vanilla pods in the market. Natural vanillin refers to the main organic compound that is extracted from the vanilla bean, as compared to biovanillin, which is produced biologically by microorganisms from a natural precursor such as ferulic acid. Biovanillin is also reviewed as a potential bioflavour produced by microbial fermentation in an economically feasible way in the near future. In fact, we briefly discuss natural, synthetic and biovanillin and the types of agro wastes that are useful as sources for bioconversion of ferulic acid into biovanillin. The subsequent part of the review emphasizes the current application of vanillin as well as the utilization of biovanillin as an alternative food flavour. The final part summarizes biovanillin production from agro wastes that could be of benefit as a food flavour derived from potential natural precursors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eugenol/analogs & derivatives
  2. Chieng AC, Hee AK, Wee SL
    J Insect Sci, 2018 Sep 01;18(5).
    PMID: 30351432 DOI: 10.1093/jisesa/iey104
    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Handel) is one of the most destructive pests of fruits. The discovery of methyl eugenol (ME) as a potent male attractant for this species has led to its successful use in area-wide fruit fly control programs such as male annihilation. While the antenna is recognized as primarily responsible for male flies' detection of attractants such as ME, little is known of the involvement of the maxillary palp. Using behavioral assays involving males with intact and ablated antennae and maxillary palp structures, we seek to ascertain the relative involvement of the maxillary palp in the ability of the male fly to detect ME. In cage bioassays (distance of ≤40 cm from the source), >97% of unmodified males will normally show a response to ME. Here, we showed that 17.6% of males with their antennae ablated were still attracted to ME versus 75.0% of males with their palps ablated. However, none of the antennae-ablated males were able to detect ME over a distance of >100 cm. Furthermore, wind tunnel bioassays showed that maxillary palp-ablated males took a significantly longer time compared to unablated males to successfully detect and eventually feed on ME. These results suggest that although the antennae are necessary for detection of ME over longer distances, at shorter distances, both antennae and maxillary palps are also involved in detecting ME. Hence, those palps may play a larger role than previously recognized in maneuvering males toward lure sources over shorter ranges.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eugenol/analogs & derivatives*
  3. Wee SL, Tan KH, Nishida R
    J. Chem. Ecol., 2007 Jun;33(6):1272-82.
    PMID: 17443401 DOI: 10.1007/s10886-007-9295-0
    After pharmacophagy of methyl eugenol (ME), males of Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae) produced (E)-coniferyl alcohol (CF) along with its endogenously synthesized pheromonal compounds. CF was shown to be released into the air by the ME-fed males only during the courtship period at dusk and attracted significantly more males and females than the ME-deprived males in wind tunnel assays. However, earlier onset of sexual attraction and a higher mating success were observed only in the wind tunnel and field cage assays on the third day posttreatment of ME. Field cage observations on the male-to-male interaction indicated that the ME-deprived males did not exhibit aggregation behavior, but that ME feeding promoted aggregation behavior in B. carambolae. Field cage observations revealed that the ME-deprived males were not only attracted to the ME-fed males, but also appeared to feed on their anal secretions. The secretions were subsequently confirmed to contain CF along with endogenously produced pheromonal compounds. Results obtained for B. carambolae were compared to those previously obtained from its sibling species, Bactrocera dorsalis, and are discussed in light of species advancement in fruit fly-plant relationships.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eugenol/analogs & derivatives*
  4. Hee AK, Tan KH
    Bull. Entomol. Res., 2005 Dec;95(6):615-20.
    PMID: 16336709 DOI: 10.1079/BER2005392
    Sex pheromonal components of the tephritid fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), 2-allyl-4,5-dimethoxyphenol and (E)-coniferyl alcohol, are biosynthesized from a highly potent male attractant, methyl eugenol, then sequestered and stored in the rectal gland prior to their release during courtship at dusk. These sex pheromonal components have been detected in the haemolymph and crop organ. Hence, attempts were made to separate and identify the haemolymph fractions which contained the sex pheromonal components. Identification of these bioactive fractions in methyl eugenol-fed male flies using gel filtration column chromatography and biodetection using live male flies showed two fractions as highly attractive to conspecific males. These fractions show a significant increase in protein absorbance in the elution profile of haemolymph from methyl eugenol-fed males compared with that from methyl eugenol-deprived males. The molecular mass of these bioactive fractions as determined by using gel filtration was in the peptide range of 3.3 to 5.5 kDa. Subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses further confirmed the presence of the pheromonal components in the bioactive fractions. The presence of these methyl eugenol-derived sex pheromonal components in specific haemolymph fractions suggests the involvement of a sex pheromone binding complex.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eugenol/analogs & derivatives*
  5. Khoo CC, Tan KH
    Microsc Res Tech, 2005 Aug 1;67(5):219-26.
    PMID: 16170821 DOI: 10.1002/jemt.20199
    Sexually mature males of Bactrocera papayae are strongly attracted to and consume methyl eugenol (ME). Upon consumption, ME is biotransformed to two phenylpropanoids, 2-allyl-4,5-dimethoxyphenol (DMP) and (E)-coniferyl alcohol (CF), that are transported in the hemolymph, sequestered and stored in the rectal glands, and subsequently released as sex and aggregation pheromones during courtship. To date, very little work on the ultrastructure and anatomy of the rectal gland has been done, and the accumulation of phenylpropanoids in the rectal glands of males has not been observed visually. Our objectives are to describe the anatomy and fine structures of the rectal glands of males and females and to observe the accumulation of autofluorescent compounds in the rectal glands of males. The rectal glands of males and females have four rectal papillae with each papilla attached to a rectal pad. The rectal pads protrude from the rectal gland as the only surfaces of the gland that are not surrounded by muscles. The rectal papillae of ME-fed males had oil droplets and autofluorescent compounds that were absent from those of ME-deprived males. The autofluorescent compounds accumulated in the rectal sac, which is an evagination that is not found in rectal glands of females. The accumulation of these compounds increased with time and reached maximum at a day post-ME feeding and decreased thereafter. This trend is similar to the accumulation pattern of phenylpropanoids, CF and DMP in the rectal gland.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eugenol/analogs & derivatives*
  6. Wee SL, Tan KH
    J. Chem. Ecol., 2005 Apr;31(4):845-58.
    PMID: 16124255 DOI: 10.1007/s10886-005-3548-6
    Bactrocera carambolae and B. papayae are major fruit fly pests and sympatric sibling species of the B. dorsalis complex. They possess distinct differences in male pheromonal components. In the 1990's, wild Bactrocera fruit flies with morphological traits intermediate between those of B. carambolae and B. papayae were often captured in traps baited with methyl eugenol (ME). Chemical analyses of rectal glands of ME-fed males revealed that the laboratory Fl, F2, and backcross hybrids possessed ME-derived sex pheromonal components ranging from that typical of B. papayae to that of B. carambolae without any specific trend, which included a combination of pheromonal components from both parental species within an individual hybrid. ME-fed hybrids without any ME-derived pheromonal components were also detected. Further chemical analysis of rectal glands from wild Bactrocera males, after ME feeding in the laboratory, showed a combination of pheromonal components similar to that found in the ME-fed, laboratory-bred hybrids. These findings present circumstantial evidence for the occurrence of a natural hybrid of the two Bactrocera species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eugenol/analogs & derivatives
  7. Wee SL, Abdul Munir MZ, Hee AKW
    Bull. Entomol. Res., 2018 Feb;108(1):116-124.
    PMID: 28625191 DOI: 10.1017/S0007485317000554
    The Artocarpus fruit fly, Bactrocera umbrosa (Fabricius) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an oligophagous fruit pest infesting Moraceae fruits, including jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamarck), a fruit commodity of high value in Malaysia. The scarcity of fundamental biological, physiological and ecological information on this pest, particularly in relation to behavioural response to phytochemical lures, which are instrumental to the success of many area-wide fruit fly control and management programmes, underpins the need for studies on this much-underrated pest. The positive response of B. umbrosa males to methyl eugenol (ME), a highly potent phytochemical lure, which attracts mainly males of many Bactrocera species, was shown to increase with increasing age. As early as 7 days after emergence (DAE), ca. 22% of males had responded to ME and over 50% by 10 DAE, despite no occurrence of matings (i.e. the males were still sexually immature). Male attraction to ME peaked from 10 to 27 DAE, which corresponded with the flies' attainment of sexual maturity. In wind-tunnel assays during the dusk courtship period, ME-fed males exhibited earlier calling activity and attracted a significantly higher percentage of virgin females compared with ME-deprived males. ME-fed males enjoyed a higher mating success than ME-deprived males at 1-day post ME feeding in semi-field assays. ME consumption also promotes aggregation behaviour in B. umbrosa males, as demonstrated in wind-tunnel and semi-field assays. We suggest that ME plays a prominent role in promoting sexual communication and enhancing mating performance of the Artocarpus fruit fly, a finding that is congruent with previous reports on the consequences of ME acquisition by other economically important Bactrocera species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eugenol/analogs & derivatives*
  8. Abdul Manan FM, Attan N, Widodo N, Aboul-Enein HY, Wahab RA
    Prep Biochem Biotechnol, 2018 Jan 02;48(1):92-102.
    PMID: 29194017 DOI: 10.1080/10826068.2017.1405021
    An alternative environmentally benign support was prepared from chitosan-chitin nanowhiskers (CS/CNWs) for covalent immobilization of Rhizomucor miehei lipase (RML) to increase the operational stability and recyclability of RML in synthesizing eugenyl benzoate. The CS/CNWs support and RML-CS/CNWs were characterized using X-ray diffraction, fluorescent microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Efficiency of the RML-CS/CNWs was compared to the free RML to synthesize eugenyl benzoate for parameters: reaction temperature, stirring rate, reusability, and thermal stability. Under optimal experimental conditions (50°C, 250 rpm, catalyst loading 3 mg/mL), a twofold increase in yield of eugenyl benzoate was observed for RML-CS/CNWs as compared to free RML, with the former achieving maximum yield of the ester at 62.1% after 5 hr. Results demonstrated that the strategy adopted to prepare RML-CS/CNWs was useful, producing an improved and prospectively greener biocatalyst that supported a sustainable process to prepare eugenyl benzoate. Moreover, RML-CS/CNWs are biodegradable and perform esterification reactions under ambient conditions as compared to the less eco-friendly conventional acid catalyst. This research provides a facile and promising approach for improving activity of RML in which the resultant RML-CS/CNWs demonstrated good operational stability for up to eight successive esterification cycles to synthesize eugenyl benzoate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eugenol/analogs & derivatives*
  9. Kah-Wei Hee A, Tan KH
    PMID: 16750428 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2006.04.009
    Males of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) are attracted strongly to and feed compulsively on methyl eugenol (1,2-dimethoxy- 4 -(2-propenyl)benzene), a highly potent male attractant. Pharmacophagy of methyl eugenol results in the production of phenylpropanoids 2-allyl-4,5-dimethoxyphenol and (E)-coniferyl alcohol that are sequestered and stored in the rectal gland prior to release as sex pheromonal components during mating at dusk. While these pheromonal components have also been detected in the hemolymph and crop of methyl eugenol-fed males, there is currently little information on the transport of these compounds from the crop to rectal gland in male B. dorsalis. Therefore, using physiological techniques such as parabiosis, rectal gland transplantation and hemolymph transfusion coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses, we were able to ascertain and confirm the role of the hemolymph in the transport of these sex pheromonal components from the crop to the rectal gland. Further, the temporal profile of these methyl eugenol-derived bioactive compounds in the hemolymph also shows an increase with time post-methyl eugenol-feeding, i.e., 2-allyl-4,5-dimethoxyphenol attaining maximum amounts 15 min after ME consumption and decreasing thereafter, while for (E)-coniferyl alcohol-the increase and decrease are more gradual. These results further demonstrate the ability of insect hemolymph to transport many diverse forms of bioactive molecules including attractant-derived sex pheromonal components.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eugenol/analogs & derivatives*
  10. Hee AK, Tan KH
    J. Chem. Ecol., 2004 Nov;30(11):2127-38.
    PMID: 15672660 DOI: 10.1023/B:JOEC.0000048778.02561.70
    Pharmacophagy of methyl eugenol (ME)--a highly potent male attractant, by Bactrocera papayae results in the hydroxylation of ME to sex pheromonal components, 2-ally-4,5-dimethoxyphenol (DMP) and (E)-coniferyl alcohol (CF). These compounds, which are also male attractants, are then sequestered and stored in the rectal gland prior to their release during courtship at dusk. Chemical analyses of the digestive tract (excluding the crop and rectal gland) showed the absence of the sex pheromonal components and their precursor, ME. However, B. papayae males were attracted to and fed on the ME-fed male hemolymph extracts but not on hemolymph extracts of ME-deprived males. After thin layer chromatography in a hexane:ethyl acetate solvent system, flies were attracted to and fed on the original point on the TLC plate where the hemolymph extract had been spotted, suggesting that the pheromone components were bound in polar complexes. Chemical analyses of the ME-fed male hemolymph and crop extracts revealed the presence of the sex pheromonal components. The presence of the ME-derived pheromonal components and the absence of ME in the hemolymph suggest that the hemolymph is involved in the transportation of sex pheromonal components from the crop to the rectal gland.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eugenol/analogs & derivatives*
  11. Wee SL, Tan KH
    J. Chem. Ecol., 2001 May;27(5):953-64.
    PMID: 11471947 DOI: 10.1023/A:1010387020135
    Methyl eugenol (ME), is converted into two major phenylpropanoids, 2-allyl-4,5-dimethoxyphenol and trans-coniferyl alcohol, following consumption by the male fruit fly Bactrocera papayae. Chemical analysis of wild male B. papayae rectal glands, where the compounds are sequestered, revealed the presence of ME metabolites in varying quantities. These phenylpropanoids are shown to be involved in the fruit fly defense both in no-choice and choice feeding tests against the Malayan spiny gecko, Gekko monarchus. After being acclimatized to feeding on fruit flies, geckos consumed significantly fewer ME-fed male flies than controls that consumed all the ME-deprived male flies offered throughout a two-week period. Diagnosis of dissected livers from geckos that consumed ME-fed male flies revealed various abnormalities. These included discoloration and hardening of liver tissue, whitening of the gallbladder, or presence of tumor-like growths in all geckos that consumed ME-fed male flies. Control geckos fed on ME-deprived male flies had healthy livers. When given an alternative prey, geckos preferred to eat untreated house flies, Musca domestica to avoid preying on ME-fed fruit flies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eugenol/analogs & derivatives*
  12. Shaipulah NF, Muhlemann JK, Woodworth BD, Van Moerkercke A, Verdonk JC, Ramirez AA, et al.
    Plant Physiol., 2016 Feb;170(2):717-31.
    PMID: 26620524 DOI: 10.1104/pp.15.01646
    Anthocyanins and volatile phenylpropenes (isoeugenol and eugenol) in petunia (Petunia hybrida) flowers have the precursor 4-coumaryl coenzyme A (CoA) in common. These phenolics are produced at different stages during flower development. Anthocyanins are synthesized during early stages of flower development and sequestered in vacuoles during the lifespan of the flowers. The production of isoeugenol and eugenol starts when flowers open and peaks after anthesis. To elucidate additional biochemical steps toward (iso)eugenol production, we cloned and characterized a caffeoyl-coenzyme A O-methyltransferase (PhCCoAOMT1) from the petals of the fragrant petunia 'Mitchell'. Recombinant PhCCoAOMT1 indeed catalyzed the methylation of caffeoyl-CoA to produce feruloyl CoA. Silencing of PhCCoAOMT1 resulted in a reduction of eugenol production but not of isoeugenol. Unexpectedly, the transgenic plants had purple-colored leaves and pink flowers, despite the fact that cv Mitchell lacks the functional R2R3-MYB master regulator ANTHOCYANIN2 and has normally white flowers. Our results indicate that down-regulation of PhCCoAOMT1 activated the anthocyanin pathway through the R2R3-MYBs PURPLE HAZE (PHZ) and DEEP PURPLE, with predominantly petunidin accumulating. Feeding cv Mitchell flowers with caffeic acid induced PHZ expression, suggesting that the metabolic perturbation of the phenylpropanoid pathway underlies the activation of the anthocyanin pathway. Our results demonstrate a role for PhCCoAOMT1 in phenylpropene production and reveal a link between PhCCoAOMT1 and anthocyanin production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eugenol/analogs & derivatives
  13. Abdul Rahman A, Jamal AR, Harun R, Mohd Mokhtar N, Wan Ngah WZ
    PMID: 24980711 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-213
    Gamma-tocotrienol (GTT), an isomer of vitamin E and hydroxy-chavicol (HC), a major bioactive compound in Piper betle, has been reported to possess anti-carcinogenic properties by modulating different cellular signaling events. One possible strategy to overcome multi-drug resistance and high toxic doses of treatment is by applying combinational therapy especially using natural bioactives in cancer treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eugenol/analogs & derivatives*
  14. Abdul Rahman A, Mokhtar NM, Harun R, Jamal R, Wan Ngah WZ
    J Physiol Biochem, 2019 Nov;75(4):499-517.
    PMID: 31414341 DOI: 10.1007/s13105-019-00699-z
    Gamma-tocotrienol (GTT) and hydroxychavicol (HC) exhibit anticancer activity in glioma cancer cells, where the combination of GTT + HC was shown to be more effective than single agent. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of GTT + HC by measuring the cell cycle progression, migration, invasion, and colony formation of glioma cancer cells and elucidating the changes in gene expression mitigated by GTT + HC that are critical to the chemoprevention of glioma cell lines 1321N1 (grade II), SW1783 (grade III), and LN18 (grade IV) using high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Results of gene expression levels and alternative splicing transcripts were validated by qPCR. Exposure of glioma cancer cells to GTT + HC for 24 h promotes cell cycle arrest at G2M and S phases and inhibits cell migration, invasion, and colony formation of glioma cancer cells. The differential gene expression induced by GTT + HC clustered into response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, cell cycle regulations, apoptosis, cell migration/invasion, cell growth, and DNA repair. Subnetwork analysis of genes altered by GTT + HC revealed central genes, ATF4 and XBP1. The modulation of EIF2AK3, EDN1, and FOXM1 were unique to 1321N1, while CSF1, KLF4, and FGF2 were unique to SW1783. PLK2 and EIF3A gene expressions were only altered in LN18. Moreover, GTT + HC treatment dynamically altered transcripts and alternative splicing expression. GTT + HC showed therapeutic potential against glioma cancer as evident by the inhibition of cell cycle progression, migration, invasion, and colony formation of glioma cancer cells, as well as the changes in gene expression profiles with key targets in ER unfolded protein response pathway, apoptosis, cell cycle, and migration/invasion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eugenol/analogs & derivatives*
  15. Nordin MA, Wan Harun WH, Abdul Razak F, Musa MY
    Int J Oral Sci, 2014 Mar;6(1):15-21.
    PMID: 24406634 DOI: 10.1038/ijos.2013.97
    Candida species have been associated with the emergence of strains resistant to selected antifungal agents. Plant products have been used traditionally as alternative medicine to ease mucosal fungal infections. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Piper betle extract on the growth profile and the ultrastructure of commonly isolated oral candidal cells. The major component of P. betle was identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (LC-MS/MS). Seven ATCC control strains of Candida species were cultured in yeast peptone dextrose broth under four different growth environments: (i) in the absence of P. betle extract; and in the presence of P. betle extract at respective concentrations of (ii) 1 mg⋅mL(-1); (iii) 3 mg⋅mL(-1); and (iv) 6 mg⋅mL(-1). The growth inhibitory responses of the candidal cells were determined based on changes in the specific growth rates (µ). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe any ultrastructural alterations in the candida colonies. LC-MS/MS was performed to validate the presence of bioactive compounds in the extract. Following treatment, it was observed that the µ-values of the treated cells were significantly different than those of the untreated cells (P<0.05), indicating the fungistatic properties of the P. betle extract. The candidal population was also reduced from an average of 13.44×10(6) to 1.78×10(6) viable cell counts (CFU)⋅mL(-1). SEM examination exhibited physical damage and considerable morphological alterations of the treated cells. The compound profile from LC-MS/MS indicated the presence of hydroxybenzoic acid, chavibetol and hydroxychavicol in P. betle extract. The effects of P. betle on candida cells could potentiate its antifungal activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eugenol/analogs & derivatives
  16. Hosseinzadeh M, Mohamad J, Khalilzadeh MA, Zardoost MR, Haak J, Rajabi M
    J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol., 2013 Nov 5;128:85-91.
    PMID: 24077497 DOI: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2013.08.002
    The bark of Litsea costalis affords two new compounds named 4,4'-diallyl-5,5'-dimethoxy-[1,1'-biphennyl]-2,2'-diol, biseugenol A (1) and 2,2'-oxybis (4-allyl-1-methoxybenzene), biseugenol B (2) along with two known compounds (3-4), namely 5-methoxy-2-Hydroxy Benzaldehyde (3), and (E)-4-styrylphenol (4). The structures of 1 and 2 were determined using 1D and 2D NMR data. Also, the IR and NMR data were combined with quantum chemical calculations in the DFT approach using the hybrid B3LYP exchange-correlation function to confirm the structures of the compounds. Compounds showed fairly potent anticancer activity against cell lines and antioxidant (DPPH).
    Matched MeSH terms: Eugenol/analogs & derivatives*
  17. Syahidah A, Saad CR, Hassan MD, Rukayadi Y, Norazian MH, Kamarudin MS
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2017;20(2):70-81.
    PMID: 29022997 DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2017.70.81
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The problems of bacterial diseases in aquaculture are primarily controlled by antibiotics. Medicinal plants and herbs which are seemed to be candidates of replacements for conventional antibiotics have therefore gained increasing interest. Current study was performed to investigate the presence of phytochemical constituents, antibacterial activities and composition of antibacterial active compounds in methanolic extract of local herb, Piper betle .

    METHODOLOGY: Qualitative phytochemical analysis was firstly carried out to determine the possible active compounds in P. betle leaves methanolic extract. The antibacterial activities of major compounds from this extract against nine fish pathogenic bacteria were then assessed using TLC-bioautography agar overlay assay and their quantity were determined simultaneously by HPLC method.

    RESULTS: The use of methanol has proved to be successful in extracting numerous bioactive compounds including antibacterial compounds. The TLC-bioautography assay revealed the inhibitory action of two compounds which were identified as hydroxychavicol and eugenol. The $-caryophyllene however was totally inactive against all the tested bacterial species. In this study, the concentration of hydroxychavicol in extract was found to be 374.72±2.79 mg g-1, while eugenol was 49.67±0.16 mg g-1.

    CONCLUSION: Based on these findings, it could be concluded that hydroxychavicol and eugenol were the responsible compounds for the promising antibacterial activity of P. betle leaves methanolic extract. This inhibitory action has significantly correlated with the amount of the compounds in extract. Due to its potential, the extract of P. betle leaves or it compounds can be alternative source of potent natural antibacterial agents for aquaculture disease management.

    Matched MeSH terms: Eugenol/analogs & derivatives*
  18. Jayasingh Chellammal HS, Veerachamy A, Ramachandran D, Gummadi SB, Manan MM, Yellu NR
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2019 Jan;109:1454-1461.
    PMID: 30551397 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.10.189
    The progressive accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide is neurotoxic and leads to Alzheimer's type dementia. Accumulation of Aβ has been associated with dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we investigated the effect of 1`δ-1`-acetoxyeugenol acetate (DAEA), isolated from Alpinia galanga (L.), on Aβ(25-35) induced neurodegeneration in mice. Mice were treated with three different doses of DAEA (12.5 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg) for 28 days. Aβ(25-35) was injected by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection on the 15th day of 28 days. Open field, water maze and step-down inhibitory tests were performed on the 27th day to determine the habituation memory, spatial learning, and short- and long-term memory, respectively. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Corticosterone, biogenic amines (serotonin and dopamine), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and antioxidant parameters such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and vitamin C were evaluated in brain homogenates after behavioural tests to ascertain the cognitive improvement through neuro-immune-endocrine modulation. The DAEA treatment with 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg resulted in significant (p < 0.001) improvement of habituation memory and step-down inhibitory avoidance task. In spatial learning, the cognitive improvement was significantly improved (p < 0.001) by reduction in escape latency. In the biochemical study, the significant (p < 0.001) reduction of AChE indicates the preeminent neuroprotection. Corticosterone and TNF-α were significantly (p < 0.01) reduced and biogenic amines were increased with antioxidant markers, which signify the potential influence of DAEA on neuroprotection. Our investigation revealed that the drug DAEA attenuates stress mediated through the HPA axis and regulates the neuroendocrine and neuroimmune function to improve the cognition. DAEA could be a potential lead candidate for the treatment of neurodegeneration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eugenol/analogs & derivatives*
  19. In LL, Azmi MN, Ibrahim H, Awang K, Nagoor NH
    Anticancer Drugs, 2011 Jun;22(5):424-34.
    PMID: 21346553 DOI: 10.1097/CAD.0b013e328343cbe6
    In this study, the apoptotic mechanism and combinatorial chemotherapeutic effects of the cytotoxic phenylpropanoid compound 1'S-1'-acetoxyeugenol acetate (AEA), extracted from rhizomes of the Malaysian ethnomedicinal plant Alpinia conchigera Griff. (Zingiberaceae), on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells were investigated for the first time. Data from cytotoxic and apoptotic assays such as live and dead and poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage assays indicated that AEA was able to induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, but not in normal human mammary epithelial cells. A microarray global gene expression analysis of MCF-7 cells, treated with AEA, suggested that the induction of tumor cell death through apoptosis was modulated through dysregulation of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) pathway, as shown by the reduced expression of various κB-regulated gene targets. Consequent to this, western blot analysis of proteins corresponding to the NF-κB pathway indicated that AEA inhibited phosphorylation levels of the inhibitor of κB-kinase complex, resulting in the elimination of apoptotic resistance originating from NF-κB activation. This AEA-based apoptotic modulation was elucidated for the first time in this study, and gave rise to the proposal of an NF-κB model termed the 'Switching/Alternating Model.' In addition to this, AEA was also found to synergistically enhance the proapoptotic effects of paclitaxel, when used in combination with MCF-7 cells, presumably by a chemosensitizing role. Therefore, it was concluded that AEA isolated from the Malaysian tropical ginger (A. conchigera) served as a very promising candidate for further in-vivo development in animal models and in subsequent clinical trials involving patients with breast-related malignancies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Eugenol/analogs & derivatives*
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