SETTING: Obstetric unit of a university hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
POPULATION: Women admitted for a planned caesarean under spinal anaesthesia.
METHODS: Participants were randomised to a sandwich meal served immediately on return to the ward or on-demand.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcomes were patient satisfaction VAS (visual analog scale of 100 mm) on the feeding regimen and vomiting at 24 hours.
RESULTS: 453 women were initially enrolled, 395 were randomised and available for analysis. Median (full range) patient satisfaction VAS scores were 82 (15-100) versus 84 (0-100) mm, P = 0.88 and vomiting rates were 1/197 (0.5%) versus 2/198 (1.0%), P > 0.99 for immediate compared with on-demand feeding, respectively. The immediate versus on-demand arms first ate at a median of 105 (35-210) versus 165 (45-385) minutes, P
Case presentation: In May 2015, a 20 year old first-time mother at 36 weeks gestation was seen in a district health clinic in Kuching, Sarawak in regards to her ability to breastfeed. She had a history of a flame burn at the age of 5 years old to her chest, abdomen, upper limb and part of her trunk. A skin graft was done on her whole chest and abdomen. Despite the injuries, she had pubertal and antenatal breast development. Her abdomen was able to stretch to accommodate her pregnancy. Physical examination showed a pregnancy which corresponded to date. The skin over her chest and abdomen appeared tight with areas of hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation due to scarring from the skin graft. Breast tissues were palpable over her chest. The areola and nipple tissue were completely absent with complete scarring of the nipple-areolar complex. There was no duct opening to the areola for milk expression or leakage. Counselling regarding her breastfeeding issues was done. She delivered her baby at full term via spontaneous vaginal delivery with no complication. Oral cabergoline 1 mg was given on the first day postpartum. The baby was given infant formula via bottle feeding as the feeding method of choice.
Conclusion: Counselling plays an important part in the management of a mother with breastfeeding difficulty. Allaying the possible guilty feelings of not being able to breastfeed will fulfil the emotional gap which may arise in a mother with these challenges.
METHODS: A total sample of 300 subjects aged 6 to 23 months was recruited from urban suburbs of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya. Compliance with each IYCF indicator was computed according to WHO recommendations. Dietary intake based on two-day weighed food records was obtained from a sub-group (N = 119) of the total sample. The mean adequacy ratio (MAR) value was computed as an overall measure of dietary intake adequacy. Contributions of core IYCF indicators to MAR were determined by multinomial logistic regression.
RESULTS: Generally, the subjects showed high compliance for (i) timely introduction of complementary foods at 6 to 8 months (97.9%); (ii) minimum meal frequency among non-breastfed children aged 6 to 23 months (95.2%); (iii) consumption of iron-rich foods at 6 to 23 months (92.3%); and minimum dietary diversity (78.0%). While relatively high proportions achieved the recommended intake levels for protein (87.4%) and iron (71.4%), lower proportions attained the recommendations for calcium (56.3%) and energy (56.3%). The intake of micronutrients was generally poor. The minimum dietary diversity had the greatest contribution to MAR (95% CI: 3.09, 39.87) (p = 0.000) among the core IYCF indicators.
CONCLUSION: Malaysian urban infants and toddlers showed moderate to high compliance with WHO IYCF indicators. The robustness of the analytical approach in this study in quantifying contributions of IYCF indicators to MAR should be further investigated.
METHODS: Reviewing literature and integrating relevant information facilitated the appraisal of this important topic. This article reviewed neonatal jaundice, the entry of bilirubin into the immature brain and how breastfeeding may impact jaundice in the neonate.
RESULTS: While some substances in breast milk may be responsible for jaundice on the one hand, there is an irrefutable spectrum of advantages conferred by continued breastfeeding, on the other. As the breastfed infant benefits from fewer infections, enhanced organ and physiological barrier maturity, as well as the prospect of genetic modification of certain diseases, these useful actions could also reduce risks of early jaundice and its complications.
DISCUSSION: An exciting field for further research, holistic integration of knowledge clarifies both the overall advantages of breastfeeding and wisdom of its continued counsel. In fact, breast milk jaundice may reflect a holistic expression of tissue protection and enhanced neonatal survival.