Displaying all 13 publications

  1. Memon MA, Memon B, Yunus RM, Khan S
    Ann Surg, 2016 Feb;263(2):258-66.
    PMID: 26445468 DOI: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000001267
    The aim was to conduct a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing 2 methods of hiatal closure for large hiatal hernia and to evaluate their strengths and flaws.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hernia, Hiatal/surgery*
  2. Siboni S, Kristo I, Rogers BD, De Bortoli N, Hobson A, Louie B, et al.
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2023 Jul;21(7):1761-1770.e1.
    PMID: 36270615 DOI: 10.1016/j.cgh.2022.10.008
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The straight leg raise (SLR) maneuver during high-resolution manometry (HRM) can assess esophagogastric junction (EGJ) barrier function by measuring changes in intraesophageal pressure (IEP) when intra-abdominal pressure is increased. We aimed to determine whether increased esophageal pressure during SLR predicts pathologic esophageal acid exposure time (AET).

    METHODS: Adult patients with persistent gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms undergoing HRM and pH-impedance or wireless pH study off proton pump inhibitor were prospectively studied between July 2021 and March 2022. After the HRM Chicago 4.0 protocol, patients were requested to elevate 1 leg at 45º for 5 seconds while supine. The SLR maneuver was considered effective when intra-abdominal pressure increased by 50%. IEPs were recorded 5 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter at baseline and during SLR. GERD was defined as AET greater than 6%.

    RESULTS: The SLR was effective in 295 patients (81%), 115 (39%) of whom had an AET greater than 6%. Hiatal hernia (EGJ type 2 or 3) was seen in 135 (46%) patients. Compared with patients with an AET less than 6%, peak IEP during SLR was significantly higher in the GERD group (29.7 vs 13.9 mm Hg; P < .001). Using receiver operating characteristic analysis, an increase of 11 mm Hg of peak IEP from baseline during SLR was the optimal cut-off value to predict an AET greater than 6% (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.84; sensitivity, 79%; and specificity, 85%), regardless of the presence of hiatal hernia. On multivariable analysis, an IEP pressure increase during the SLR maneuver, EGJ contractile integral, EGJ subtype 2, and EGJ subtype 3, were found to be significant predictors of AET greater than 6% CONCLUSIONS: The SLR maneuver can predict abnormal an AET, thereby increasing the diagnostic value of HRM when GERD is suspected.

    CLINICALTRIALS: gov ID: NCT04813029.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hernia, Hiatal*
  3. Siow SL, Tee SC, Wong CM
    J Med Case Rep, 2015;9:49.
    PMID: 25890166 DOI: 10.1186/s13256-015-0519-6
    Paraesophageal hernia with intrathoracic mesentericoaxial type of gastric volvulus is a rare clinical entity. The rotation occurs because of the idiopathic relaxation of the gastric ligaments and ascent of the stomach adjacent to the oesophagus through the hiatus defect, while the gastroesophageal junction remains in the abdomen. The open approach remains the gold standard therapy for most patients. Here we report the case of a patient with such a condition who underwent a successful laparoscopic surgery. A literature search revealed that this is the first case report from Southeast Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hernia, Hiatal/diagnosis; Hernia, Hiatal/surgery*
  4. Lee YY, Wirz AA, Whiting JG, Robertson EV, Smith D, Weir A, et al.
    Gut, 2014 Jul;63(7):1053-60.
    PMID: 24064007 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2013-305803
    OBJECTIVE: There is a high incidence of inflammation and metaplasia at the gastro-oesophageal junction (GOJ) in asymptomatic volunteers. Additionally, the majority of patients with GOJ adenocarcinomas have no history of reflux symptoms. We report the effects of waist belt and increased waist circumference (WC) on the physiology of the GOJ in asymptomatic volunteers.

    DESIGN: 12 subjects with normal and 12 with increased WC, matched for age and gender were examined fasted and following a meal and with waist belts on and off. A magnet was clipped to the squamo-columnar junction (SCJ). Combined assembly of magnet-locator probe, 12-channel pH catheter and 36-channel manometer was passed.

    RESULTS: The waist belt and increased WC were each associated with proximal displacement of SCJ within the diaphragmatic hiatus (relative to upper border of lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS), peak LOS pressure point and pressure inversion point, and PIP (all p<0.05). The magnitude of proximal migration of SCJ during transient LOS relaxations was reduced by 1.6-2.6 cm with belt on versus off (p=0.01) and in obese versus non-obese (p=0.04), consistent with its resting position being already proximally displaced. The waist belt, but not increased WC, was associated with increased LOS pressure (vs intragastric pressure) and movement of pH transition point closer to SCJ. At 5 cm above upper border LOS, the mean % time pH <4 was <4% in all studied groups. Acid exposure 0.5-1.5 cm above SCJ was increased, with versus without, belt (p=0.02) and was most marked in obese subjects with belt.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that in asymptomatic volunteers, waist belt and central obesity cause partial hiatus herniation and short-segment acid reflux. This provides a plausible explanation for the high incidence of inflammation and metaplasia and occurrence of neoplasia at the GOJ in subjects without a history of reflux symptoms.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hernia, Hiatal/diagnosis; Hernia, Hiatal/etiology*
  5. Lau , S.F.
    Jurnal Veterinar Malaysia, 2016;28(1):12-15.
    Two cases of diaphragmatic hernia in cats caused by road traffic accident were undiagnosed during the initial presentation. Both cats showed no evidence of respiratory distress and clinicians did not notice the diaphragmatic hernia on thoracic radiographs. Later on, both cats showed signs of dyspnea and diaphragmatic hernia was diagnosed with repeated thoracic radiograph and ultrasound. Diaphragmatic hernia is rather common in veterinary practice, however, its diagnosis can be clinically challenging. This case report highlights the importance to re-evaluate and monitor the patient closely after the traffic accident. Repeated radiograph, different diagnostic modalities and techniques such as ultrasound, computed tomography and positive contrast peritoneagraphy should be used in order to diagnose the diaphragmatic hernia conclusively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hernia, Hiatal
  6. Lee YY, McColl KE
    Dis Esophagus, 2015 May-Jun;28(4):318-25.
    PMID: 24575877 DOI: 10.1111/dote.12202
    Obesity is a major reason for the recent increase in incidence of reflux disease and cancers at the distal esophagus and gastroesophageal junction (GOJ) and is mediated through a rise in the intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) but the exact mechanisms are unclear. Raised IAP from obesity and with application of waist belt produces mechanical distortion of the GOJ through formation of partial hiatus hernia. Even though there is no trans-sphincteric acid reflux, there is increased ingress of acid into the lower sphincter (intra-sphincteric reflux) as a consequence of raised IAP. In addition, short segment acid reflux is more evident in obese subjects with a belt on. Acid pocket is also enlarged in hiatus hernia, and acts as a reservoir of acid available to reflux whenever the sphincter fails. Above mechanisms may explain the common occurrence of cardiac lengthening and inflammation found in asymptomatic obese subjects. The inflamed cardia is also immunohistochemically similar to non-intestinal Barrett's mucosa, which is of etiological importance for cancers at the GOJ. Interventions that can reduce the mechanical distortion and acid exposure at the GOJ, including diet, exercise, drugs, sphincter augmentation therapy, and surgery, are clinically relevant in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease but more data are needed whether if these strategies are also effective in preventing cancer. As a conclusion, raised IAP produces silent mechanical disruption of the GOJ, which may explain the high occurrence of cancers in this region and it is potentially reversible with early interventions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hernia, Hiatal/etiology
  7. Qader AQ, Abdul Hamid H
    Radiol Case Rep, 2021 Jul;16(7):1907-1911.
    PMID: 34093935 DOI: 10.1016/j.radcr.2021.04.059
    Gastric volvulus is an uncommon disorder with an unknown incidence, unless it stays in the back of the diagnostician's mind, diagnosis of gastric volvulus, which can have significant morbidity and mortality associated with it, can be easily missed and can present either in the acute or chronic setting with variable symptoms. When it occurs in the acute scenario, patients present with severe epigastric pain and retching without vomiting. Together with inability to pass nasogastric tube, they constitute Borchardt's triad. The presence of a hiatal hernia with persistent vomiting despite initial antiemetic treatment should trigger one to think of gastric volvulus, despite the patient appearing very stable. We report a case which presented in our hospital with abdominal pain and vomiting. As Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy shows hiatal hernia and peptic ulcer. Primary gastric volvulus occurs in the absence of any defect in the diaphragm or adjacent organ pathology and may be caused by weakening of gastric supports. As conclusion; Gastric volvulus is a surgical case, requiring early diagnosis and aggressive management, as a delay results into complications like gangrene and perforation which substantially increase the morbidity and mortality in these patients, and contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) is the best modality for diagnosis of gastric volvulus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hernia, Hiatal
  8. Christodoulidou, M., Kosai, N.R., Rajan, R., Hassan, S., Dac, S., Sutton, P.A., et al.
    Introduction: Laparoscopic fundoplication is performed for the management of symptomatic hiatus hernias and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) refractory to medical therapy. We adopted the use of Gore Bio-A® for selected laparoscopic hiatus hernia repairs in 2011 and with this case series aimed to establish whether mesh augmentation affects symptomatic outcomes. Methods: A retrospective review of prospectively collected data from all laparoscopic fundoplications performed by a single surgeon between October 2011 and January 2013 was performed. Patient specific data were entered into a proforma and analysed using Microsoft ExcelTM. Patient reported outcomes were assessed with a system specific quality of life questionnaire (GORD-HRQL) both pre and post-operatively. Results: Twenty-three patients underwent laparoscopic fundoplication during the study period. Gore Bio-A® re-enforcement of the hiatal repair was used in 14 patients and was the preferred option for those with pre-operative evidence of a large hiatus hernia. Whilst overall there was a statistically significant difference between pre and post-operative scores (21 vs 0, p=
    Matched MeSH terms: Hernia, Hiatal
  9. Memon MA, Siddaiah-Subramanya M, Yunus RM, Memon B, Khan S
    Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech, 2019 Aug;29(4):221-232.
    PMID: 30855402 DOI: 10.1097/SLE.0000000000000655
    BACKGROUND: To explore the clinical outcomes, safety and effectiveness of suture cruroplasty versus mesh repair for large hiatal hernias (HHs) by an updated meta-analysis.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Randomized controlled trials evaluating the effects of these 2 treatment modalities were searched from PubMed and other electronic databases between January 1991 and July 2018. The outcome variables analyzed included operating time, complications, recurrence of HH or wrap migration, reoperation, hospital stay and quality of life.

    RESULTS: Five randomized controlled trials totaling 478 patients (suture=222, mesh=256) were analyzed. For reoperation variable, the odds ratio was significantly 3.26 times higher for the suture group. For recurrence of HH, the odds ratio for the suture group was nonsignificantly 1.65 times higher compared with the mesh group. Comparable effects were noted for all other variables.

    CONCLUSIONS: Mesh repair seems to be superior to suture cruroplasty for large HH repair. Therefore, the routine use of mesh may be advantageous in selected cases.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hernia, Hiatal
  10. Rajendra S, Kutty K, Karim N
    Dig Dis Sci, 2004 Feb;49(2):237-42.
    PMID: 15104363
    Recent studies indicate that the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in Asia is either increasing or better recognized. There is a paucity of reliable data on the prevalence of reflux disease in the various races in general and in Malaysia, in particular. The prevalence of erosive esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus in a multiethnic Malaysian population was studied, as well as the relationship of various factors associated with reflux disease. Chinese, Malay, and Indian patients undergoing gastroscopy in a tertiary referral center were assessed for the presence of esophagitis, hiatus hernia, and Barrett's esophagus. Patient demographics and risk factors associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease were also documented. The prevalence of endoscopically documented esophagitis among 1985 patients was 6.1%, the majority of which were mild, Grade I or II (88%). There was a preponderance of Indians with esophagitis, as well as males (P < 0.05) and those with the presence of a hiatus hernia (P < 0.01). Long-segment Barrett's esophagus was found in 1.6% of patients, and short-segment Barrett's in 4.6%. Indians had the highest prevalence of Barrett's esophagus compared with Chinese (P < 0.05) or Malays (P < 0.01). Hiatus hernia and erosive esophagitis were both positively associated with Barrett's metaplasia (P < 0.01). A significant proportion of Malaysian patients undergoing endoscopy has mild reflux esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus. Indian ethnicity and the presence of a hiatus hernia were significantly associated with endoscopic esophagitis and Barrett's metaplasia. These observed racial differences warrant further study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hernia, Hiatal/complications
  11. Rosaida MS, Goh KL
    Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2004 May;16(5):495-501.
    PMID: 15097043
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of and risk factors for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), reflux oesophagitis and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) amongst Malaysian patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination.

    DESIGN: A cross-sectional study on consecutive patients with dyspepsia undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.

    SETTING: A large general hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive patients undergoing endoscopy for upper abdominal discomfort were examined for the presence of reflux oesophagitis, hiatus hernia and Barrett's oesophagus. The diagnosis and classification of reflux oesophagitis was based on the Los Angeles classification. Patients with predominant symptoms of heartburn or acid regurgitation of at least one per month for the past 6 months in the absence of reflux oesophagitis were diagnosed as having NERD. The prevalence of GORD, reflux oesophagitis and NERD were analysed in relation to age, gender, race, body mass index (BMI), presence of hiatus hernia, Helicobacter pylori status, alcohol intake, smoking and level of education.

    RESULTS: One thousand patients were studied prospectively. Three hundred and eighty-eight patients (38.8%) were diagnosed as having GORD based on either predominant symptoms of heartburn and acid regurgitation and/or findings of reflux oesophagitis. One hundred and thirty-four patients (13.4%) had endoscopic evidence of reflux oesophagitis. Two hundred and fifty-four (65.5%) were diagnosed as having NERD. Hiatus hernia was found in 6.7% and Barrett's oesophagus in 2% of patients. Of our patients with reflux oesophagitis 20.1% had grade C and D oesophagitis. No patients had strictures. Following logistic regression analysis, the independent risk factors for GORD were Indian race (odds ratio (OR), 3.25; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.38-4.45), Malay race (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.16-2.38), BMI > 25 (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.04-1.92), presence of hiatus hernia (OR, 4.21; 95% CI, 2.41-7.36), alcohol consumption (OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.11-5.23) and high education level (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.02-2.26). For reflux oesophagitis independent the risk factors male gender (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.08-2.49), Indian race (OR, 3.25; 95% CI, 2.05-5.17), presence of hiatus hernia (OR, 11.67; 95% CI, 6.40-21.26) and alcohol consumption (OR, 3.22; 95% CI, 1.26-8.22). For NERD the independent risk factors were Indian race (OR, 3.45; 95% CI, 2.42-4.92), Malay race (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.20-2.69), BMI > 25 (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.04, 2.06) and high education level (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.06-2.59).

    CONCLUSIONS: Reflux oesophagitis and Barrett's oesophagus were not as uncommon as previously thought in a multiracial Asian population and a significant proportion of our patients had severe grades of reflux oesophagitis. NERD, however, still constituted the larger proportion of patients with GORD. Indian race was consistently a significant independent risk factor for reflux oesophagitis, NERD and for GORD overall.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hernia, Hiatal/pathology
  12. Bonavina L, Fisichella PM, Gavini S, Lee YY, Tatum RP
    Ann N Y Acad Sci, 2020 12;1481(1):117-126.
    PMID: 32266986 DOI: 10.1111/nyas.14350
    In symptomatic young patients with gastroesophageal reflux symptoms, early identification of progressive gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is critical to prevent long-term complications associated with hiatal hernia, increased esophageal acid and nonacid exposure, release of proinflammatory cytokines, and development of intestinal metaplasia, endoscopically visible Barrett's esophagus, and dysplasia leading to esophageal adenocarcinoma. Progression of GERD may occur in asymptomatic patients and in those under continuous acid-suppressive medication. The long-term side effects of proton-pump inhibitors, chemopreventive agents, and radiofrequency ablation are contentious. In patients with early-stage disease, when the lower esophageal sphincter function is still preserved and before endoscopically visible Barrett's esophagus develops, novel laparoscopic procedures, such as magnetic and electric sphincter augmentation, may have a greater role than conventional surgical therapy. A multidisciplinary approach to GERD by a dedicated team of gastroenterologists and surgeons might impact the patients' lifestyle, the therapeutic choices, and the course of the disease. Biological markers are needed to precisely assess the risk of disease progression and to tailor surveillance, ablation, and management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hernia, Hiatal
  13. Braun DA, Rao J, Mollet G, Schapiro D, Daugeron MC, Tan W, et al.
    Nat Genet, 2017 Oct;49(10):1529-1538.
    PMID: 28805828 DOI: 10.1038/ng.3933
    Galloway-Mowat syndrome (GAMOS) is an autosomal-recessive disease characterized by the combination of early-onset nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) and microcephaly with brain anomalies. Here we identified recessive mutations in OSGEP, TP53RK, TPRKB, and LAGE3, genes encoding the four subunits of the KEOPS complex, in 37 individuals from 32 families with GAMOS. CRISPR-Cas9 knockout in zebrafish and mice recapitulated the human phenotype of primary microcephaly and resulted in early lethality. Knockdown of OSGEP, TP53RK, or TPRKB inhibited cell proliferation, which human mutations did not rescue. Furthermore, knockdown of these genes impaired protein translation, caused endoplasmic reticulum stress, activated DNA-damage-response signaling, and ultimately induced apoptosis. Knockdown of OSGEP or TP53RK induced defects in the actin cytoskeleton and decreased the migration rate of human podocytes, an established intermediate phenotype of SRNS. We thus identified four new monogenic causes of GAMOS, describe a link between KEOPS function and human disease, and delineate potential pathogenic mechanisms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hernia, Hiatal/genetics*
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