Eimeria tenggilingi is described from the pangolin or scaly anteater, Manis javanica, in Malaysia. The spheroid to subspheroid oocysts average 18.9 X 17.8 mum. The oocyst wall is composed of 3 layers, each approximately 0.6 mum thick. The 2 outer layers are striated and yellowish green. The inner layer is dark brown. One or 2 polar granules are present, but an oocyst residuum is absent. Ellipsoid sporocysts average 12.4 X 6.2 mum. A sporocyst residuum is present. This is the first Eimeria species reported from a host in the order Pholidota.
A 16-year-old female from Rantau Panjang, Kelantan reported having diarrhoea for three months. During this period, she lost 15 lb in weight and was treated with antibiotics and anti-spasmodic tablets with no improvement. Stool examinations by private laboratories revealed "worm-like eggs". She was treated for worms with mebendazole which helped to reduce the symptoms but not completely. The patient continued passing out the abnormal "worm-like eggs" which were later identified as pollen grains.
The phoretic association between Macrocheles muscaedomesticae and flies that inhabited poultry manure in a poultry farm in Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia was studied. The effects of temperature, relative humidity and fly abundance on phoretic rates also were investigated. The most abundant fly species found was Musca domestica; Musca sorbens, Chrysomyia megacephala and Ophyra chalcogaster were present in relatively large numbers. Representatives of ten families of mites were found on collected Mu. domestica. The most common mite was Ma. muscaedomesticae (Macrochelidae), found on all four species of flies mentioned above. The highest infestation (2.0%) occurred on O. chalcogaster but Mu. domestica had the highest average number infested (5.7). The ventral part of the housefly's abdomen was the most common site of mite attachment. Usually only one mite was found attached per fly. The highest phoretic rate recorded was 64.4 Ma. muscaedomesticae per 1000 Mu. domestica. There was no correlation between phoretic rates and Ma. muscaedomesticae abundance, nor was relative humidity a factor. However, a positive correlation was recorded in this host species between phoretic rates and temperature.
The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of helminth eggs excreted in the faeces of stray cats, dogs and in soil samples. A total of 505 fresh samples of faeces (from 227 dogs and 152 cats) and soil were collected. The egg stage was detected via microscopy after the application of formalin-ether concentration technique. Genomic DNA was extracted from the samples containing hookworm eggs and used for further identification to the species level using real-time polymerase chain reaction coupled with high resolution melting analysis. Microscopic observation showed that the overall prevalence of helminth eggs among stray cats and dogs was 75.7% (95% CI = 71.2%-79.9%), in which 87.7% of dogs and 57.9% of cats were infected with at least one parasite genus. Five genera of heliminth eggs were detected in the faecal samples, including hookworms (46.4%), Toxocara (11.1%), Trichuris (8.4%), Spirometra (7.4%) and Ascaris (2.4%). The prevalence of helminth infections among stray dogs was significantly higher than that among stray cats (p < 0.001). Only three genera of helminths were detected in soil samples with the prevalence of 23% (95% CI = 15.1%-31%), consisting of hookworms (16.6%), Ascaris (4%) and Toxocara (2.4%). The molecular identification of hookworm species revealed that Ancylostoma ceylanicum was dominant in both faecal and soil samples. The dog hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, was also detected among cats, which is the first such occurrence reported in Malaysia till date. This finding indicated that there was a cross-infection of A. caninum between stray cats and dogs because of their coexistent within human communities. Taken together, these data suggest the potential role of stray cats and dogs as being the main sources of environmental contamination as well as for human infections.
There have been previous studies associating microorganisms to cancer and with our recent findings of Blastocytsis antigen having a higher in vitro proliferation of cancer cells strengthens the suspicion. Collecting faecal samples alone to associate this parasite with cancer may not be accurate due to the phenomenon of irregular shedding and the possible treatment administrated to the cancer patients. Hence, this become the basis to search for an alternate method of sample collection. Colonic washout is an almost complete washed up material from colon and rectum which includes various microorganisms such as Blastocystis and other lodged material within the villi. The detection of parasite in colonic washouts will give a better reflection on the association between Blastocystis and CRC.
Oocysts and endogenous stages of new species of Eimeria and Isospora from the house lizard, Gehyra mutilata, are described. The ellipsoid to subspherical 2-layered oocysts of E. cicaki averaged 24.0 X 21.0 mum. Polar granules are present. Micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent. Ellipsoid sporocysts average 12.2 X 9.0 mum. A sporocyst residuum is present, but the Stieda body is absent. Endogenous stages are in epithelial cells of the small intestine. The subspherical single-layered oocysts of I. thavari average 23.8 X 22.8 mum. The polar granule is present; micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent. Ellipsoid sporocysts average 12.8 X 9.4 mum. Stieda body and sporocyst residuum are present. There are endogenous stages in epithelial cells of the small intestine.
A survey of a total of 1,157 Indian primary school children from eight schools from urban and rural areas in and around Kuala Lumpur showed an overall
prevalence of infection with soil-transmitted helminthiasis of 89.02%. The prevalence and intensity of infection were consistently high among both school boys and girls throughout the six years of primary school. The predominant helminth was Trichuris trichiura - both as single and mixed infections. The commonest type of helminthic infection among urban primary school children was mixed infections with Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides. Hookworm infections, both as single or mixed infections, were more common among school children from rubber and oil palm estates in the rural areas.
Only 8.4% of 1,286 Chinese boys and girls from the ages of 5-12 years in Pulau Ketam were infected with soil-transmitted helminths. The majority of these children had single infections with Trichuris or Ascaris alone. Mixed infections made up less than 5% of all infected cases. The worm burdens of infected children were very low. There was no definite pattern of distribution of infection among children of different ages and no differences in the distribution of infection between boys and girls. The main factors for the low prevalence and intensity of infection were the absence of suitable soil for the development and survival of infective helminth stages and the lack of contact with contaminated soil on this island. These two factors acted as very effective barriers to the transmission of soiltransmitted helminths on Pulau Ketam.
A pair of Mammomonogamus laryngeus roundworms in copula was recovered from the duodenum of a 72-year-old male Thai patient from Kanchanaburi Province. Eggs were also found in the stool of the patient. This is the first case of Mammomonogamus infection originating in Thailand, as the previous two reports from Thailand attributed the infection as originating in Malaysia. The occurrence of adult worms in the duodenum is unusual and differs from previous findings in the larynx, posterior pharynx, tracheal wall and bronchi. This adds a new dimension to the manifestation of the infection.
The shedding pattern of the protozoan parasite, Blastocystis hominis, is investigated in man and in experimental animal infections. The shedding pattern of the vacuolar and cystic forms of Blastocystis hominis in infected individuals have been shown in the present study to be irregular. The study shows that there is marked fluctuation in the shedding of the parasite from day to day, varying from as high as 17 to 0 per x40 microscopic field. The cystic stages when estimated in 8 Blastocystis-infected individuals ranged from as high as 7.4x10(5) cysts per gram of stool to 0. The shedding of cystic and vacuolar forms observed over a period of 20 days in experimentally-infected Wistar rats were not only shown to be irregular but the amount varied from host to host. The study has important diagnostic implications in that the stool samples must be collected more than once from patients showing clinical signs and symptoms to eliminate the cause of it to Blastocystis. The study also shows that there are asymptomatic individuals who pass a large amount of cysts as such individuals should be treated to prevent transmission to others.
During 3 collecting expeditions between October 1996 and December 1996, fecal samples were obtained from 43 adult Gonocephalus grandis from Tanah Rata and the Cameron Highlands in Peninsular Malaysia. Two species of coccidia (Isospora gonocephali n. sp. [9/43, 23%] and Eimeria cameronensis n. sp. [3/43, 7%]) were discovered. Sporulated oocysts of I. gonocephali are subspherical to ovoidal, 22.3 x 18.7 (19-25 x 17-23) microm with a bilayered wall composed of a thin inner wall and a striated outer wall with a pitted surface; oocyst residuum absent; 1 polar granule present; sporocysts are almond-shaped, 13.5 x 9.2 (12-15 x 8.5-10) microm, Stieda body broad, domelike, substieda body fanlike, sporocyst residuum consisting of coarse, nonuniform granules in an amorphous cluster; sporozoites sausage-shaped with 1 large terminal, refractile body and lay randomly in the sporocyst. Sporulated oocysts of E. cameronensis are bilayered, smooth-walled, ellipsoidal, 26.5 x 12.4 (25-28 x 12-13) microm; with 1, small, polar granule composed of 2-3 splinter-like structures fused together; oocyst residuum absent; sporocysts ovoidal, almost rectangular-shaped 8.8 x 6.6 (8-9 x 5-7) microm, with no Stieda or substieda bodies, containing scattered residuum and 2 sausage-shaped sporozoites with 1 terminal, ovoidal refractile body. No individual lizard was host to both coccidian species.
A survey was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasites from different groups of mammals housed in a zoological garden in Malaysia. A total of 197 faecal samples were collected randomly from various primates (99), hoofed mammals (70) and feline (28). It was discovered that 89.3% of feline, 54.5% of primates and 45.7% of hoofed mammals were infected with intestinal parasites. Intestinal parasites found in primates were Balantidium coli (19.2%), Cryptosporidium spp. (14.1%), hookworm (10.1%), Trichuris spp. (5.1%), Ascaris (4.0%) and Blastocystis spp. (2.0%). For hoofed mammals, hookworm had the highest prevalence (34.3%) followed by Trichuris spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. (5.7%). Meanwhile, for feline, Toxocara cati was the most prevalent (64.3%), followed by Cryptosporidium spp. (14.3%), Spirometra spp. (7.1%), and hookworm (3.6%). Animals that were infected were all asymptomatic with low parasite load. Routine monitoring of the presence of parasites in animals kept in the zoo is imperative in assisting zoo management in the formulation and implementation of preventive and control measures against the spread of infectious parasitic diseases among animals within the zoo or to humans.
A total of 1131 Police Field Force personnel were screened serologically for schistosomiasis in Malaysia. A total of 150 (13.3%) were tested positive or borderline. Stool samples from 75 of these cases were however all negative for schistosome eggs. This survey suggests that Police Field Force personnel may be agents for propagating the schistosome life cycle in Malaysia.
A Giardia varani Lavier, 1923-like flagellate was found in the feces of a captive water monitor, Varanus salvator, originally caught wild from an unknown location in Malaysia. The parasite is similar in size and shape to Giardia lamblia, except that median bodies are rare and cysts are binucleate. A description of both the trophozoite and cyst stage of this flagellate is provided.
Trichuris trichiura (whipworm) are soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) that causing trichuriasis in human. Trichuris vulpis, a canine whipworm has also been reported occasionally in humans. However, an overlapping dimension in the morphology and due to limited external characters between both species may lead to the potential for misidentification. Although there has been an extensive study on the distribution of whipworm in both human and animal hosts, little is known about the molecular epidemiology of Trichuris species in both hosts. To investigate to characterize the whipworm species and to determine the genetic relationship between species infecting both humans and animals, we sequenced the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) regions of Trichuris egg isolated from humans, dogs and cats in a rural community in Malaysia. A total of 524 fresh fecal samples were collected from humans and animals. The overall prevalence of Trichuris was 59.9% as determined by microscopy examination. The molecular analysis showed that 98.7% were identified as T. trichiura in the human fecal sample. Interestingly, 1.3% were identified as T. vulpis. As for animal fecal sample, 56.8% and 43.2% were identified as T. trichiura and T. vulpis, respectively. Phylogenetic and sequence analysis demonstrated that T. trichiura isolates were genetically distinct from T. vulpis isolates from both hosts. This finding implies that companion animals can be a reservoir and mechanical transmitter for T. trichiura infection in human and also highlighting the possible zoonotic potential of T. vulpis. This finding may also suggest that cross-transmission between humans and animal hosts in sympatric setting may be a source of infection in both hosts. More studies are needed to better understand the transmission dynamic and public health significance of Trichuris infection in both hosts.