Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 92 in total

  1. Yusof AB, Selvanesan S, Norizah I, Zuridah H, Kumarasamy V, Mariam M, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2006 Aug;61(3):296-301.
    PMID: 17240579 MyJurnal
    An outbreak of rubella occurred amongst 303 newly recruited residential Form IV students in a military vocational training school in Malaysia. Of the 303 Form IV students, 77 gave a history of acute illness. Rubella specific IgM was detected in the sera of 46.5% (141/303) whereas rubella specific IgG was detected in 100% of all Form IV students. Sixty five students with no clinical history of acute illness during the outbreak period had detectable rubella IgM in their sera and rubella specific IgM was detected in the sera of all symptomatic students except one. Maculopapular rash was the commonest presenting clinical feature among students with acute rubella infection in this outbreak (97.4%) followed by fever (88.2%). The duration of rash ranged from one to nine days with a mean of 4.6 days. Of the 65 students that had both fever and rash, 56 (85.2%) students had maculopapular skin eruption on the same day as the date of onset of fever, six (9.2%) developed the rash a day after the onset of fever and three (4.6%) had the rash after two days of fever. The duration of fever ranged from one to eight days with a mean of 3.5 days. The duration of conjunctivitis ranged from one to four days with a mean of 2.3 days, and all those who developed conjunctivitis had mild eye-discharge without photophobia. The duration of arthralgia ranged from one to three days with a mean of 2.1 days. The commonest type of joints affected was knee joints (66.7%, 12/18), followed by elbow and shoulder joints (27.8%, 5/18) and wrist joints (5.6%, 1/18). A good clinical history of the temporal relationship between the occurrence of rash and fever during the outbreak could easily differentiate rubella illness from that of measles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin M/blood
  2. Ismail NA, Kampan N, Mahdy ZA, Jamil MA, Razi ZR
    PMID: 17121293
    This was a retrospective study of patients with dengue infection in pregnancy from year 2000 till 2004. Data were analyzed by looking at the presentation, complications of patient and fetus, and pregnancy outcomes. There was a total of 16 cases with an increasing trend (0.12% in 2003 vs 0.25% in 2004). The mean age of patients was 30.19+/-6.85 years. Fifty percent of patients were multiparae and in their third trimester. The average gestation was 24.44 weeks with 7.5 days being the average duration of ward admission. Tourniquet test was positive in 62.5% of patients. Dengue serology IgM was positive in 50% whereas dengue serology IgG were positive in 68.8% of patients. There were three cases of maternal death. One patient presented as missed abortion. Preterm deliveries happened in 50.0% of the women. There were 4 premature babies, one in-utero fetal death, and two fetuses which suffered acute fetal distress. Three babies required intensive care. One unrelated fetal anomaly resulted in early neonatal death.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin M/blood
  3. Mohamed S, May Amelia TS, Abdullah Amirul AA, Abdul Wahid ME, Bhubalan K
    Biologicals, 2021 Jun;71:51-54.
    PMID: 33858743 DOI: 10.1016/j.biologicals.2021.03.002
    A natural biodegradable polymer, polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), was adjuvanted with a vaccine seed to observe the biomaterial's ability in enhancing an immune response in rats. The adjuvant potential of PHA was tested using the whole-killed Pasteurella multocida B:2 (PMB2) vaccine in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats to detect changes in serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) responses. A common PHA, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)], from Bacillus megaterium UMTKB-1 was constructed into microparticles using the solvent evaporation method. Twelve SD rats were divided into four treatment groups: 1) non-treatment as negative control, 2) P(3HB) adjuvant, 3) PMB2 vaccine, and 4) adjuvanted-P(3HB)/PMB2 vaccine groups, which were intramuscularly vaccinated twice. Immunoglobulins IgG and IgM levels were used as markers of the immune response induced by the adjuvanted-P(3HB)/PMB2 vaccine and analysed over an eight-week study period. The group vaccinated specifically with adjuvanted-P(3HB)/PMB2 vaccine had higher concentrations of immunoglobulins compared to other treatment groups, hence demonstrating the potential of the adjuvant to enhance immune response. Findings showed a need to delay the delivery of the second booster dose to determine the appropriate regime for the adjuvanted-P(3HB)/PMB2 vaccine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin M/blood
  4. Andiappan H, Nissapatorn V, Sawangjaroen N, Nyunt MH, Lau YL, Khaing SL, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2014;7:564.
    PMID: 25498432 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-014-0564-9
    Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, causes a disease called toxoplasmosis which can sometimes be acquired congenitally by a newborn from an infected mother. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection and its associated risks among 219 and 215 pregnant women from Malaysia and Myanmar, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin M/blood
  5. Tan XT, Amran F, Chee Cheong K, Ahmad N
    BMC Infect Dis, 2014;14:563.
    PMID: 25338815 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-014-0563-7
    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Leptospira species and is distributed globally. Microscopic agglutination test (MAT) is the serological 'gold standard' for diagnosis of leptospirosis but it is time-consuming and labour-intensive. An alternative serological method that is rapid, sensitive and specific is important for early treatment to reduce morbidity and mortality. The use of local Leptospira isolation may improve the sensitivity and specificity of the test because it may varies from one geographical region to another region. The objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity, specificity and cut-off points for an in-house Immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a locally isolated Leptospiral strain IMR/175 as the antigen for the detection of anti-Leptospiral IgM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin M/blood
  6. Hunsperger EA, Yoksan S, Buchy P, Nguyen VC, Sekaran SD, Enria DA, et al.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2014 Oct;8(10):e3171.
    PMID: 25330157 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003171
    Commercially available diagnostic test kits for detection of dengue virus (DENV) non-structural protein 1 (NS1) and anti-DENV IgM were evaluated for their sensitivity and specificity and other performance characteristics by a diagnostic laboratory network developed by World Health Organization (WHO), the UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and the Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative (PDVI). Each network laboratory contributed characterized serum specimens for the panels used in the evaluation. Microplate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and rapid diagnostic test (RDT formats) were represented by the kits. Each ELISA was evaluated by 2 laboratories and RDTs were evaluated by at least 3 laboratories. The reference tests for IgM anti-DENV were laboratory developed assays produced by the Armed Forces Research Institute for Medical Science (AFRIMS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the NS1 reference test was reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results were analyzed to determine sensitivity, specificity, inter-laboratory and inter-reader agreement, lot-to-lot variation and ease-of-use. NS1 ELISA sensitivity was 60-75% and specificity 71-80%; NS1 RDT sensitivity was 38-71% and specificity 76-80%; the IgM anti-DENV RDTs sensitivity was 30-96%, with a specificity of 86-92%, and IgM anti-DENV ELISA sensitivity was 96-98% and specificity 78-91%. NS1 tests were generally more sensitive in specimens from the acute phase of dengue and in primary DENV infection, whereas IgM anti-DENV tests were less sensitive in secondary DENV infections. The reproducibility of the NS1 RDTs ranged from 92-99% and the IgM anti-DENV RDTs from 88-94%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin M/blood*
  7. Wong WR, Krupin O, Sekaran SD, Mahamd Adikan FR, Berini P
    Anal Chem, 2014 Feb 4;86(3):1735-43.
    PMID: 24410440 DOI: 10.1021/ac403539k
    We present a compact, cost-effective, label-free, real-time biosensor based on long-range surface plasmon polariton (LRSPP) gold (Au) waveguides for the detection of dengue-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody, and we demonstrate detection in actual patient blood plasma samples. Two surface functionalization approaches are proposed and demonstrated: a dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) functionalized surface to capture dengue-specific IgM antibody in blood plasma and the reverse, a blood plasma functionalized surface to capture DENV-2. The results obtained via these two surface functionalization approaches are comparable to, or of greater quality, than those collected by conventional IgM antibody capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA). Our second functionalization approach was found to minimize nonspecific binding, thus improving the sensitivity and accuracy of the test. We also demonstrate reuse of the biosensors by regenerating the sensing surface down to the virus (or antibody) level or down to the bare Au.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin M/blood
  8. Kumarasamy V, Zuridah H, Hani AW, Mariam M, Chua KB
    Med J Malaysia, 2007 Mar;62(1):85-6.
    PMID: 17682584 MyJurnal
    The performance of a commercial rapid immunochromatographic dengue IgG/IgM assay device was evaluated against an in-place dengue IgM-capture ELISA in the National Public Health laboratory. Of the 239 serum samples from patients with clinical diagnosis of acute dengue illness, 140 and 99 samples were tested positive and negative respectively for anti-dengue IgM by the in-placed ELISA. Comparatively, 72 and 76 samples were tested positive and negative respectively, and 91 samples gave equivocal results by the rapid dengue test device. The rapid immunochromatographic assay device gave a relative sensitivity of 49.3% and a relative specificity of 62.6%. Though the rapid immunochromatographic assay device has the advantages of rapid testing which simultaneously detects both IgG and IgM and can also be performed with whole blood, serum or plasma, the user has to exercise extreme caution with the interpretation of the test result.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin M/blood*
  9. Kari K, Liu W, Gautama K, Mammen MP, Clemens JD, Nisalak A, et al.
    BMC Med, 2006;4:8.
    PMID: 16603053
    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is presumed to be endemic throughout Asia, yet only a few cases have been reported in tropical Asian countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines. To estimate the true disease burden due to JE in this region, we conducted a prospective, hospital-based surveillance with a catchment population of 599,120 children less than 12 years of age in Bali, Indonesia, from July 2001 through December 2003.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin M/blood
  10. Hafner C, Koellner K, Vogt T, Landthaler M, Szeimies RM
    Hautarzt, 2006 Aug;57(8):705-7.
    PMID: 16283129
    A 39-year-old patient developed a disseminated rash with scattered petechiae, fever, malaise and arthralgia after a trip to Malaysia. The patient displayed increasing dengue IgG titers and borderline dengue IgM titers. Dengue fever with a hemorrhagic course is a rare condition in adult patients. Patients who have previously had dengue fever and retained non-neutralizing heterotypic antibodies are more likely to develop this complication via the phenomenon of antibody-dependent enhancement.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin M/blood
  11. Jahanshahi P, Sekaran SD, Adikan FR
    Med Biol Eng Comput, 2015 Aug;53(8):679-87.
    PMID: 25791696 DOI: 10.1007/s11517-015-1262-2
    Evaluation of binding between analytes and its relevant ligands on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor is of considerable importance for accurate determination and screening of an interference in immunosensors. Dengue virus serotype 2 was used as a case study in this investigation. This research work compares and interprets the results obtained from analytical analysis with the experimental ones. Both the theoretical calculations and experimental results are verified with one sample from each category of dengue serotypes 2 (low, mid, and high positive), which have been examined in the database of established laboratorial diagnosis. In order to perform this investigation, the SPR angle variations are calculated, analyzed, and then validated via experimental SPR angle variations. Accordingly, the error ratios of 5.35, 6.54, and 3.72% were obtained for the low-, mid-, and high-positive-specific immune globulins of patient serums, respectively. In addition, the magnetic fields of the biosensor are numerically simulated to show the effect of different binding mediums.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin M/blood*
  12. Lam SK, Devine PL
    Clin Diagn Virol, 1998 May 1;10(1):75-81.
    PMID: 9646004
    Rapid diagnosis of dengue infection is essential to patient management and disease control. The development of a rapid (5 min) immunochromatographic test and a 2 h commercial capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti-dengue IgM and IgG antibodies may lead to more rapid and accurate testing in peripheral health settings and diagnostic laboratories.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin M/blood*
  13. Rahmah N, Anuar AK
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 1992 Aug 31;187(1):294-8.
    PMID: 1520310
    C57BL/6 mice were orally infected with different doses of cysts of ME49 strain of Toxoplasma gondii to produce groups of acutely and chronically infected mice. Sera were obtained at different periods post-infection. SDS-PAGE was ran with excretory/secretory antigens of ME49 and RH strains of T. gondii, followed by Western blot analyses using the above sera and anti- IgA, IgM, IgG as conjugates. The SDS-PAGE profiles of the two antigens were similar. However the antigenic bands showed variations in all blots, most evidently in IgA blots of chronic sera. IgG blots showed greatest similarities in reactive bands. In IgM blots, more common bands were shown in chronic sera than in acute sera. Variations and similarities in prominence of some bands and time of their appearance were also noted, especially in IgM and IgG blots of chronic sera. Thus antigenic variations and similarities are present in excretory/secretory products of different strains of T. gondii.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin M/blood
  14. Lam SK, Fong MY, Chungue E, Doraisingham S, Igarashi A, Khin MA, et al.
    Clin Diagn Virol, 1996 Nov;7(2):93-8.
    PMID: 9137865 DOI: 10.1016/S0928-0197(96)00257-7
    The traditional methods used in the diagnosis of dengue infection do not lend themselves to field application. As such, clinical specimens have to be sent to a central laboratory for processing which invariably leads to delay. This affects patient management and disease control. The development of the dengue IgM dot enzyme immunoassay has opened up the possibility of carrying out the test in peripheral health settings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin M/blood
  15. Cardosa MJ, Tio PH, Nimmannitya S, Nisalak A, Innis B
    PMID: 1298081
    The highly sensitive AFRIMS format IgM capture ELISA for the diagnosis of dengue virus infections requires the use of mouse brain derived hemagglutinins and consequently also the use of 20% acetone extracted normal human serum to eliminate high background. These reagents are not always easily available and we have thus compared the AFRIMS format with another published format which uses cell culture derived antigens (culture fluid, CF, format) in order to determine if it is reasonable to use cell culture derived antigens in situations where hemagglutinins and normal human serum are difficult to obtain. The study shows that using AFRIMS results as the reference point, the CF format described here has a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 96%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin M/blood*
  16. Cardosa MJ, Zuraini I
    PMID: 1818383
    This study describes the use of an IgM capture ELISA using cell culture derived antigens and a polyclonal rabbit antiflavivirus antisera for the detection of dengue positive cases. The IgM capture ELISA is compared with the dot enzyme immunoassay and the results are discussed in the context of dengue endemicity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin M/blood*
  17. Alia SN, Joseph N, Philip N, Azhari NN, Garba B, Masri SN, et al.
    J Infect Public Health, 2018 11 27;12(2):263-269.
    PMID: 30502041 DOI: 10.1016/j.jiph.2018.10.137
    BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is often misdiagnosed with several other tropical febrile illnesses in Malaysia due to similarities in clinical manifestations. Although treatment regimens could be started based on clinical judgments, early diagnosis has become paramount as a guide to chemotherapeutic interventions. Confirmed laboratory diagnosis through MAT or PCR is time consuming and usually available only in reference laboratories and not practical in healthcare settings. Rapid and easy to perform diagnostic tests are widely used in these settings as the point of care diagnosis. The present study was undertaken to compare the diagnostic performance of two IgM based immunodiagnostic assay kits for acute leptospirosis.

    METHODS: A total of 50 serum samples were collected from patients clinically suspected for acute leptospirosis on admission in the Hospital Serdang, from June 2016 to June 2017. All the samples were subjected to MAT, lipL32 PCR and the two rapid tests (Leptocheck-WB and ImmuneMed Leptospira IgM Duo Rapid test).

    RESULTS: Out of the 50 clinically suspected patients sampled, 19 were confirmed positive for leptospirosis. Six (12%) were confirmed by MAT and 13 (26%) by PCR. Similarly, of the 50 clinically suspected cases, 17 (34%) showed positivity for Leptocheck-WB and 7 (14%) for ImmuneMed Leptospira IgM Duo Rapid test. The overall sensitivity and specificity was 47.37% and 80.65% for Leptocheck-WB, and 21.05% and 90.32% for ImmuneMed Leptospira IgM Duo Rapid test. In another set of previously confirmed MAT positive samples (1:400-1:3600) obtained from a reference laboratory, Leptocheck-WB showed higher sensitivity (90.72%) than ImmuneMed Leptospira IgM Duo Rapid test (40.21%), and comparable specificity for ImmuneMed Leptospira IgM Duo Rapid test (88.89%) and Leptocheck-WB (82.86%).

    CONCLUSION: The sensitivity was higher for Leptocheck-WB and had a comparable specificity with ImmuneMed Leptospira IgM Duo Rapid test. Therefore, based on the present study, Leptocheck-WB is found to be a more sensitive rapid immunodiagnostic test for acute leptospirosis screening in hospital settings.

    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin M/blood*
  18. Saadatnia G, Ghaffarifar F, Khalilpour A, Amerizadeh A, Rahmah N
    Trop Biomed, 2011 Dec;28(3):606-14.
    PMID: 22433890 MyJurnal
    Toxoplasmosis can cause serious disease in immunocompromised patients and to congenitally infected foetuses. Appropriate laboratory investigations in potential cases of acute Toxoplasma infection are important. Excretory secretory antigen (ESA) is immunogenic during both human and experimental infections, therefore is considered as a good candidate for investigation into new infection markers. In this study, ESA was prepared from in vitro cultures of Toxoplasma gondii to identify T. gondii ESA antigenic component(s) that is/are most reactive with serum samples from probable acute cases of toxoplasmosis. Serum samples were obtained from several categories of individuals with the following Toxoplasma serology: Group I: IgM+ IgG+ (low IgG avidity) or IgM+ IgG- from sera of patients who had clinical query of toxoplasmosis (n=35). Group II: IgM- IgG+ (high IgG avidity) from chronically infected individuals (n=30). Group III: normal/healthy individuals with anti-Toxoplasma IgMIgG- (n=20). Group IV: individuals with other infections who had anti-Toxoplasma IgM- IgG- (n=10). The ESA was subjected to SDS-PAGE, followed by Western blot analysis using the above sera and probed with peroxidase conjugated anti-human IgM and IgA antibodies. The blots were then developed using chemiluminescence substrate. The selected antigenic band was excised from the gel after two dimensional electrophoresis and sent for mass spectrometry analysis using MALDI TOF-TOF. The most promising antigenic band was a 10 kDa protein which showed sensitivity of 80% in both IgM and IgA blots, and specificity of 96.7% with sera from other infections and healthy controls. The two best identifications for the 10 kDa band were ubiquitin (ribosomal protein CEP52 fusion protein) and polyubiquitin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin M/blood*
  19. Zin NM, Othman SN, Abd Rahman FR, Abdul Rachman AR
    Trop Biomed, 2019 Dec 01;36(4):1071-1080.
    PMID: 33597476
    Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. The clinical manifestation of leptospirosis is non-specific and frequently misdiagnosed as other illnesses. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracies of two commercial tests for early diagnosis of Leptospira species: the IgM latex agglutination test (IgM LAT) and the IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IgM ELISA). A total of 140 serum samples were obtained from patients suspected of leptospirosis at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). These serum samples were tested for the presence of Leptospira sp. using IgM LAT, IgM ELISA and MAT. From Table 1, IgM LAT showed 21% (n = 29) positive, 18% (n = 25) inconclusive and 61% (n = 86) negative, while IgM ELISA showed 6% (n = 8) positive, 6% (n = 8) inconclusive, 88% (n = 124) negative and MAT showed 11% (n = 16) positive, 47% (n = 65) inconclusive, 42% (n = 59) negative. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of IgM LAT were 68.8%, 57.6%, 30.6% and 87.2% respectively, while for IgM ELISA they were 37.5%, 89.8%, 50% and 84.1%, respectively as compared to MAT (Table 2). The results showed that IgM LAT had higher sensitivity but lower specificity compared to IgM ELISA. In conclusion, IgM LAT can be useful as an early screening test for early diagnosis of Leptospira sp., while IgM ELISA is a suitable method for reducing false negative detection of Leptospira sp. As both tests show moderate percentages (~65%) in accuracy, an additional test is required for better detection of Leptospira sp.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin M/blood*
  20. Ngui R, Hassan NA, Chang LY, Teh SJC, Chua KH, Kee BP, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2020 Mar 01;37(1):155-164.
    PMID: 33612726
    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that causes toxoplasmosis in humans. To date, little is known about T. gondii infection among the indigenous community, particularly in East Malaysia. This study was conducted to determine the status of T. gondii infection and to investigate associated risk factors among the indigenous community of Sarawak, East Malaysia. The sociodemographic data was obtained using a pretested questionnaire. A serological test was done to detect the presence of specific IgM and IgG antibodies against T. gondii in serum samples. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to determine acute infection among seropositive individuals. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was 50% (95% CI = 43.3 - 56.7). From this subset, 40.1%, 5.7%, and 4.2% were positive for anti-T. Gondii IgG antibodies, IgM, and both IgG and IgM, respectively. Four seropositive samples were amplified through PCR. None of the pregnant women tested positive for T. gondii infection based on the serological and PCR assays. A significant association was found between age, low monthly household income, unemployment, usage of untreated water and close contact with T. gondii seropositive cats. These results provide basic information on T. gondii infection and may be useful for policymakers to initiate prevention and control programs, especially amongst pregnant women and women of childbearing age in the indigenous community.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin M/blood
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