Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 118 in total

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  1. Lall P, Lim SH, Khairuddin N, Kamarulzaman A
    J Int AIDS Soc, 2015;18(2 Suppl 1):19393.
    PMID: 25724503 DOI: 10.7448/IAS.18.2.19393
    The 50% increase in HIV-related deaths in youth and adolescents (aged 10-24) from 2005 to 2012 highlights the need to improve HIV treatment and care in this population, including treatment adherence and retention. Youth and adolescents from key populations or young key populations (YKP) in particular are highly stigmatized and may face additional barrier(s) in adhering to HIV treatment and services. We reviewed the current knowledge on treatment adherence and retention in HIV care among YKP to identify gaps in the literature and suggest future directions to improve HIV care for YKP.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/drug therapy*
  2. Choi P, Kavasery R, Desai MM, Govindasamy S, Kamarulzaman A, Altice FL
    Int J STD AIDS, 2010 Jun;21(6):416-23.
    PMID: 20606222 DOI: 10.1258/ijsa.2009.009180
    HIV-infected prisoners face an inordinate number of community re-entry challenges. In 2007, 102 HIV-infected prisoners in Malaysia were surveyed anonymously within six months prior to release to assess the prevalence and correlates of community re-entry challenges. Staying out of prison (60.8%), remaining off drugs (39.2%), finding employment (35.3%) and obtaining HIV care (32.4%) were the re-entry challenges reported most frequently. Global stigma, negative self-image and public attitudes-related stigma were independently associated with challenges to obtaining HIV care. In multivariate analyses, those with previous incarcerations (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-7.6), higher HIV-related symptoms (AOR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-4.1) and higher public attitudes-related stigma (AOR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.1) had a significantly higher likelihood of identifying more re-entry challenges. Targeted interventions, such as effective drug treatment, HIV care and public awareness campaigns, are crucial for stemming the HIV epidemic and improving health outcomes among HIV-infected prisoners in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/drug therapy
  3. Kosalaraksa P, Boettiger DC, Bunupuradah T, Hansudewechakul R, Saramony S, Do VC, et al.
    J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc, 2017 Jun 01;6(2):173-177.
    PMID: 27295973 DOI: 10.1093/jpids/piw031
    Background.: Regular CD4 count testing is often used to monitor antiretroviral therapy efficacy. However, this practice may be redundant in children with a suppressed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load.

    Methods: Study end points were as follows: (1) a CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 followed by a CD4 count ≥200 cells/mm3 (transient CD4 <200); (2) CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 confirmed within 6 months (confirmed CD4 <200); and (3) a new or recurrent World Health Organization (WHO) stage 3 or 4 illness (clinical failure). Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression were used to evaluate rates and predictors of transient CD4 <200, confirmed CD4 <200, and clinical failure among virally suppressed children aged 5-15 years who were enrolled in the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database.

    Results: Data from 967 children were included in the analysis. At the time of confirmed viral suppression, median age was 10.2 years, 50.4% of children were female, and 95.4% were perinatally infected with HIV. Median CD4 cell count was 837 cells/mm3, and 54.8% of children were classified as having WHO stage 3 or 4 disease. In total, 18 transient CD4 <200 events, 2 confirmed CD4 <200 events, and10 clinical failures occurred at rates of 0.73 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.46-1.16), 0.08 (95% CI, 0.02-0.32), and 0.40 (95% CI, 0.22-0.75) events per 100 patient-years, respectively. CD4 <500 cells/mm3 at the time of viral suppression confirmation was associated with higher rates of both CD4 outcomes.

    Conclusions: Regular CD4 testing may be unnecessary for virally suppressed children aged 5-15 years with CD4 ≥500 cells/mm3.

    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/drug therapy*
  4. Ghosh D, Krishnan A, Gibson B, Brown SE, Latkin CA, Altice FL
    AIDS Behav, 2017 Apr;21(4):1183-1207.
    PMID: 27125244 DOI: 10.1007/s10461-016-1413-y
    Social network analysis (SNA) and social network-based interventions (SNI) are important analytical tools harnessing peer and family influences critical for HIV prevention and treatment among substance users. While SNA is an effective way to measure social network influences, SNI directly or indirectly involves network members in interventions. Even though these methods have been applied in heterogeneous ways, leading to extensive evidence-based practices, systematic reviews are however, lacking. We searched five bibliographic databases and identified 58 studies involving HIV in substance users that had utilized SNA or SNI as part of their methodology. SNA was used to measure network variables as inputs in statistical/mathematical models in 64 % of studies and only 22 % of studies used SNI. Most studies focused on HIV prevention and few addressed diagnosis (k = 4), care linkage and retention (k = 5), ART adherence (k = 2), and viral suppression (k = 1). This systematic review highlights both the advantages and disadvantages of social network approaches for HIV prevention and treatment and gaps in its use for HIV care continuum.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/drug therapy
  5. Jain D, Darrow JJ
    Health Matrix Clevel, 2013;23(2):425-57.
    PMID: 24341078
    Access to affordable drugs for the treatment of HIV/AIDS and other diseases is increasingly challenging in many developing countries such as Brazil, South Africa, and India. These challenges are in part the result of strengthened patent laws mandated by the 1994 Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) treaty. However, there are underutilized instruments within TRIPS that governments can use to limit the adverse effects of patent protection and thereby ensure a supply of affordable generic drugs to their people. One such instrument is compulsory licensing, which allows generic manufacturers to produce pharmaceutical products that are currently subject to patent protection. Compulsory licensing has been used by a number of countries in the last few years, including the United States, Canada, Indonesia, Malaysia, Brazil, and Thailand, and is particularly significant for countries such as India, where large numbers of people are infected with HIV. This Article explores the feasibility of compulsory licensing as a tool to facilitate access to essential medicines within the current patent regime in India, drawing on the experiences of other countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/drug therapy
  6. Shankar EM, Vignesh R, Ellegård R, Barathan M, Chong YK, Bador MK, et al.
    Pathog Dis, 2014 Mar;70(2):110-8.
    PMID: 24214523 DOI: 10.1111/2049-632X.12108
    Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection interfere and impact the pathogenesis phenomena of each other. Owing to atypical clinical presentations and diagnostic complications, HIV/TB co-infection continues to be a menace for healthcare providers. Although the increased access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to a reduction in HIV-associated opportunistic infections and mortality, the concurrent management of HIV/TB co-infection remains a challenge owing to adverse effects, complex drug interactions, overlapping toxicities and tuberculosis -associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Several hypotheses have been put forward for the exacerbation of tuberculosis by HIV and vice versa supported by immunological studies. Discussion on the mechanisms produced by infectious cofactors with impact on disease pathology could shed light on how to design potential interventions that could decelerate disease progression. With no vaccine for HIV and lack of an effective vaccine for tuberculosis, it is essential to design strategies against HIV-TB co-infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/drug therapy
  7. López M
    AIDS Rev, 2013 Jul-Sep;15(3):190-1.
    PMID: 24002204
    The 7th IAS Conference held in July 2013 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, heard about a number of cases of "functional cure" in people who had started antiretroviral therapy soon after HIV infection, including a German case that can now be added to the "Mississippi baby" report presented at CROI 2012 and 14 individuals of the French VISCONTI cohort. All these persons maintained an undetectable viral load after coming off antiretrovirals.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/drug therapy*
  8. Chokephaibulkit K, Kariminia A, Oberdorfer P, Nallusamy R, Bunupuradah T, Hansudewechakul R, et al.
    Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 2014 Mar;33(3):291-4.
    PMID: 23942457 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0b013e3182a18223
    More perinatally HIV-infected children in Asia are reaching adolescence.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/drug therapy*
  9. Fu JJ, Bazazi AR, Altice FL, Mohamed MN, Kamarulzaman A
    PLoS ONE, 2012;7(9):e44249.
    PMID: 23028508 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044249
    Throughout Asia, people who use drugs are confined in facilities referred to as compulsory drug detention and rehabilitation centers. The limited transparency and accessibility of these centers has posed a significant challenge to evaluating detainees and detention conditions directly. Despite HIV being highly prevalent in this type of confined setting, direct evaluation of detainees with HIV and their access to medical care has yet to be reported in the literature.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/drug therapy
  10. Arijit G, Shalini C
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2007 Mar;62(1):88.
    PMID: 17682586
    Nepal is a low prevalence country for HIV/AIDS but has progressed into the category of a "concentrated" epidemic. The epidemic remains concentrated in a few vulnerable populations, namely Female Sex Workers and their clients, Intravenous Drug Users and Seasonal Migrant Workers. There is a big difference between estimated and reported cases for HIV, >60000 and almost 5000 respectively1 . There might be many more undiagnosed cases. Mother–to–child transmission is the largest source of HIV infection in children in Nepal so far.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/drug therapy
  11. Chow YW, Leong CL, Chow HL, Hooi LS
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2007 Mar;62(1):78-80.
    PMID: 17682581
    Exposure to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may lead to adverse effects related to mitochondrial toxicity such as lactic acidosis. We describe two cases of severe lactic acidosis in HIV-positive patients to illustrate the clinical symptoms and abnormal laboratory results associated with this condition. There is a lack of awareness about the risk factors for developing severe lactic acidosis and recognition of its onset with dire consequences.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/drug therapy*
  12. Poynard T
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl B:70-1.
    PMID: 16108178
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/drug therapy*
  13. Balasubramaniam K
    Issues Med Ethics, 2000 Jan-Mar;8(1):26-7.
    PMID: 16323335
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/drug therapy*
  14. Hanna L
    BETA, 1999 Apr;12(2):8-9.
    PMID: 11366704
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/drug therapy*
  15. AIDS Patient Care STDS, 2000 Apr;14(4):225-6.
    PMID: 10806645
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/drug therapy*
  16. Vagenas P, Azar MM, Copenhaver MM, Springer SA, Molina PE, Altice FL
    Curr HIV/AIDS Rep, 2015 Dec;12(4):421-36.
    PMID: 26412084 DOI: 10.1007/s11904-015-0285-5
    Alcohol use is highly prevalent globally with numerous negative consequences to human health, including HIV progression, in people living with HIV (PLH). The HIV continuum of care, or treatment cascade, represents a sequence of targets for intervention that can result in viral suppression, which ultimately benefits individuals and society. The extent to which alcohol impacts each step in the cascade, however, has not been systematically examined. International targets for HIV treatment as prevention aim for 90 % of PLH to be diagnosed, 90 % of them to be prescribed with antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 90 % to achieve viral suppression; currently, only 20 % of PLH are virally suppressed. This systematic review, from 2010 through May 2015, found 53 clinical research papers examining the impact of alcohol use on each step of the HIV treatment cascade. These studies were mostly cross-sectional or cohort studies and from all income settings. Most (77 %) found a negative association between alcohol consumption on one or more stages of the treatment cascade. Lack of consistency in measurement, however, reduced the ability to draw consistent conclusions. Nonetheless, the strong negative correlations suggest that problematic alcohol consumption should be targeted, preferably using evidence-based behavioral and pharmacological interventions, to indirectly increase the proportion of PLH achieving viral suppression, to achieve treatment as prevention mandates, and to reduce HIV transmission.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/drug therapy*
  17. Jung IY, Boettiger D, Wong WW, Lee MP, Kiertiburanakul S, Chaiwarith R, et al.
    J Int AIDS Soc, 2017 Dec;20(4).
    PMID: 29243388 DOI: 10.1002/jia2.25016
    INTRODUCTION: Although substitutions of antiretroviral regimen are generally safe, most data on substitutions are based on results from clinical trials. The objective of this study was to evaluate the treatment outcomes of substituting antiretroviral regimen in virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients in non-clinical trial settings in Asian countries.

    METHODS: The study population consisted of HIV-infected patients enrolled in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD). Individuals were included in this analysis if they started combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) after 2002, were being treated at a centre that documented a median rate of viral load monitoring ≥0.8 tests/patient/year among TAHOD enrolees, and experienced a minor or major treatment substitution while on virally suppressive cART. The primary endpoint to evaluate outcomes was clinical or virological failure (VF), followed by an ART class change. Clinical failure was defined as death or an AIDS diagnosis. VF was defined as confirmed viral load measurements ≥400 copies/mL followed by an ART class change within six months. Minor regimen substitutions were defined as within-class changes and major regimen substitutions were defined as changes to a drug class. The patterns of substitutions and rate of clinical or VF after substitutions were analyzed.

    RESULTS: Of 3994 adults who started ART after 2002, 3119 (78.1%) had at least one period of virological suppression. Among these, 1170 (37.5%) underwent a minor regimen substitution, and 296 (9.5%) underwent a major regimen substitution during suppression. The rates of clinical or VF were 1.48/100 person years (95% CI 1.14 to 1.91) in the minor substitution group, 2.85/100 person years (95% CI 1.88 to 4.33) in the major substitution group and 2.53/100 person years (95% CI 2.20 to 2.92) among patients that did not undergo a treatment substitution.

    CONCLUSIONS: The rate of clinical or VF was low in both major and minor substitution groups, showing that regimen substitution is generally effective in non-clinical trial settings in Asian countries.

    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/drug therapy*
  18. Warren S, Li V, Drayton R, May K
    Int J STD AIDS, 2018 11;29(11):1120-1122.
    PMID: 29665741 DOI: 10.1177/0956462418767183
    A 43-year-old Malaysian man with well-controlled HIV infection on combination antiretroviral therapy presented with a six-week history of a widespread rash. The patient was otherwise well but was developing new lesions on a daily basis. Referral to Dermatology instigated punch biopsies, which revealed a diagnosis of lymphomatoid papulosis type A. This case highlights the importance of swift referral, especially in cases of spontaneous regression of symptoms, in order to obtain the correct diagnosis. In most patients, this condition tends to be chronic, with its chronicity and benign clinical course setting it apart from cutaneous anaplastic T-cell lymphoma and Hodgkin's disease, which are major entities in the histological differential diagnosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/drug therapy
  19. Sudjaritruk T, Aurpibul L, Ly PS, Le TPK, Bunupuradah T, Hansudewechakul R, et al.
    J Adolesc Health, 2017 Jul;61(1):91-98.
    PMID: 28343759 DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2017.01.014
    PURPOSE: To assess the incidence and predictors of postsuppression virologic rebound (VR) among adolescents on stable combination antiretroviral therapy in Asia.

    METHODS: Perinatally HIV-infected Asian adolescents (10-19 years) with documented virologic suppression (two consecutive viral loads [VLs] <400 copies/mL ≥6 months apart) were included. Baseline was the date of the first VL <400 copies/mL at age ≥10 years or the 10th birthday for those with prior suppression. Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify predictors of postsuppression VR (VL >1,000 copies/mL).

    RESULTS: Of 1,379 eligible adolescents, 47% were males. At baseline, 22% were receiving protease inhibitor-containing regimens; median CD4 cell count (interquartile range [IQR]) was 685 (448-937) cells/mm3; 2% had preadolescent virologic failure (VF) before subsequent suppression. During adolescence, 180 individuals (13%) experienced postsuppression VR at a rate of 3.4 (95% confidence interval: 2.9-3.9) per 100 person-years, which was consistent over time. Median time to VR during adolescence (IQR) was 3.3 (2.1-4.8) years. Wasting (weight-for-age z-score

    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/drug therapy
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