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  1. Gong T, Heng BC, Xu J, Zhu S, Yuan C, Lo EC, et al.
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2017 04;105(4):1083-1093.
    PMID: 28076902 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.36003
    Dental stem cells can serve as a potential source of functional endothelial cells for tissue engineering applications, but the endothelial-lineage differentiation efficiency is rather low even with growth factors and mechanical stimuli, which greatly limits their clinical applications. This is partly due to the deficiency of standard two-dimensional (2-D) culture systems, which is unable to recapitulate the three-dimensional (3-D) in vivo milieu that is rich in extracellular matrix. Hence, we extracted decellularized extracellular matrix from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs-DECM) to provide a bioactive substratum conducive to the endothelial differentiation of dental stem cells. Compared to cells plated on tissue culture polystyrene (TCP), stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) cultured on the HUVECs-DECM demonstrated more regular arrangement and elongated morphology. HUVECs-DECM significantly enhanced the rapid adhesion and proliferation rates of SHED, as demonstrated by WST-8 assay and immunocytochemistry indicating higher expression levels of vinculin by newly adherent SHED on HUVECs-DECM versus TCP. In addition, there was twofold to fivefold higher mRNA expression levels of endothelial-specific markers CD31 and VEGFR-2 in SHED after seven days of culture on DECM versus TCP. Functional testing with in vitro matrigel angiogenesis assay identified more capillary-like structure formation with significantly higher tubule length in SHED induced by DECM versus TCP. Hence, the results of this study provide a better understanding of the unique characteristics of cell-specific ECM and demonstrated the potential use of HUVECs-DECM as a culture substratum conducive for stimulating the endothelial differentiation of SHED for therapeutic angiogenic applications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1083-1093, 2017.
    Matched MeSH terms: Extracellular Matrix/chemistry*
  2. Lee SY, Pereira BP, Yusof N, Selvaratnam L, Yu Z, Abbas AA, et al.
    Acta Biomater, 2009 Jul;5(6):1919-25.
    PMID: 19289306 DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2009.02.014
    A poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel composite scaffold containing N,O-carboxymethylated chitosan (NOCC) was tested to assess its potential as a scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering in a weight-bearing environment. The mechanical properties under unconfined compression for different hydration periods were investigated. The effect of supplementing PVA with NOCC (20wt.% PVA:5vol.% NOCC) produced a porosity of 43.3% and this was compared against a non-porous PVA hydrogel (20g PVA: 100ml of water, control). Under non-hydrated conditions, the porous PVA-NOCC hydrogel behaved in a similar way to the control non-porous PVA hydrogel, with similar non-linear stress-strain response under unconfined compression (0-30% strain). After 7days' hydration, the porous hydrogel demonstrated a reduced stiffness (0.002kPa, at 25% strain), resulting in a more linear stiffness relationship over a range of 0-30% strain. Poisson's ratio for the hydrated non-porous and porous hydrogels ranged between 0.73 and 1.18, and 0.76 and 1.33, respectively, suggesting a greater fluid flow when loaded. The stress relaxation function for the porous hydrogel was affected by the hydration period (from 0 to 600s); however the percentage stress relaxation regained by about 95%, after 1200s for all hydration periods assessed. No significant differences were found between the different hydration periods between the porous hydrogels and control. The calculated aggregate modulus, H(A), for the porous hydrogel reduced drastically from 10.99kPa in its non-hydrated state to about 0.001kPa after 7days' hydration, with the calculated shear modulus reducing from 30.92 to 0.14kPa, respectively. The porous PVA-NOCC hydrogel conformed to a biphasic, viscoelastic model, which has the desired properties required for any scaffold in cartilage tissue engineering.
    Matched MeSH terms: Extracellular Matrix/chemistry*
  3. Mansouri N, SamiraBagheri
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2016 Apr 1;61:906-21.
    PMID: 26838922 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.12.094
    The actual in vivo tissue scaffold offers a three-dimensional (3D) structural support along with a nano-textured surfaces consist of a fibrous network in order to deliver cell adhesion and signaling. A scaffold is required, until the tissue is entirely regenerated or restored, to act as a temporary ingrowth template for cell proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. This review depicts some of the most significant three dimensional structure materials used as scaffolds in various tissue engineering application fields currently being employed to mimic in vivo features. Accordingly, some of the researchers' attempts have envisioned utilizing graphene for the fabrication of porous and flexible 3D scaffolds. The main focus of this paper is to evaluate the topographical and topological optimization of scaffolds for tissue engineering applications in order to improve scaffolds' mechanical performances.
    Matched MeSH terms: Extracellular Matrix/chemistry
  4. Choudhary R, Vecstaudza J, Krishnamurithy G, Raghavendran HRB, Murali MR, Kamarul T, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2016 Nov 01;68:89-100.
    PMID: 27524000 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2016.04.110
    Diopside was synthesized from biowaste (Eggshell) by sol-gel combustion method at low calcination temperature and the influence of two different fuels (urea, l-alanine) on the phase formation temperature, physical and biological properties of the resultant diopside was studied. The synthesized materials were characterized by heating microscopy, FTIR, XRD, BET, SEM and EDAX techniques. BET analysis reveals particles were of submicron size with porosity in the nanometer range. Bone-like apatite deposition ability of diopside scaffolds was examined under static and circulation mode of SBF (Simulated Body Fluid). It was noticed that diopside has the capability to deposit HAP (hydroxyapatite) within the early stages of immersion. ICP-OES analysis indicates release of Ca, Mg, Si ions and removal of P ions from the SBF, but in different quantities from diopside scaffolds. Cytocompatability studies on human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) revealed good cellular attachment on the surface of diopside scaffolds and formation of extracellular matrix (ECM). This study suggests that the usage of eggshell biowaste as calcium source provides an effective substitute for synthetic starting materials to fabricate bioproducts for biomedical applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Extracellular Matrix/chemistry*
  5. Hasmad H, Yusof MR, Mohd Razi ZR, Hj Idrus RB, Chowdhury SR
    Tissue Eng Part C Methods, 2018 06;24(6):368-378.
    PMID: 29690856 DOI: 10.1089/ten.TEC.2017.0447
    Fabrication of composite scaffolds is one of the strategies proposed to enhance the functionality of tissue-engineered scaffolds for improved tissue regeneration. By combining multiple elements together, unique biomimetic scaffolds with desirable physical and mechanical properties can be tailored for tissue-specific applications. Despite having a highly porous structure, the utility of electrospun fibers (EF) as scaffold is usually hampered by their insufficient mechanical strength. In this study, we attempted to produce a mechanically competent scaffold with cell-guiding ability by fabricating aligned poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) fibers on decellularized human amniotic membrane (HAM), known to possess favorable tensile and wound healing properties. Decellularization of HAM in 18.75 μg/mL of thermolysin followed by a brief treatment in 0.25 M sodium hydroxide efficiently removed the amniotic epithelium and preserved the ultrastructure of the underlying extracellular matrix. The electrospinning of 20% (w/v) PLGA 50:50 polymer on HAM yielded beadless fibers with straight morphology. Subsequent physical characterization revealed that EF-HAM scaffold with a 3-min fabrication had the most aligned fibers with the lowest fiber diameter in comparison with EF-HAM 5- and 7-min scaffolds. Hydrated EF-HAM scaffolds with 3-min deposition had a greater tensile strength than the other scaffolds despite having thinner fibers. Nevertheless, wet HAM and EF-HAMs regardless of the fiber thicknesses had a significantly lower Young's modulus, and hence, a higher elasticity compared with dry HAM and EF-HAMs. Biocompatibility analysis showed that the viability and migration rate of skeletal muscle cells on EF-HAMs were similar to control and HAM alone. Skeletal muscle cells seeded on HAM were shown to display random orientation, whereas cells on EF-HAM scaffolds were oriented along the alignment of the electrospun PLGA fibers. In summary, besides having good mechanical strength and elasticity, EF-HAM scaffold design decorated with aligned fiber topography holds a promising potential for use in the development of aligned tissue constructs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Extracellular Matrix/chemistry
  6. Gnaneshwar PV, Sudakaran SV, Abisegapriyan S, Sherine J, Ramakrishna S, Rahim MHA, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2019 Mar;96:337-346.
    PMID: 30606541 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2018.11.033
    Far-flung evolution in tissue engineering enabled the development of bioactive and biodegradable materials to generate biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds for bone repair and replacement therapies. Polymeric bioactive nanofibers are to biomimic the native extracellular matrix (ECM), delivering tremendous regenerative potentials for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. It's been known from few decades that Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles are enhancing bone growth and providing proliferation of osteoblasts when incorporated with hydroxyapatite (HAp). We attempted to investigate the interaction between the human foetal osteoblasts (hFOB) with ZnO doped HAp incorporated biocomposite poly(L-lactic acid)-co-poly(ε-caprolactone) and silk fibroin (PLACL/SF) nanofibrous scaffolds for osteoblasts mineralization in bone tissue regeneration. The present study, we doped ZnO with HAp (ZnO(HAp) using the sol-gel ethanol condensation technique. The properties of PLACL/SF/ZnO(HAp) biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds enhanced with doped and blended ZnO/HAp were characterized using Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Contact angle and Tensile studies to determine the morphology, functionality, wettability and stability. The in vitro study results showed that the addition of ZnO and HAp enhances the secretion of bone mineral matrix (98%) with smaller fiber diameter (139.4 ± 27 nm) due to the presence of silk fibroin showing potential tensile properties (322.4%), and increased the proliferation of osteoblasts for bone tissue regeneration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Extracellular Matrix/chemistry
  7. Azhim A, Syazwani N, Morimoto Y, Furukawa KS, Ushida T
    J Biomater Appl, 2014 Jul;29(1):130-41.
    PMID: 24384523 DOI: 10.1177/0885328213517579
    A novel decellularization method using sonication treatment is described. Sonication treatment is the combination of physical and chemical agents. These methods will disrupt cell membrane and release cell contents to external environments. The cell removal was facilitated by subsequent rinsing of sodium dodecyl sulfate detergents. Sonication treatment is used in the preparation of complete decellularized bioscaffolds. The aim of this study is to confirm the usefulness of sonication treatment for preparation of biological scaffolds. In this study, samples of aortic tissues are decellularized by sonication treatment at frequency of 170 kHz in 0.1% and 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate detergents for 10-h treatment time. The relation between decellularization and sonication parameters such as dissolved oxygen concentration, conductivity, and pH is investigated. Histological analysis and biomechanical testing is performed to evaluate cell removal efficiency as well as changes in biomechanical properties. Minimal inflammation response elicit by bioscaffolds is confirmed by xenogeneic implantation and immunohistochemistry. Sonication treatment is able to produce complete decellularized tissue suggesting that these treatments could be applied widely as one of the decellularization method.
    Matched MeSH terms: Extracellular Matrix/chemistry
  8. Yusof MFH, Hashim SNM, Zahari W, Chandra H, Noordin KBAA, Kannan TP, et al.
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2020 May;191(1):177-190.
    PMID: 32096060 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-020-03266-1
    Previously, it was reported that human amniotic membrane (AM) induced stem cells from human deciduous exfoliated teeth (SHED) endothelial-like-cell differentiation. This interesting effect of AM matrix on SHED demands further elucidation. Objective of this in vitro work was to study the effect of 24-h VEGF induced on SHED endothelial differentiation when seeded on acellular stromal side (SS) of AM matrix. Stemness of SHED was identified by flow cytometry. Cell attachment and morphological changes towards the matrix was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Protein expression of endothelial marker was examined by Western blot. The expression of stem cells and endothelial-specific gene markers of VEGF-induced SHED cultured on human AM was inspected via reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results showed SHED at both passages retain stemness property. Ang-1 protein was expressed in SHED. Cells treated with VEGF and cultured on AM transformed attached well to AM. VEGF-induced SHED expressed both stem cell and endothelial-specific markers throughout the treatments and timeline. Interestingly, prolonged VEGF treatment increased the expression of Cox-2 and VE-Cadherin genes in all treated groups when compared to SHED. It was concluded that the VEGF-induced SHED showed better expression of endothelial-specific markers when cultured on SS of AM, with prolonged VEGF treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Extracellular Matrix/chemistry*
  9. Ren X, Evangelista-Leite D, Wu T, Rajab TK, Moser PT, Kitano K, et al.
    Biomaterials, 2018 11;182:127-134.
    PMID: 30118980 DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2018.08.012
    Decellularized native extracellular matrix (ECM) biomaterials are widely used in tissue engineering and have reached clinical application as biomesh implants. To enhance their regenerative properties and postimplantation performance, ECM biomaterials could be functionalized via immobilization of bioactive molecules. To facilitate ECM functionalization, we developed a metabolic glycan labeling approach using physiologic pathways to covalently incorporate click-reactive azide ligands into the native ECM of a wide variety of rodent tissues and organs in vivo, and into the ECM of isolated rodent and porcine lungs cultured ex vivo. The incorporated azides within the ECM were preserved after decellularization and served as chemoselective ligands for subsequent bioconjugation via click chemistry. As proof of principle, we generated alkyne-modified heparin, immobilized it onto azide-incorporated acellular lungs, and demonstrated its bioactivity by Antithrombin III immobilization and Factor Xa inhibition. The herein reported metabolic glycan labeling approach represents a novel platform technology for manufacturing click-reactive native ECM biomaterials, thereby enabling efficient and chemoselective functionalization of these materials to facilitate tissue regeneration and repair.
    Matched MeSH terms: Extracellular Matrix/chemistry*
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