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  1. Wong YS, Sia CM, Khoo HE, Ang YK, Chang SK, Chang SK, et al.
    Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment, 2014 Jul-Sep;13(3):257-65.
    PMID: 24887941
    As a by-product of tropical fruit juice industry, passion fruit peel is a valuable functional food. It is rich in antioxidants. To determine its potential antioxidant properties of passion fruit peel, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of extraction conditions on total phenolic content and antioxidant activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Free Radical Scavengers/analysis
  2. Chua LS, Yap KC, Jaganath IB
    Nat Prod Commun, 2013 Dec;8(12):1725-9.
    PMID: 24555283
    The total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity of Andrographis paniculata has been investigated to estimate the amount of phenolic compounds and diterpene lactones, respectively in the plant extracts. The stem extracts exhibited higher total phenolic content and scavenging activity than those of the leaf extracts from both young and mature plants. A range of 19.6-47.8 mg extract of A. paniculata from different parts of the plant is equivalent to the scavenging activity exhibited by one mg of standard Trolox. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS was also used to identify simultaneously the phytochemicals from the leaves and stems of both young and mature plant samples. Of the identified compounds, seven of the sixteen diterpene lactones, three of the six flavonoids, five of the six phenolic acids and two cyclic acids are reported here for the first time for this species. Multivariate statistical approaches such as Hierarchiral Component Analysis (HCA) and Principle Component Analysis (PCA) have clustered the plant extracts into the leaf and stem groups, regardless of plant age. Further classification based on the phytochemical profiles revealed that mostly phenolic acids and flavonoids were from the young leaf extracts, and diterpenoids and their glycosides from the mature leaf extracts. However, the phytochemical profiles for the stems of both young and mature plants were not significantly different as presented in the dendrogram of HCA and the score plot of PCA. The marker for mature plants might be the m/z 557 ion (dihydroxyl dimethyl 19-[(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-19-oxo-ent-labda-8(17),13-dien-16,15-olide), whereas the m/z 521 ion (propyl neoandrographolide) could be the marker for leaf extracts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Free Radical Scavengers/analysis*
  3. Khalil MI, Alam N, Moniruzzaman M, Sulaiman SA, Gan SH
    J. Food Sci., 2011 Aug;76(6):C921-8.
    PMID: 22417491 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02282.x
    The phenolic acid and flavonoid contents of Malaysian Tualang, Gelam, and Borneo tropical honeys were compared to those of Manuka honey. Ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay (FRAP) and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activities were also quantified. All honey extracts exhibited high phenolic contents (15.21 ± 0.51- 42.23 ± 0.64 mg/kg), flavonoid contents (11.52 ± 0.27- 25.31 ± 0.37 mg/kg), FRAP values (892.15 ± 4.97- 363.38 ± 10.57 μM Fe[II]/kg), and high IC₅₀ of DPPH radical-scavenging activities (5.24 ± 0.40- 17.51 ± 0.51 mg/mL). Total of 6 phenolic acids (gallic, syringic, benzoic, trans-cinnamic, p-coumaric, and caffeic acids) and 5 flavonoids (catechin, kaempferol, naringenin, luteolin, and apigenin) were identified. Among the Malaysian honey samples, Tualang honey had the highest contents of phenolics, and flavonoids, and DPPH radical-scavenging activities. We conclude that among Malaysian honey samples, Tualang honey is the richest in phenolic acids, and flavonoid compounds, which have strong free radical-scavenging activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Free Radical Scavengers/analysis
  4. Kishore RK, Halim AS, Syazana MS, Sirajudeen KN
    Nutr Res, 2011 Apr;31(4):322-5.
    PMID: 21530807 DOI: 10.1016/j.nutres.2011.03.001
    Many chronic diseases are associated with increased oxidative stress caused by an imbalance between free-radical production and the antioxidant level. Antioxidants, which are abundant in natural honey, are free-radical scavengers that either reduce the formation of or neutralize free radicals. The composition and source of honey greatly dictates its biochemical properties. We performed a comparative analysis of the total phenolic content and antioxidant potential of common commercially available honeys along with Malaysian tualang honey. In vitro biochemical analysis of the phenolic content by the Folin-Ciocalteau method revealed a significantly elevated phenolic content (83.96 ± 4.53 mg gallic acid equivalents per 100 g) in tualang honey. In addition, the antioxidant capacity (53.06 ± 0.41 mg ascorbic acid equivalents per gram) of tualang honey was greater, as assessed by the phosphomolybdenum method, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl assay, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay. Peroxynitrite and superoxide radical scavenging activity was determined by spectrophotometric analysis in different honey types. Our data suggest that the elevated free-radical scavenging and antioxidant activity observed in tualang honey is due to the increased level of phenolic compounds. In addition to its antibacterial, anticarcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, our study highlights the favorable antioxidant properties of tualang honey, which may be important to human nutrition and health.
    Matched MeSH terms: Free Radical Scavengers/analysis
  5. Mustafa RA, Abdul Hamid A, Mohamed S, Bakar FA
    J. Food Sci., 2010 Jan-Feb;75(1):C28-35.
    PMID: 20492146 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01401.x
    Free radical scavenging activity of 21 tropical plant extracts was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay (DPPH). Total phenolic compounds and flavonoids were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu and HPLC, respectively. Results of the study revealed that all the plants tested exhibited excellent antioxidant activity with IC(50) in the range of 21.3 to 89.6 microg/mL. The most potent activity was demonstrated by Cosmos caudatus (21.3 microg/mL) and Piper betle (23.0 microg/mL) that are not significantly different than that of -tocopherol or BHA. L. inermis extract was found to consist of the highest concentration of phenolics, catechin, epicatechin, and naringenin. High content of quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol were identified in Vitex negundo, Centella asiatica, and Sesbania grandiflora extracts, respectively. Luteolin and apigenin, on the other hand, were found in Premna cordifolia and Kaempferia galanga extracts. Strong correlation (R = 0.8613) between total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids (R = 0.8430) and that of antioxidant activity of the extracts were observed. The study revealed that phenolic, in particular flavonoids, may be the main contributors to the antioxidant activity exhibited by the plants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Free Radical Scavengers/analysis*
  6. Pachaiappan R, Tamboli E, Acharya A, Su CH, Gopinath SCB, Chen Y, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2018;13(3):e0193717.
    PMID: 29494663 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0193717
    Enzyme hydrolysates (trypsin, papain, pepsin, α-chymotrypsin, and pepsin-pancreatin) of Tinospora cordifolia stem proteins were analyzed for antioxidant efficacy by measuring (1) 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging activity, (2) 2,20-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS+) radical scavenging capacity, and (3) Fe2+ chelation. Trypsin hydrolysate showed the strongest DPPH• scavenging, while α-chymotrypsin hydrolysate exhibited the highest ABTS+ scavenging and Fe2+ chelation. Undigested protein strongly inhibited the gastrointestinal enzymes, trypsin (50% inhibition at enzyme/substrate ratio = 1:6.9) and α-chymotrypsin (50% inhibition at enzyme/substrate ratio = 1:1.82), indicating the prolonged antioxidant effect after ingestion. Furthermore, gel filtration purified peptide fractions of papain hydrolysates exhibited a significantly higher ABTS+ and superoxide radical scavenging as compared to non-purified digests. Active fraction 9 showing the highest radical scavenging ability was further purified and confirmed by MALDI-TOF MS followed by MS/MS with probable dominant peptide sequences identified are VLYSTPVKMWEPGR, VITVVATAGSETMR, and HIGININSR. The obtained results revealed that free radical scavenging capacity of papain hydrolysates might be related to its consistently low molecular weight hydrophobic peptides.
    Matched MeSH terms: Free Radical Scavengers/analysis*
  7. Mediani A, Abas F, Ping TC, Khatib A, Lajis NH
    Plant Foods Hum Nutr, 2012 Dec;67(4):344-50.
    PMID: 23054393 DOI: 10.1007/s11130-012-0317-x
    The impact of tropical seasons (dry and wet) and growth stages (8, 10 and 12 weeks) of Cosmos caudatus on the antioxidant activity (AA), total phenolic content (TPC) as well as the level of bioactive compounds were evaluated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The plant morphology (plant height) also showed variation between the two seasons. Samples planted from June to August (during the dry season) exhibited a remarkably higher bioactivity and height than those planted from October to December (during the wet season). The samples that were harvested at eight weeks of age during the dry season showed the highest bioactivity with values of 26.04 g GAE/100 g and 22.1 μg/ml for TPC and IC₅₀, respectively. Identification of phytochemical constituents in the C. caudatus extract was carried out by liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray tandem mass (LC-DAD-ESIMS/MS) technique and the confirmation of constituents was achieved by comparison with literature data and/or co-chromatography with authentic standards. Six compounds were indentified including quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, rutin, quercetin 3-O-arabinofuranoside, quercetin 3-O-galactoside and chlorogenic acid. Their concentrations showed significant variance among the 8, 10 and 12-week-old herbs during both seasons.
    Matched MeSH terms: Free Radical Scavengers/analysis
  8. Bakhtiyari E, Ahmadian-Attari MM, Salehi P, Khallaghi B, Dargahi L, Mohamed Z, et al.
    Nutr Neurosci, 2017 Oct;20(8):469-477.
    PMID: 27219682 DOI: 10.1080/1028415X.2016.1183986
    OBJECTIVES: Although grape has been recently the topic of many investigations, Maviz (a kind of dried one) has remained neglected. The aim of this study was to assess anti-Alzheimer activity of Maviz.

    METHODS: To reach this goal, total phenolic content (TPC) of ethanolic (Eth) and aqueous (Aq) extracts were determined and radical scavenging activity was assayed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Chemical compositions of each extract were also determined via GC-Mass. Behavioral changes were studied via passive avoidance and Morris water maze in Aβ-induced model of Alzheimer's disease. Catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) determination were also done on rats' hippocampus.

    RESULTS: The results showed that seed Eth extract has a high level of TPC and radical scavenging activity. However, this extract had surprisingly no effect on memory and CAT and SOD activities. In contrast, fruit Aq and Eth extracts (containing furfurals as major compounds) inhibited memory impairment (P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Free Radical Scavengers/analysis
  9. Muharis SP, Top AG, Murugan D, Mustafa MR
    Nutr Res, 2010 Mar;30(3):209-16.
    PMID: 20417882 DOI: 10.1016/j.nutres.2010.03.005
    Diabetes and hypertension are closely associated with impaired endothelial function. Studies have demonstrated that regular consumption of edible palm oil may reverse endothelial dysfunction. The present study investigates the effect of palm oil fractions: tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF), alpha-tocopherol and refined palm olein (vitamin E-free fraction) on the vascular relaxation responses in the aortic rings of streptozotocin-induced diabetic and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). We hypothesize that the TRF and alpha-tocopherol fractions are able to improve endothelial function in both diabetic and hypertensive rat aortic tissue. A 1,1-diphenyl picryl hydrazyl assay was performed on the various palm oil fractions to evaluate their antioxidant activities. Endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine) and endothelium-independent (sodium nitroprusside) relaxations were examined on streptozotocin-induced diabetic and SHR rat aorta following preincubation with the different fractions. In 1-diphenyl picryl hydrazyl antioxidant assay, TRF and alpha-tocopherol fractions exhibited a similar degree of activity while palm olein exhibited poor activity. TRF and alpha-tocopherol significantly improved acetylcholine-induced relaxations in both diabetic (TRF, 88.5% +/- 4.5%; alpha-tocopherol, 87.4% +/- 3.4%; vehicle, 65.0 +/- 1.6%) and SHR aorta (TRF, 72.1% +/- 7.9%; alpha-tocopherol, 69.8% +/- 4.0%, vehicle, 51.1% +/- 4.7%), while palm olein exhibited no observable effect. These results suggest that TRF and alpha-tocopherol fractions possess potent antioxidant activities and provide further support to the cardiovascular protective effects of palm oil vitamin E. TRF and alpha-tocopherol may potentially improve vascular endothelial function in diabetes and hypertension by their sparing effect on endothelium derived nitric oxide bioavailability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Free Radical Scavengers/analysis
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