OBJECTIVE: To examine treatment patterns, goal attainment, and factors influencing treatment among patients in 6 Asian countries who were taking statins.
METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in China, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand, where 437 physicians (41% cardiologists) recruited adults with hypercholesterolemia newly initiated on statin monotherapy.
RESULTS: Of 2622 patients meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria, approximately 66% had coronary heart disease (CHD)/diabetes mellitus, 24% had no CHD but > or =2 risk factors, and 10% had no CHD and <2 risk factors. Most patients ( approximately 90%) received statins at medium or lower equipotency doses. Across all cardiovascular risk categories, 48% of patients attained ATP III targets for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), including 38% of those with CHD/diabetes (goal: <100 mg/dL), 62% of those without CHD but with > or =2 risk factors (goal: <130 mg/dL), and 81% of those without CHD and <2 risk factors (goal: <160 mg/dL). Most patients who achieved goals did so within the first 3 months. Increasing age (odds ratio (OR)=1.015 per 1-year increment; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.005-1.206; p=0.0038) and initial statin potency (OR=2.253; 95% CI=1.364-3.722; p=0.0015) were directly associated with goal attainment, whereas increased cardiovascular risk (OR=0.085; 95% CI=0.053-0.134; p<0.0001 for CHD/diabetes mellitus at baseline compared with <2 risk factors,) and baseline LDL-C (OR=0.990; 95% CI=0.987-0.993); p<0.0001 per 1-mg/dL increment) were inversely associated with LDL-C goal achievement. Limitations of this study include potential differences in treatment settings and cardiovascular risk factors between different countries and centers. In addition, the effects on cholesterol goal achievement of concomitant changes in lifestyle were not assessed.
CONCLUSION: LDL-C goal attainment is low in Asians, particularly those with CHD/diabetes. More effective patient monitoring, treatments, including combining regimens and dose titration, and adherence to these treatments along with therapeutic lifestyle counseling may facilitate goal attainment.
METHODS: This cross-sectional, retrospective cohort study was conducted at the University of Malaya Medical Centre from 1 May 2013 until 30 May 2013. We analyzed the lipid profiles (total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides) of 629 patients before and at least 3 months after switching them from proprietary atorvastatin (Lipitor®) to generic atorvastatin (atorvastatin calcium from Ranbaxy Laboratories, Inc.). We also investigated if there was any difference in the effectiveness of both atorvastatin formulations in various ethnic groups.
RESULTS: 266 patients were included in this study. When comparing the median values we found no statistically significant differences (Wilcoxon signed-rank test; p drugs to their less expensive generic analogues.
OBJECTIVE: To determine (i) proportions of patients with CHD in Singapore who achieved goals for serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C); and (ii) factors influencing goal attainment.
METHODS: A historical cohort study was conducted using records from the Singapore Cardiac Databank, a national registry of CHD patients. Serum LDL-C goal attainment was assessed in 5174 survivors of acute myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization (i.e. coronary artery bypass graft surgery or percutaneous coronary interventions), of whom 3811 (73.7%) were at very high risk.
RESULTS: At baseline, the mean patient age was 60.3 years, mean serum value of total cholesterol was 228 mg/dL, and mean LDL-C was 163 mg/dL. Of all CHD patients, approximately 70% did not achieve a serum LDL-C target of <100 mg/dL. Most patients receiving HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin) regimens were treated initially with low- to medium-equipotency regimens and were never titrated to stronger regimens. The vast majority (approximately 94%) of patients at very high risk did not achieve the stringent serum LDL-C target of <70 mg/dL. Patients receiving higher potency statins were significantly more likely to achieve LDL-C goals, whereas those with higher baseline LDL-C levels or Malaysian ethnicity were less likely to achieve LDL-C goals.
CONCLUSIONS: Most CHD patients in the large group of Singapore residents with CHD in the present study did not achieve recommended LDL-C targets. A more effective disease-management approach, including patient education concerning lifestyle modification (e.g. diet, physical activity), efforts to enhance medication adherence, and more effective, well tolerated therapies such as high-equipotency or high-dose statins and statin combination regimens, may be needed to improve achievement of consensus cholesterol targets. This is the first study of cholesterol goal attainment in a large group of Southeast Asians and serves as a baseline for future evaluations in Asian populations.
METHODS: Nine primary care health clinics across Malaysia participated in this study. 147 statin-naive subjects were selected through convenient sampling and randomised into one of the three arms (after breakfast, after dinner or before bedtime). Differences on percentage reduction of LDL-C from baseline and level of adherence among the three groups at week-16 were compared. The main outcomes measured in this study were the percentage change of lipid parameters and the percentage of high-adherence (MMAS=8) at week-16.
RESULTS: 59.2% of the patients were male. The mean age of the study population was 53.93± 10.85 years. Most of the patients were Malays (69.4%); followed by Indians (22.4%) and Chinese (8.2%). LDL-C decreased from 4.26 (Standard Deviation, SD1.01) to 2.36 (SD0.69)mmol/L at week-16 for patients taking simvastatin before bedtime; an absolute reduction of 44.95%.The differences of LDL-C percentage reduction between three arms were significantly different (p<0.001). The greatest LDL-C reduction was observed when simvastatin was taken before bedtime and revealed 56.2% patients with high-adherence at week-16.
CONCLUSION: Simvastatin showed superior LDL-reduction and higher level of adherence when being instructed to be taken before bedtime.
PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsion (KSON) has the potential to be used as a natural alternative to the synthetic hypocholesterolemic drug in the future. However, larger sample size and clinical trial are needed to confirm on this potential application. In addition, treatment with KSON was suggested to prevent cardiovascular disease and fatty liver.