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  1. Yap HY, Aziz AA, Fung SY, Ng ST, Tan CS, Tan NH
    Int J Med Sci, 2014;11(6):602-7.
    PMID: 24782649 DOI: 10.7150/ijms.8341
    The Lignosus is a genus of fungi that have useful medicinal properties. In Southeast Asia, three species of Lignosus (locally known collectively as Tiger milk mushrooms) have been reported including L. tigris, L. rhinocerotis, and L. cameronensis. All three have been used as important medicinal mushrooms by the natives of Peninsular Malaysia. In this work, the nutritional composition and antioxidant activities of the wild type and a cultivated strain of L. tigris sclerotial extracts were investigated. The sclerotia are rich in carbohydrates with moderate amount of protein and low fat content. Free radical scavenging activities of L. tigris sclerotial extracts correlate with their phenolic content, which ranges from 6.25 to 45.42 mg GAE/g extract. The FRAP values ranged from 0.002 to 0.041 mmol/min/g extract, while the DPPH(•), ABTS(•+), and superoxide anion (SOA) scavenging activities ranged from 0.18 to 2.53, 0.01 to 0.36, and -4.53 to 10.05 mmol Trolox equivalents/g extract, respectively. L. tigris cultivar shows good prospect to be developed into functional food due to its good nutritional value and potent SOA scavenging activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Free Radical Scavengers/metabolism
  2. Khalil I, Moniruzzaman M, Boukraâ L, Benhanifia M, Islam A, Islam N, et al.
    Molecules, 2012 Sep 20;17(9):11199-215.
    PMID: 22996344
    The aim of the present study was to characterize the physical, biochemical and antioxidant properties of Algerian honey samples (n = 4). Physical parameters, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), color intensity, total sugar and sucrose content were measured. Several biochemical and antioxidant tests were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the honey samples. The mean pH was 3.84 ± 0.01, and moisture the content was 13.21 ± 0.16%. The mean EC was 0.636 ± 0.001, and the mean TDS was 316.92 ± 0.92. The mean color was 120.58 ± 0.64 mm Pfund, and the mean 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content was 21.49 mg/kg. The mean total sugar and reducing sugar contents were 67.03 ± 0.68 g/mL and 64.72 ± 0.52 g/g, respectively. The mean sucrose content was 2.29 ± 0.65%. High mean values of phenolic (459.83 ± 1.92 mg gallic acid/kg), flavonoid (54.23 ± 0.62 mg catechin/kg), ascorbic acid (159.70 ± 0.78 mg/kg), AEAC (278.15 ± 4.34 mg/kg), protein (3381.83 ± 6.19 mg/kg) and proline (2131.47 ± 0.90) contents, as well as DPPH (39.57% ± 4.18) and FRAP activities [337.77 ± 1.01 µM Fe (II)/100 g], were also detected, indicating that Algerian honey has a high antioxidant potential. Strong positive correlations were found between flavonoid, proline and ascorbic acid contents and color intensity with DPPH and FRAP values. Thus, the present study revealed that Algerian honey is a good source of antioxidants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Free Radical Scavengers/metabolism
  3. Kishore RK, Halim AS, Syazana MS, Sirajudeen KN
    Nutr Res, 2011 Apr;31(4):322-5.
    PMID: 21530807 DOI: 10.1016/j.nutres.2011.03.001
    Many chronic diseases are associated with increased oxidative stress caused by an imbalance between free-radical production and the antioxidant level. Antioxidants, which are abundant in natural honey, are free-radical scavengers that either reduce the formation of or neutralize free radicals. The composition and source of honey greatly dictates its biochemical properties. We performed a comparative analysis of the total phenolic content and antioxidant potential of common commercially available honeys along with Malaysian tualang honey. In vitro biochemical analysis of the phenolic content by the Folin-Ciocalteau method revealed a significantly elevated phenolic content (83.96 ± 4.53 mg gallic acid equivalents per 100 g) in tualang honey. In addition, the antioxidant capacity (53.06 ± 0.41 mg ascorbic acid equivalents per gram) of tualang honey was greater, as assessed by the phosphomolybdenum method, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl assay, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay. Peroxynitrite and superoxide radical scavenging activity was determined by spectrophotometric analysis in different honey types. Our data suggest that the elevated free-radical scavenging and antioxidant activity observed in tualang honey is due to the increased level of phenolic compounds. In addition to its antibacterial, anticarcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, our study highlights the favorable antioxidant properties of tualang honey, which may be important to human nutrition and health.
    Matched MeSH terms: Free Radical Scavengers/metabolism*
  4. Bahari EA, Zaaba NE, Haron N, Dasiman R, Amom Z
    Med Sci Monit Basic Res, 2014;20:170-5.
    PMID: 25381551 DOI: 10.12659/MSMBR.892345
    Roots and leaves of the Cermela Hutan (Phyllanthus gomphocarpus Hook. F) plant were studied to determine antioxidant activity, phytochemical compounds, proportion of carbohydrate, crude protein, moisture, ash, fat, total phenolic content (TPC), and total flavonoid content (TFC).
    Matched MeSH terms: Free Radical Scavengers/metabolism
  5. Jaafar HZ, Ibrahim MH, Karimi E
    Molecules, 2012 May 25;17(6):6331-47.
    PMID: 22634843 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17066331
    A split plot 3 × 3 experiment was designed to examine the impact of three concentrations of CO₂ (400, 800 and 1,200 μmol·mol⁻¹) on the phenolic and flavonoid compound profiles, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and antioxidant activity in three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata) after 15 weeks of exposure. HPLC analysis revealed a strong influence of increased CO₂ concentration on the modification of phenolic and flavonoid profiles, whose intensity depended on the interaction between CO₂ levels and L. pumila varieties. Gallic acid and quercetin were the most abundant phenolics and flavonoids commonly present in all the varieties. With elevated CO₂ (1,200 μmol·mol⁻¹) exposure, gallic acid increased tremendously, especially in var. alata and pumila (101-111%), whilst a large quercetin increase was noted in var. lanceolata (260%), followed closely by alata (201%). Kaempferol, although detected under ambient CO₂ conditions, was undetected in all varieties after exposure. Instead, caffeic acid was enhanced tremendously in var. alata (338~1,100%) and pumila (298~433%). Meanwhile, pyragallol and rutin were only seen in var. alata (810 μg·g⁻¹ DW) and pumila (25 μg·g⁻¹ DW), respectively, under ambient conditions; but the former compound went undetected in all varieties while rutin continued to increase by 262% after CO₂ enrichment. Interestingly, naringenin that was present in all varieties under ambient conditions went undetected under enrichment, except for var. pumila where it was enhanced by 1,100%. PAL activity, DPPH and FRAP also increased with increasing CO₂ levels implying the possible improvement of health-promoting quality of Malaysian L. pumila under high CO₂ enrichment conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Free Radical Scavengers/metabolism
  6. Mashitah MD, Masitah H, Ramachandran KB
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:59-60.
    PMID: 15468818
    Streptococcus zooepidemicus (SZ) is an aerotolerant bacteria and its ability to survive under reactive oxidant challenge raises the question of the existence of a defense system. Thus growth, hyaluronic acid (HA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production by SZ in the presence of increasing concentration of Mn2+ were studied. The results suggested that the tested strain supported growth and HA production in cultures treated with 1 and 10 mM of Mn2+ regardless of H2O2 presence in the medium. This showed that SZ have acquired elaborate defense mechanisms to scavenge oxygen toxicity and thus protect cells from direct and indirect effect of this radical. In contrast, cells treated with 25 mM Mn2+ were sensitive, in which, the HA production was reduced considerably. Thus showing that the oxygen scavenger systems of the cells may be fully saturated at this concentration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Free Radical Scavengers/metabolism*
  7. Ngan CL, Basri M, Tripathy M, Abedi Karjiban R, Abdul-Malek E
    Eur J Pharm Sci, 2015 Apr 5;70:22-8.
    PMID: 25619806 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejps.2015.01.006
    Despite the fact that intrinsic oxidative stress is inevitable, the extrinsic factor such as ultraviolet radiation enhances reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation resulting in premature skin aging. Nanoemulsion was loaded with fullerene, a strong free radical scavenger, and its efficacy to provide protection and regenerative effect against ROS-induced collagen breakdown in human skin was studied. Stable fullerene nanoemulsions were formulated using high shear homogenization and ultrasonic dispersion technique. An open trial was conducted using fullerene nanoemulsion on skin twice a day for 28 days. The mean collagen score significantly increased (P<0.05) from 36.53±4.39 to 48.69±5.46 with 33.29% increment at the end of the treatment. Biophysical characteristics of skin revealed that skin hydration was increased significantly (P<0.05) from 40.91±7.01 to 58.55±6.08 corneometric units (43.12% increment) and the water was able to contain within the stratum corneum without any increased in transepidermal water loss. In the in vitro safety evaluation, fullerene nanoemulsion showed no acute toxicity on 3T3 fibroblast cell line for 48h and no indication of potential dermal irritation. Hence, the fullerene nanoemulsion may assist in protecting collagen from breakdown with cosmeceutical benefit.
    Matched MeSH terms: Free Radical Scavengers/metabolism
  8. Yam MF, Lim CP, Fung Ang L, Por LY, Wong ST, Asmawi MZ, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:351602.
    PMID: 24490155 DOI: 10.1155/2013/351602
    The present study evaluated the antioxidant activity and potential toxicity of 50% methanolic extract of Orthosiphon stamineus (Lamiaceae) leaves (MEOS) after acute and subchronic administration in rats. Superoxide radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, and ferrous ion chelating methods were used to evaluate the antioxidant properties of the extract. In acute toxicity study, single dose of MEOS, 5000 mg/kg, was administered to rats by oral gavage, and the treated rats were monitored for 14 days. While in the subchronic toxicity study, MEOS was administered orally, at doses of 1250, 2500, and 5000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. From the results, MEOS showed good superoxide radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, ferrous ion chelating, and antilipid peroxidation activities. There was no mortality detected or any signs of toxicity in acute and subchronic toxicity studies. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in bodyweight, relative organ weight, and haematological and biochemical parameters between both male and female treated rats in any doses tested. No abnormality of internal organs was observed between treatment and control groups. The oral lethal dose determined was more than 5000 mg/kg and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of MEOS for both male and female rats is considered to be 5000 mg/kg per day.
    Matched MeSH terms: Free Radical Scavengers/metabolism
  9. Ibrahim MH, Jaafar HZ, Karimi E, Ghasemzadeh A
    Molecules, 2013 Sep 05;18(9):10973-88.
    PMID: 24013410 DOI: 10.3390/molecules180910973
    A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah) in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P₂O₅:10% K₂O) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P₂O₅, 15% K₂O)] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb.
    Matched MeSH terms: Free Radical Scavengers/metabolism*
  10. Abidin MH, Abdullah N, Abidin NZ
    Int J Med Mushrooms, 2016;18(2):109-21.
    PMID: 27279533 DOI: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.v18.i2.20
    This study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant capacities of extracts from Pleurotus pulmonarius via Folin-Ciocalteu, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging, metal chelating, cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity, and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. Extract compositions were determined by phenol-sulfuric acid; Coomassie Plus (Bradford) protein; Spectroquant zinc, copper, and manganese test assays; and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Methanol-dichloromethane extract, water fraction, hot water, aqueous extract and hexane fraction exhibited the most potent extracts in the antioxidant activities. LC/MS/MS and GC/MS showed that the extracts contained ergothioneine, ergosterol, flavonoid, and phenolic compounds. The selected potent extracts were evaluated for their inhibitory effect against oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins and protective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxic injury in human aortic endothelial cells. The crude aqueous extract was deemed most potent for the prevention of human low-density lipoprotein oxidation and endothelial membrane damage. Ergothioneine might be the compound responsible for the activities, as supported by previous reports. Thus, P. pulmonarius may be a valuable antioxidant ingredient in functional foods or nutraceuticals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Free Radical Scavengers/metabolism
  11. Khorasani Esmaeili A, Mat Taha R, Mohajer S, Banisalam B
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:643285.
    PMID: 26064936 DOI: 10.1155/2015/643285
    In the present study the extracts of in vivo and in vitro grown plants as well as callus tissue of red clover were tested for their antioxidant activities, using different extraction solvent and different antioxidant assays. The total flavonoid and phenolic contents as well as extraction yield of the extracts were also investigated to determine their correlation with the antioxidant activity of the extracts. Among all the tested extracts the highest amounts of total phenolic and total flavonoids content were found in methanol extract of in vivo grown plants. The antioxidant activity of tested samples followed the order in vivo plant extract > callus extract > in vitro extract. The highest reducing power, 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, and chelating power were found in methanol extracts of in vivo grown red clover, while the chloroform fraction of in vivo grown plants showed the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide scavenging compared to the other tested extracts. A significant correlation was found between the antioxidant activity of extracts and their total phenolic and total flavonoid content. According to the findings, the extract of in vitro culture of red clover especially the callus tissue possesses a comparable antioxidant activity to the in vivo cultured plants' extract.
    Matched MeSH terms: Free Radical Scavengers/metabolism*
  12. Mediani A, Abas F, Ping TC, Khatib A, Lajis NH
    Plant Foods Hum Nutr, 2012 Dec;67(4):344-50.
    PMID: 23054393 DOI: 10.1007/s11130-012-0317-x
    The impact of tropical seasons (dry and wet) and growth stages (8, 10 and 12 weeks) of Cosmos caudatus on the antioxidant activity (AA), total phenolic content (TPC) as well as the level of bioactive compounds were evaluated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The plant morphology (plant height) also showed variation between the two seasons. Samples planted from June to August (during the dry season) exhibited a remarkably higher bioactivity and height than those planted from October to December (during the wet season). The samples that were harvested at eight weeks of age during the dry season showed the highest bioactivity with values of 26.04 g GAE/100 g and 22.1 μg/ml for TPC and IC₅₀, respectively. Identification of phytochemical constituents in the C. caudatus extract was carried out by liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray tandem mass (LC-DAD-ESIMS/MS) technique and the confirmation of constituents was achieved by comparison with literature data and/or co-chromatography with authentic standards. Six compounds were indentified including quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, rutin, quercetin 3-O-arabinofuranoside, quercetin 3-O-galactoside and chlorogenic acid. Their concentrations showed significant variance among the 8, 10 and 12-week-old herbs during both seasons.
    Matched MeSH terms: Free Radical Scavengers/metabolism
  13. Monowar T, Rahman MS, Bhore SJ, Raju G, Sathasivam KV
    Biomed Res Int, 2019;2019:6951927.
    PMID: 30868071 DOI: 10.1155/2019/6951927
    Secondary bioactive compounds of endophytes are inevitable biomolecules of therapeutical importance. In the present study, secondary metabolites profiling of an endophytic bacterial strain, Acinetobacter baumannii, were explored using GC-MS study. Presence of antioxidant substances and antioxidant properties in chloroform (CHL), diethyl ether (DEE), and ethyl acetate (EA) crude extracts of the endophytic bacteria were studied. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, and ferrous ion chelating assay were evaluated. A total of 74 compounds were identified from the GC-MS analysis of the EA extract representing mostly alkane compounds followed by phenols, carboxylic acids, aromatic heterocyclic compounds, ketones, aromatic esters, aromatic benzenes, and alkenes. Among the two phenolic compounds, namely, phenol, 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)- and phenol, 3,5-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-, the former was found in abundance (11.56%) while the latter was found in smaller quantity (0.14%). Moreover, the endophytic bacteria was found to possess a number of metal ions including Fe(II) and Cu(II) as 1307.13 ± 2.35 ppb and 42.38 ± 0.352 ppb, respectively. The extracts exhibited concentration dependent antioxidant and prooxidant properties at high and low concentrations, respectively. The presence of phenolic compounds and metal ions was believed to play an important role in the antioxidant and prooxidant potentials of the extracts. Further studies are suggested for exploring the untapped resource of endophytic bacteria for the development of novel therapeutic agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Free Radical Scavengers/metabolism
  14. Imam MU, Musa SN, Azmi NH, Ismail M
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(10):12952-69.
    PMID: 23202932 DOI: 10.3390/ijms131012952
    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, and can be increased by diet like white rice (WR). Though brown rice (BR) and germinated brown rice (GBR) have high antioxidant potentials as a result of their bioactive compounds, reports of their effects on oxidative stress-related conditions such as type 2 diabetes are lacking. We hypothesized therefore that if BR and GBR were to improve antioxidant status, they would be better for rice consuming populations instead of the commonly consumed WR that is known to promote oxidative stress. This will then provide further reasons why less consumption of WR should be encouraged. We studied the effects of GBR on antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic rats, induced using a high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection, and also evaluated the effects of WR, BR and GBR on catalase and superoxide dismutase genes. As dietary components, BR and GBR improved glycemia and kidney hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, and prevented the deterioration of total antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic rats. Similarly, GBR preserved liver enzymes, as well as serum creatinine. There seem to be evidence that upregulation of superoxide dismutase gene may likely be an underlying mechanism for antioxidant effects of BR and GBR. Our results provide insight into the effects of different rice types on antioxidant status in type 2 diabetes. The results also suggest that WR consumption, contrary to BR and GBR, may worsen antioxidant status that may lead to more damage by free radicals. From the data so far, the antioxidant effects of BR and GBR are worth studying further especially on a long term to determine their effects on development of oxidative stress-related problems, which WR consumption predisposes to.
    Matched MeSH terms: Free Radical Scavengers/metabolism
  15. Nithianantham K, Shyamala M, Chen Y, Latha LY, Jothy SL, Sasidharan S
    Molecules, 2011 Dec 06;16(12):10134-45.
    PMID: 22146374 DOI: 10.3390/molecules161210134
    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Clitoria ternatea, a medicinal herb native to tropical equatorial Asia, is commonly used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of C. ternatea against experimentally induced liver injury.

    METHODS: The antioxidant property of methanolic extract (ME) of C. ternatea leaf was investigated by employing an established in vitro antioxidant assay. The hepatoprotective effect against paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in mice of ME of C. ternatea leaf was also studied. Activity was measured by monitoring the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and billirubin along with histopathological analysis.

    RESULTS: The amount of total phenolics and flavonoids were estimated to be 358.99 ± 6.21 mg/g gallic acid equivalent and 123.75 ± 2.84 mg/g catechin equivalent, respectively. The antioxidant activity of C. ternatea leaf extract was 67.85% at a concentration of 1 mg/mL and was also concentration dependant, with an IC(50) value of 420.00 µg/mL. The results of the paracetamol-induced liver toxicity experiments showed that mice treated with the ME of C. ternatea leaf (200 mg/kg) showed a significant decrease in ALT, AST, and bilirubin levels, which were all elevated in the paracetamol group (p < 0.01). C. ternatea leaf extract therapy also protective effects against histopathological alterations. Histological studies supported the biochemical findings and a maximum improvement in the histoarchitecture was seen.

    CONCLUSIONS: The current study confirmed the hepatoprotective effect of C. ternatea leaf extract against the model hepatotoxicant paracetamol. The hepatoprotective action is likely related to its potent antioxidative activity.

    Matched MeSH terms: Free Radical Scavengers/metabolism
  16. Yam MF, Basir R, Asmawi MZ, Ismail Z
    Am. J. Chin. Med., 2007;35(1):115-26.
    PMID: 17265556
    Orthosiphon stamineus (OS), Benth. (Lamiaceae) is widely used in Malaysia for treatments of various kidney and liver ailments. In the experiment, DPPH* radicals scavenging, Fe(3+)-induced lipid peroxidation inhibiting activities and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of methanol/water extract of Orthosiphon stamineus (SEOS) were determined. The results indicated that SEOS exhibited antioxidant, lipid peroxidation inhibition and free radical scavenging activities. The hepatoprotective activity of the SEOS was studied using CCl(4)-induced liver toxicity in rats. The activity was assessed by monitoring liver function tests through the measurement of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). Furthermore, hepatic tissues were also subjected to histopathological studies. Pretreatment of SEOS (125, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg p.o.) dose-dependently reduced the necrotic changes in rat liver and inhibited the increase of serum ALT and AST activities. The results of the present study indicated that the hepatoprotective effect of Orthosiphon stamineus might be ascribable to its antioxidant and free radical scavenging property.
    Matched MeSH terms: Free Radical Scavengers/metabolism
  17. Sosroseno W, Barid I, Herminajeng E, Susilowati H
    Oral Microbiol. Immunol., 2002 Apr;17(2):72-8.
    PMID: 11929552
    The aim of this study was to determine whether Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide (LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans) could stimulate a murine macrophage cell line (RAW264.7 cells) to produce nitric oxide (NO). The cells were treated with LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans or Escherichia coli LPS (LPS-Ec) for 24 h. The effects of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (NMMA), polymyxin B and cytokines (IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-4 and IL-12) on the production of NO were also determined. The role of protein tyrosine kinase, protein kinase C and microtubulin organization on NO production were assessed by incubating RAW264.7 cells with genistein, bisindolylmaleide and colchicine prior to LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans stimulation, respectively. NO levels from the culture supernatants were determined by the Griess reaction. The results showed that LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans stimulated NO production by RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner, but was slightly less potent than LPS-Ec. NMMA and polymyxin B blocked the production of NO. IFN-gamma and IL-12 potentiated but IL-4 depressed NO production by LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. TNF-alpha had no effects on NO production. Genistein and bisindolylmalemaide, but not colchicine, reduced the production of NO in a dose-dependent mechanism. The results of the present study suggest that A. actinomycetemcomitans LPS, via the activation of protein tyrosine kinase and protein kinase C and the regulatory control of cytokines, stimulates NO production by murine macrophages.
    Matched MeSH terms: Free Radical Scavengers/metabolism*
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