Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 23 in total

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  1. Chow WZ, Al-Darraji H, Lee YM, Takebe Y, Kamarulzaman A, Tee KK
    J. Virol., 2012 Oct;86(20):11398-9.
    PMID: 22997419
    A novel HIV-1 genotype designated CRF53_01B was recently characterized from three epidemiologically unrelated persons in Malaysia. Here we announced three recently isolated full-length genomes of CRF53_01B, which is likely to be phylogenetically linked to CRF33_01B, circulating widely in Southeast Asia. The genome sequences may contribute to HIV-1 molecular surveillance and future vaccine development in the region.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV-1/isolation & purification
  2. SahBandar IN, Takahashi K, Motomura K, Djoerban Z, Firmansyah I, Kitamura K, et al.
    AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 2011 Jan;27(1):97-102.
    PMID: 20958201 DOI: 10.1089/aid.2010.0163
    Cocirculation of subtype B and CRF01_AE in Southeast Asia has led to the establishment of new recombinant forms. In our previous study, we found five samples suspected of being recombinants between subtype B and CRF01_AE, and here, we analyzed near full-length sequences of two samples and compared them to known CRFs_01B, subtype B, and CRF01_AE. Five overlapped segments were amplified with nested PCR from PBMC DNA, sequenced, and analyzed for genome mosaicism. The two Indonesian samples, 07IDJKT189 and 07IDJKT194, showed genome-mosaic patterns similar to CRF33_01B references from Malaysia, with one short segment in the 3' end of the p31 integrase-coding region, which was rather more similar to subtype B than CRF01_AE, consisting of unclassified sequences. These results suggest gene-specific continuous diversification and spread of the CRF33_01B genomes in Southeast Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV-1/isolation & purification
  3. Tee KK, Kusagawa S, Li XJ, Onogi N, Isogai M, Hase S, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2009;4(8):e6666.
    PMID: 19688091 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006666
    A growing number of emerging HIV-1 recombinants classified as circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) have been identified in Southeast Asia in recent years, establishing a molecular diversity of increasing complexity in the region. Here, we constructed a replication-competent HIV-1 clone for CRF33_01B (designated p05MYKL045.1), a newly identified recombinant comprised of CRF01_AE and subtype B. p05MYKL045.1 was reconstituted by cloning of the near full-length HIV-1 sequence from a newly-diagnosed individual presumably infected heterosexually in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The chimeric clone, which contains the 5' LTR (long terminal repeat) region of p93JP-NH1 (a previously isolated CRF01_AE infectious clone), showed robust viral replication in the human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. This clone demonstrated robust viral propagation and profound syncytium formation in CD4+, CXCR4-expressing human glioma NP-2 cells, indicating that p05MYKL045.1 is a CXCR4-using virus. Viral propagation, however, was not detected in various human T cell lines including MT-2, M8166, Sup-T1, H9, Jurkat, Molt-4 and PM1. p05MYKL045.1 appears to proliferate only in restricted host range, suggesting that unknown viral and/or cellular host factors may play a role in viral infectivity and replication in human T cell lines. Availability of a CRF33_01B molecular clone will be useful in facilitating the development of vaccine candidates that match the HIV-1 strains circulating in Southeast Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV-1/isolation & purification*
  4. Cheong HT, Chow WZ, Takebe Y, Chook JB, Chan KG, Al-Darraji HA, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(7):e0133883.
    PMID: 26196131 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0133883
    In many parts of Southeast Asia, the HIV-1 epidemic has been driven by the sharing of needles and equipment among intravenous drug users (IDUs). Over the last few decades, many studies have proven time and again that the diversity of HIV-1 epidemics can often be linked to the route of infection transmission. That said, the diversity and complexity of HIV-1 molecular epidemics in the region have been increasing at an alarming rate, due in part to the high tendency of the viral RNA to recombine. This scenario was exemplified by the discovery of numerous circulating recombinant forms (CRFs), especially in Thailand and Malaysia. In this study, we characterized a novel CRF designated CRF74_01B, which was identified in six epidemiologically unlinked IDUs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The near-full length genomes were composed of CRF01_AE and subtype B', with eight breakpoints dispersed in the gag-pol and nef regions. Remarkably, this CRF shared four and two recombination hotspots with the previously described CRF33_01B and the less prevalent CRF53_01B, respectively. Genealogy-based Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of CRF74_01B genomic regions showed that it is closely related to both CRF33_01B and CRF53_01B. This observation suggests that CRF74_01B was probably a direct descendent from specific lineages of CRF33_01B, CRF53_01B and subtype B' that could have emerged in the mid-1990s. Additionally, it illustrated the active recombination processes between prevalent HIV-1 subtypes and recombinants in Malaysia. In summary, we report a novel HIV-1 genotype designated CRF74_01B among IDUs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The characterization of the novel CRF74_01B is of considerable significance towards the understanding of the genetic diversity and population dynamics of HIV-1 circulating in the region.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV-1/isolation & purification
  5. Tee KK, Kantor R, Sungkanuparph S, Takebe Y, Li P, Ditangco R, et al.
    J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr., 2015 Sep 1;70(1):e28-30.
    PMID: 25835606 DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000614
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV-1/isolation & purification*
  6. Lau KA, Wang B, Miranda-Saksena M, Boadle R, Kamarulzaman A, Ng KP, et al.
    Curr. HIV Res., 2010 Apr;8(3):259-71.
    PMID: 20214658
    In Malaysia, co-circulation of CRF01_AE and subtype B has resulted in the emergence of the second generation derivative; CRF33_01B in approximately 20% of its HIV-1 infected individuals. Our objective was to identify possible biological advantages that CRF33_01B possesses over its progenitors. Biological and molecular comparisons of CRF33_01B against its parental subtypes clearly show that CRF33_01B replicated better in activated whole peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and CD4+ T-lymphocytes, but not monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). Also, its acquired fitness was greater than CRF01_AE but not subtype B. Moreover, CRF33_01B has higher rate of apoptotic cell death and syncytia induction compared to subtype B. These adaptive and survival abilities could have been acquired by CRF33_01B due to the incorporation of subtype B fragments into the gag-RT region of its full-length genome. Our studies confirm the previously held belief that HIV-1 strains may harbor enhanced biological fitness upon recombination. We therefore estimate a possible gradual replacement of the current predominance of CRF01_AE, as well as wider dissemination of CRF33_01B, together with the identification of other new CRF01_AE/B inter-subtype recombinants in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV-1/isolation & purification
  7. Jiamsakul A, Chaiwarith R, Durier N, Sirivichayakul S, Kiertiburanakul S, Van Den Eede P, et al.
    J. Med. Virol., 2016 Feb;88(2):234-43.
    PMID: 26147742 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24320
    HIV drug resistance assessments and interpretations can be obtained from genotyping (GT), virtual phenotyping (VP) and laboratory-based phenotyping (PT). We compared resistance calls obtained from GT and VP with those from PT (GT-PT and VP-PT) among CRF01_AE and subtype B HIV-1 infected patients. GT predictions were obtained from the Stanford HIV database. VP and PT were obtained from Janssen Diagnostics BVBA's vircoType(TM) HIV-1 and Antivirogram®, respectively. With PT assumed as the "gold standard," the area under the curve (AUC) and the Bland-Altman plot were used to assess the level of agreement in resistance interpretations. A total of 80 CRF01_AE samples from Asia and 100 subtype B from Janssen Diagnostics BVBA's database were analysed. CRF01_AE showed discordances ranging from 3 to 27 samples for GT-PT and 1 to 20 samples for VP-PT. The GT-PT and VP-PT AUCs were 0.76-0.97 and 0.81-0.99, respectively. Subtype B showed 3-61 discordances for GT-PT and 2-75 discordances for VP-PT. The AUCs ranged from 0.55 to 0.95 for GT-PT and 0.55 to 0.97 for VP-PT. Didanosine had the highest proportion of discordances and/or AUC in all comparisons. The patient with the largest didanosine FC difference in each subtype harboured Q151M mutation. Overall, GT and VP predictions for CRF01_AE performed significantly better than subtype B for three NRTIs. Although discrepancies exist, GT and VP resistance interpretations in HIV-1 CRF01_AE strains were highly robust in comparison with the gold-standard PT.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV-1/isolation & purification
  8. Lau KA, Wang B, Kamarulzaman A, Ngb KP, Saksena NK
    Curr. HIV Res., 2008 Mar;6(2):108-16.
    PMID: 18336258
    The Asian HIV epidemic appears to be complex, characterized by the prevalence of multiple subtypes and circulating recombinant forms with gradual replacement of pure HIV-1 subtypes in several geographical regions. The main objectives of the present study are to identify and analyse the full-length viral genomes of three unique recombinant forms (URFs); the HIV-1 isolates 07MYKLD47, 07MYKLD48 and 07MYKLD49 from Malaysia. Long-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of seven overlapping reading frames was used to derive near full-length HIV-1 genomes. Detailed phylogenetic and bootscanning analyses were performed to determine phylogenetic associations and subtypic assignments. We further confirmed the mosaic composition of these CRF01_AE/B inter-subtype recombinant forms, which are composed of B-subtype fragment(s) in the backbone of CRF01_AE. Both 07MYKLD47 and 07MYKLD48 have an insertion of B subtype (880 bp and 532 bp) in the gag-pol and gp41-env gene regions, respectively. Whereas the isolate 07MYKLD49 has three B-subtype fragments inserted in different gene region along the genome; one each in the gag-pol (1862 bp) and pol-vif (1935 bp) regions, and a short B-subtype insertion (541 bp) in the 5' LTR-gag region. This highlights the public health relevance of newly emerging second generation HIV-1 recombinant forms and their dispersal, along with their rapid and continuous evolution in the region.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV-1/isolation & purification
  9. Swathirajan CR, Vignesh R, Boobalan J, Solomon SS, Saravanan S, Balakrishnan P
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2017 Oct;66(10):1379-1382.
    PMID: 28901908 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.000514
    BACKGROUND: Sustainable suppression of HIV replication forms the basis of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) medication. Thus, reliable quantification of HIV viral load has become an essential factor to monitor the effectiveness of the ART. Longer turnaround-time (TAT), batch testing and technical skills are major drawbacks of standard real-time PCR assays.

    METHODS: The performance of the point-of-care Xpert HIV-1 viral load assay was evaluated against the Abbott RealTime PCR m2000rt system. A total of 96 plasma specimens ranging from 2.5 log10 copies ml(-1) to 4.99 log10 copies ml(-1) and proficiency testing panel specimens were used. Precision and accuracy were checked using the Pearson correlation co-efficient test and Bland-Altman analysis.

    RESULTS: Compared to the Abbott RealTime PCR, the Xpert HIV-1 viral load assay showed a good correlation (Pearson r=0.81; P<0.0001) with a mean difference of 0.27 log10 copies ml(-1) (95 % CI, -0.41 to 0.96 log10 copies ml(-1); sd, 0.35 log10 copies ml(-1)).

    CONCLUSION: Reliable and ease of testing individual specimens could make the Xpert HIV-1 viral load assay an efficient alternative method for ART monitoring in clinical management of HIV disease in resource-limited settings. The rapid test results (less than 2 h) could help in making an immediate clinical decision, which further strengthens patient care.

    Matched MeSH terms: HIV-1/isolation & purification*
  10. Phanuphak P, Sirivichayakul S, Jiamsakul A, Sungkanuparph S, Kumarasamy N, Lee MP, et al.
    J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr., 2014 May 1;66(1):74-9.
    PMID: 24413039 DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000108
    We compared treatment outcomes of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in patients on fully or partially sensitive drug regimens.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV-1/isolation & purification
  11. Ng KT, Ong LY, Takebe Y, Kamarulzaman A, Tee KK
    J. Virol., 2012 Oct;86(20):11405-6.
    PMID: 22997423
    We report here the first novel HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF) 54_01B (CRF54_01B) isolated from three epidemiologically unlinked subjects of different risk groups in Malaysia. These recently sampled recombinants showed a complex genome organization composed of parental subtype B' and CRF01_AE, with identical recombination breakpoints observed in the gag, pol, and vif genes. Such a discovery highlights the ongoing active generation and spread of intersubtype recombinants involving the subtype B' and CRF01_AE lineages and indicates the potential of the new CRF in bridging HIV-1 transmission among different risk groups in Southeast Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV-1/isolation & purification
  12. Sungkanuparph S, Oyomopito R, Sirivichayakul S, Sirisanthana T, Li PC, Kantipong P, et al.
    Clin. Infect. Dis., 2011 Apr 15;52(8):1053-7.
    PMID: 21460324 DOI: 10.1093/cid/cir107
    Of 682 antiretroviral-naïve patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in a prospective, multicenter human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance monitoring study involving 8 sites in Hong Kong, Malaysia, and Thailand, the prevalence of patients with ≥1 drug resistance mutation was 13.8%. Primary HIV drug resistance is emerging after rapid scaling-up of antiretroviral therapy use in Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV-1/isolation & purification
  13. Chow WZ, Lim SH, Ong LY, Yong YK, Takebe Y, Kamarulzaman A, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(9):e0137281.
    PMID: 26335136 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0137281
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtypes have been shown to differ in the rate of clinical progression. We studied the association between HIV-1 subtypes and the rate of CD4+ T-cell recovery in a longitudinal cohort of patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We studied 103 patients infected with CRF01_AE (69%) and subtype B (31%) who initiated cART between 2006 and 2013. Demographic data, CD4+ T-cell counts and HIV-1 viral load were abstracted from patient medical charts. Kaplan-Meier was used to estimate the time to CD4+ T-cell count increase to ≥350 between subtypes and effects of covariates were analysed using Cox proportional hazards. An 87% of the study population were male adults (mean age of 38.7 years old). Baseline CD4+ T-cell counts and viral loads, age at cART initiation, sex, ethnicity and co-infection did not differ significantly between subtypes. A shorter median time for CD4+ T-cell count increase to ≥350 cells/μL was observed for CRF01_AE (546 days; 95% confidence interval [CI], 186-906 days; P = .502) compared to subtype B (987 days; 95% CI, 894-1079 days). In multivariate analysis, female sex was significantly associated with a 2.7 times higher chance of achieving CD4+ T-cell recovery (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.75; 95% CI, 1.21-6.22; P = .025) and both baseline CD4+ T-cell count (P = .001) and viral load (P = .001) were important predictors for CD4+ T-cell recovery. Immunological recovery correlated significantly with female sex, baseline CD4+ T-cell counts and viral load but not subtype.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV-1/isolation & purification
  14. Chen M, Wong WW, Law MG, Kiertiburanakul S, Yunihastuti E, Merati TP, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(3):e0150512.
    PMID: 26933963 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0150512
    BACKGROUND: We assessed the effects of hepatitis B (HBV) or hepatitis C (HCV) co-infection on outcomes of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected patients enrolled in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD), a multi-center cohort of HIV-infected patients in the Asia-Pacific region.

    METHODS: Patients testing HBs antigen (Ag) or HCV antibody (Ab) positive within enrollment into TAHOD were considered HBV or HCV co-infected. Factors associated with HBV and/or HCV co-infection were assessed by logistic regression models. Factors associated with post-ART HIV immunological response (CD4 change after six months) and virological response (HIV RNA <400 copies/ml after 12 months) were also determined. Survival was assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method and log rank test.

    RESULTS: A total of 7,455 subjects were recruited by December 2012. Of patients tested, 591/5656 (10.4%) were HBsAg positive, 794/5215 (15.2%) were HCVAb positive, and 88/4966 (1.8%) were positive for both markers. In multivariate analysis, HCV co-infection, age, route of HIV infection, baseline CD4 count, baseline HIV RNA, and HIV-1 subtype were associated with immunological recovery. Age, route of HIV infection, baseline CD4 count, baseline HIV RNA, ART regimen, prior ART and HIV-1 subtype, but not HBV or HCV co-infection, affected HIV RNA suppression. Risk factors affecting mortality included HCV co-infection, age, CDC stage, baseline CD4 count, baseline HIV RNA and prior mono/dual ART. Shortest survival was seen in subjects who were both HBV- and HCV-positive.

    CONCLUSION: In this Asian cohort of HIV-infected patients, HCV co-infection, but not HBV co-infection, was associated with lower CD4 cell recovery after ART and increased mortality.

    Matched MeSH terms: HIV-1/isolation & purification
  15. Kariminia A, Durier N, Jourdain G, Saghayam S, Do CV, Nguyen LV, et al.
    J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr., 2014 Sep 1;67(1):71-6.
    PMID: 24872132 DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000227
    To evaluate the value of time-updated weight and height in predicting clinical progression, and immunological and virological failure in children receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART).
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV-1/isolation & purification*
  16. William T, Parameswaran U, Lee WK, Yeo TW, Anstey NM, Ralph AP
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2015;15:32.
    PMID: 25636334 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-015-0758-6
    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is generally well controlled in Malaysia, but remains an important problem in the nation's eastern states. In order to better understand factors contributing to high TB rates in the eastern state of Sabah, our aims were to describe characteristics of patients with TB at a large outpatient clinic, and determine the prevalence of HIV co-infection. Additionally, we sought to test sensitivity and specificity of the locally-available point-of-care HIV test kits.
    METHODS: We enrolled consenting adults with smear-positive pulmonary TB for a 2-year period at Luyang Clinic, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia. Participants were questioned about ethnicity, smoking, prior TB, disease duration, symptoms and comorbidities. Chest radiographs were scored using a previously devised tool. HIV was tested after counselling using 2 point-of-care tests for each patient: the test routinely in use at the TB clinic (either Advanced Quality™ Rapid Anti-HIV 1&2, FACTS anti-HIV 1/2 RAPID or HIV (1 + 2) Antibody Colloidal Gold), and a comparator test (Abbott Determine™ HIV-1/2, Inverness Medical). Positive tests were confirmed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), particle agglutination and line immunoassay.
    RESULTS: 176 participants were enrolled; 59 (33.5%) were non-Malaysians and 104 (59.1%) were male. Smoking rates were high (81/104 males, 77.9%), most had cavitary disease (51/145, 64.8%), and 81/176 (46.0%) had haemoptysis. The median period of symptoms prior to treatment onset was 8 weeks. Diabetes was present in 12. People with diabetes or other comorbidities had less severe TB, suggesting different healthcare seeking behaviours in this group. All participants consented to HIV testing: three (1.7%) were positive according to Determine™ and EIA, but one of these tested negative on the point-of-care test available at the clinic (Advanced Quality™ Rapid Anti-HIV 1&2). The low number of positive tests and changes in locally-available test type meant that accurate estimates of sensitivity and specificity were not possible.
    CONCLUSION: Patients had advanced disease at diagnosis, long diagnostic delays, low HIV co-infection rates, high smoking rates among males, and migrants may be over-represented. These findings provide important insights to guide local TB control efforts. Caution is required in using some point-of-care HIV tests, and ongoing quality control measures are of major importance.
    Study site: Klinik Kesihatan Luyang (Tuberculosis Clinic), Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia,
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV-1/isolation & purification*
  17. Meyer JP, Cepeda J, Wu J, Trestman RL, Altice FL, Springer SA
    JAMA Intern Med, 2014 May;174(5):721-9.
    PMID: 24687044 DOI: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.601
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) management in correctional settings is logistically feasible, but HIV-related outcomes before release have not been recently systematically examined.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV-1/isolation & purification*
  18. Tee KK, Kamarulzaman A, Ng KP
    Med. Microbiol. Immunol., 2006 Jun;195(2):107-12.
    PMID: 16404607
    To assess the prevalence of major drug resistance mutations in antiretroviral (ARV)-treated patients with detectable viral load (VL) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, genotypic resistance testing was performed among treated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) patients attending the University Malaya Medical Center between July 2003 and November 2004. The reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease genes from 36 plasma samples with detectable VL were examined for major mutations associated with ARV resistance as reported by the International AIDS Society-USA Drug Resistance Mutations Group. The prevalence of patients with at least one major mutation conferring drug resistance to nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTIs), non-NRTIs (NNRTIs) or protease inhibitors (PIs) was 77.8%. In the RT gene, the frequency of mutations associated with NRTIs and NNRTIs resistance was 52.8 and 63.9%, respectively, with M184V and K103N mutations being selected most frequently by these drugs. A patient with Q151M mutation complex was also detected. Twenty-two percent of the patients had mutations associated with PIs. The following pattern of prevalence of ARV-resistant HIV-1 variants was observed: NNRTI-resistant > NRTI-resistant > PI-resistant. The prevalence of major drug resistance mutations among ARV-treated patients with detectable VL is high in Kuala Lumpur. Genotypic drug resistance testing is therefore important for monitoring patients experiencing ARV regimen failure.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV-1/isolation & purification
  19. Lam EP, Moore CL, Gotuzzo E, Nwizu C, Kamarulzaman A, Chetchotisakd P, et al.
    AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 2016 09;32(9):841-50.
    PMID: 27346600 DOI: 10.1089/AID.2015.0331
    We investigate mutations and correlates according to HIV-1 subtype after virological failure (VF) of standard first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) (non-nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor [NNRTI] +2 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor [N(t)RTI]). SECOND-LINE study participants were assessed at baseline for HIV-1 subtype, demographics, HIV-1 history, ART exposure, viral load (VL), CD4(+) count, and genotypic ART resistance. We used backward stepwise multivariate regression (MVR) to assess associations between baseline variables and presence of ≥3 N(t)RTI mutations, ≥1 NNRTI mutation, ≥3 thymidine analog-N(t)RTI [ta-N(t)RTI] mutations (TAMs), the K65/K70 mutation, and predicted etravirine (ETV)/rilpivirine (RPV) activity. The inclusion p-value for MVR was p  .05. Of 541 participants, 491 (91%) had successfully characterized baseline viral isolates. Subtype distribution: B (n = 123, 25%), C (n = 202, 41%), CRF01_AE (n = 109, 22%), G (n = 25, 5%), and CRF02_AG (n = 27, 5%). Baseline CD4(+) 200-394 cells/mm(3) were associated with <3 N(t)RTI mutations (OR = 0.47; 95% CI 0.29-0.77; p = .003), absence of the K65/K70 mutation (OR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.26-0.73; p = .002), and higher ETV sensitivity (OR = 0.52; 95% CI 0.35-0.78; p = .002). Recent tenofovir (TDF) use was associated with K65/K70 mutations (OR = 8.91; 95% CI 5.00-15.85; p HIV-1 subtypes in this study are consistent with knowledge derived from subtype B, with some exceptions. Patterns of resistance after failure of a first-line ta-N(t)RTI regimen support using TDF in N(t)RTI-containing second-line regimens, or using N(t)RTI-sparing regimens.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV-1/isolation & purification
  20. Ong LY, Razak SN, Lee YM, Sri La Sri Ponnampalavanar S, Syed Omar SF, Azwa RI, et al.
    J. Med. Virol., 2014 Jan;86(1):38-44.
    PMID: 24127302 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.23772
    Expansion of antiretroviral treatment programs have led to the growing concern for the development of antiretroviral drug resistance. The aims were to assess the prevalence of drug resistant HIV-1 variants and to identify circulating subtypes among HAART-naïve patients. Plasma specimens from N = 100 HIV+ HAART-naïve adult were collected between March 2008 and August 2010 and viral RNA were extracted for nested PCR and sequenced. PR-RT sequences were protein aligned and checked for transmitted drug resistance mutations. Phylogenetic reconstruction and recombination analysis were performed to determine the genotypes. Based on the WHO consensus guidelines, none of the recruited patients had any transmitted drug resistance mutations. When analyzed against the Stanford guidelines, 35% of patients had at least one reported mutation that may reduce drug susceptibility to PI (24%), NRTI (5%), and NNRTI (14%). The commonly detected mutation that may affect current first line therapy was V179D (3%), which may lead to reduced susceptibility to NNRTI. The predominant circulating HIV-1 genotypes were CRF01_AE (51%) and CRF33_01B (17%). The prevalence of unique recombinant forms (URF) was 7%; five distinct recombinant structures involving CRF01_AE and subtype B' were observed, among them a cluster of three isolates that could form a novel circulating recombinant form (CRF) candidate. Transmitted drug resistance prevalence among HAART-naïve patients was low in this cohort of patients in Kuala Lumpur despite introduction of HAART 5 years ago. Owing to the high genetic diversity, continued molecular surveillance can identify the persistent emergence of HIV-1 URF and novel CRF with significant epidemiological impact.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV-1/isolation & purification
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