METHODS: Adult patients with persistent gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms undergoing HRM and pH-impedance or wireless pH study off proton pump inhibitor were prospectively studied between July 2021 and March 2022. After the HRM Chicago 4.0 protocol, patients were requested to elevate 1 leg at 45º for 5 seconds while supine. The SLR maneuver was considered effective when intra-abdominal pressure increased by 50%. IEPs were recorded 5 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter at baseline and during SLR. GERD was defined as AET greater than 6%.
RESULTS: The SLR was effective in 295 patients (81%), 115 (39%) of whom had an AET greater than 6%. Hiatal hernia (EGJ type 2 or 3) was seen in 135 (46%) patients. Compared with patients with an AET less than 6%, peak IEP during SLR was significantly higher in the GERD group (29.7 vs 13.9 mm Hg; P < .001). Using receiver operating characteristic analysis, an increase of 11 mm Hg of peak IEP from baseline during SLR was the optimal cut-off value to predict an AET greater than 6% (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.84; sensitivity, 79%; and specificity, 85%), regardless of the presence of hiatal hernia. On multivariable analysis, an IEP pressure increase during the SLR maneuver, EGJ contractile integral, EGJ subtype 2, and EGJ subtype 3, were found to be significant predictors of AET greater than 6% CONCLUSIONS: The SLR maneuver can predict abnormal an AET, thereby increasing the diagnostic value of HRM when GERD is suspected.
CLINICALTRIALS: gov ID: NCT04813029.
DESIGN: 12 subjects with normal and 12 with increased WC, matched for age and gender were examined fasted and following a meal and with waist belts on and off. A magnet was clipped to the squamo-columnar junction (SCJ). Combined assembly of magnet-locator probe, 12-channel pH catheter and 36-channel manometer was passed.
RESULTS: The waist belt and increased WC were each associated with proximal displacement of SCJ within the diaphragmatic hiatus (relative to upper border of lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS), peak LOS pressure point and pressure inversion point, and PIP (all p<0.05). The magnitude of proximal migration of SCJ during transient LOS relaxations was reduced by 1.6-2.6 cm with belt on versus off (p=0.01) and in obese versus non-obese (p=0.04), consistent with its resting position being already proximally displaced. The waist belt, but not increased WC, was associated with increased LOS pressure (vs intragastric pressure) and movement of pH transition point closer to SCJ. At 5 cm above upper border LOS, the mean % time pH <4 was <4% in all studied groups. Acid exposure 0.5-1.5 cm above SCJ was increased, with versus without, belt (p=0.02) and was most marked in obese subjects with belt.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that in asymptomatic volunteers, waist belt and central obesity cause partial hiatus herniation and short-segment acid reflux. This provides a plausible explanation for the high incidence of inflammation and metaplasia and occurrence of neoplasia at the GOJ in subjects without a history of reflux symptoms.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Randomized controlled trials evaluating the effects of these 2 treatment modalities were searched from PubMed and other electronic databases between January 1991 and July 2018. The outcome variables analyzed included operating time, complications, recurrence of HH or wrap migration, reoperation, hospital stay and quality of life.
RESULTS: Five randomized controlled trials totaling 478 patients (suture=222, mesh=256) were analyzed. For reoperation variable, the odds ratio was significantly 3.26 times higher for the suture group. For recurrence of HH, the odds ratio for the suture group was nonsignificantly 1.65 times higher compared with the mesh group. Comparable effects were noted for all other variables.
CONCLUSIONS: Mesh repair seems to be superior to suture cruroplasty for large HH repair. Therefore, the routine use of mesh may be advantageous in selected cases.
DESIGN: A cross-sectional study on consecutive patients with dyspepsia undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.
SETTING: A large general hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive patients undergoing endoscopy for upper abdominal discomfort were examined for the presence of reflux oesophagitis, hiatus hernia and Barrett's oesophagus. The diagnosis and classification of reflux oesophagitis was based on the Los Angeles classification. Patients with predominant symptoms of heartburn or acid regurgitation of at least one per month for the past 6 months in the absence of reflux oesophagitis were diagnosed as having NERD. The prevalence of GORD, reflux oesophagitis and NERD were analysed in relation to age, gender, race, body mass index (BMI), presence of hiatus hernia, Helicobacter pylori status, alcohol intake, smoking and level of education.
RESULTS: One thousand patients were studied prospectively. Three hundred and eighty-eight patients (38.8%) were diagnosed as having GORD based on either predominant symptoms of heartburn and acid regurgitation and/or findings of reflux oesophagitis. One hundred and thirty-four patients (13.4%) had endoscopic evidence of reflux oesophagitis. Two hundred and fifty-four (65.5%) were diagnosed as having NERD. Hiatus hernia was found in 6.7% and Barrett's oesophagus in 2% of patients. Of our patients with reflux oesophagitis 20.1% had grade C and D oesophagitis. No patients had strictures. Following logistic regression analysis, the independent risk factors for GORD were Indian race (odds ratio (OR), 3.25; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.38-4.45), Malay race (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.16-2.38), BMI > 25 (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.04-1.92), presence of hiatus hernia (OR, 4.21; 95% CI, 2.41-7.36), alcohol consumption (OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.11-5.23) and high education level (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.02-2.26). For reflux oesophagitis independent the risk factors male gender (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.08-2.49), Indian race (OR, 3.25; 95% CI, 2.05-5.17), presence of hiatus hernia (OR, 11.67; 95% CI, 6.40-21.26) and alcohol consumption (OR, 3.22; 95% CI, 1.26-8.22). For NERD the independent risk factors were Indian race (OR, 3.45; 95% CI, 2.42-4.92), Malay race (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.20-2.69), BMI > 25 (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.04, 2.06) and high education level (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.06-2.59).
CONCLUSIONS: Reflux oesophagitis and Barrett's oesophagus were not as uncommon as previously thought in a multiracial Asian population and a significant proportion of our patients had severe grades of reflux oesophagitis. NERD, however, still constituted the larger proportion of patients with GORD. Indian race was consistently a significant independent risk factor for reflux oesophagitis, NERD and for GORD overall.