Displaying all 16 publications

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  1. Ng KH, Siar CH
    J Laryngol Otol, 1996 Aug;110(8):757-62.
    PMID: 8869610
    We reviewed the clinicopathological characteristics of 13 cases of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour (CEOT) (Pindborg tumour) diagnosed in the Division on Stomatology, Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur, over a 29-year period. There were eight female and five male patients. These consisted of eight (61.5 per cent) Malays, three (23.1 per cent) Chinese, one (7.7 per cent) Indian and one (7.7 per cent) Melanau. Their ages at presentation ranged from 19-61 years (mean age, 31.8 years). There were 12 central and one peripheral CEOT. Of these, 76.9 per cent of cases were located in the maxilla, the remaining in the mandible. The commonest clinical diagnosis was a dentigerous cyst (66.7 per cent). Enucleation was the main mode of treatment. Histologically, sheets and strands of polyhedral epithelial cells containing eosinophilic, homogeneous globules with Liesegang rings were observed. One case also showed extensive calcification and clear cell differentiation. Immunohistochemistry revealed a variable keratin staining of the CEOT epithelium, confirming its heterogeneity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Keratins/analysis
  2. Wong SY, Hashim OH, Hayashi N
    PLoS One, 2019;14(3):e0213947.
    PMID: 30889197 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0213947
    The primary components of human hair shaft-keratin and keratin-associated proteins (KAPs), together with their cross-linked networks-are the underlying reason for its rigid structure. It is therefore requisite to overcome the obstacle of hair insolubility and establish a reliable protocol for the proteome analysis of this accessible specimen. The present study employed an alkaline-based method for the efficient isolation of hair proteins and subsequently examined them using gel-based proteomics. The introduction of two proteomic protocols, namely the conventional and modified protocol, have resulted in the detection of more than 400 protein spots on the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE). When compared, the modified protocol is deemed to improve overall reproducibility, whilst offering a quick overview of the total protein distribution of hair. The development of this high-performance protocol is hoped to provide a new approach for hair analysis, which could possibly lead to the discovery of biomarkers for hair in health and diseases in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Keratins/analysis
  3. Elbashier SH, Nazarina AR, Looi LM
    Malays J Pathol, 2013 Dec;35(2):139-45.
    PMID: 24362477
    Ewing sarcoma (ES)/ primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) is an aggressive malignant neoplasm affecting mainly children and young adults. The tumour is included with other primitive neoplasms under the category of small round cell tumour. Cytokeratin expression in ES/PNET has been described in sporadic case reports as well as a few systemic series. We studied this feature in Malaysian patients diagnosed in University Malaya Medical Centre on the basis of typical morphology and immunohistochemical assays. Immunohistochemical staining for AE1/AE3 and MNF116 were performed in 43 cases. Cytokeratin was expressed in 17 cases (39.5%) in focal, intermediate or diffuse patterns. There was no significant association between cytokeratin immunoreactivity and the following parameters: patient age, sex, skeletal and extraskeletal primary location as well as primary, metastastic or recurrent tumours or chemotherapy treatment. A significant association between cytokeratin and neuron specific enolase (NSE) expression was demonstrated. Our study supports evidence of epithelial differentiation in ES/PNET and emphasizes that the expression of cytokeratin does not exclude ES/PNET in the differential diagnosis of small round cell tumours.
    Matched MeSH terms: Keratins/analysis
  4. Siar CH, Ng KH
    Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 1993 Jun;31(3):183-6.
    PMID: 7685634
    Four cases of either combined occurrence of ameloblastoma and odontogenic keratocyst or a rare keratinising variant of ameloblastoma are presented. The cardinal histomorphologic characteristics are simultaneous occurrence of ameloblastomatous epithelial islands with central keratinisation and multiple keratinising cysts. Immunohistochemically the tumour elements were keratin positive and occasionally S-100 protein and desmin positive. Major differential diagnosis of these neoplasms are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Keratins/analysis
  5. Siar CH, Ng KH
    J Nihon Univ Sch Dent, 1993 Jun;35(2):134-8.
    PMID: 7692017
    Granular cell ameloblastoma (GCA) is a well recognized variant of follicular ameloblastoma with extensive granular cell change. In contrast, plexiform granular cell odontogenic tumor (PGCOT) is a rare and recently described lesion characterized histologically by a monophasic plexiform pattern of granular cells. In this paper, two cases of an unusual granular cell odontogenic tumor exhibiting combined features of these two entities are described along with their immunohistochemical characteristics. The granular cells of both the GCA and PGCOT areas showed similar patterns of expression for keratin and S-100, which differed from those of typical ameloblastoma. No reactivity for desmin or vimentin was noted. The histomorphologic and immunohistochemical features of these hybrid tumors suggest that the granular cells present have a common origin, most probably the odontogenic epithelium.
    Matched MeSH terms: Keratins/analysis
  6. Siar CH, Ng KH
    J Nihon Univ Sch Dent, 1993 Jun;35(2):104-8.
    PMID: 7692015
    Seventeen cases of desmoplastic ameloblastoma were examined immunohistochemically. Immunoperoxidase techniques were applied for detection of keratin, desmin, vimentin and S-100 protein expression in these tumors. The tumor epithelium of desmoplastic ameloblastoma exhibited weak, focal, inconstant keratin staining, weak, variable expression of S-100 protein, desmin immunoreactivity of mild to moderate intensity and vimentin non-reactivity. The pertinent literature on the immunohistochemistry of ameloblastomas is briefly reviewed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Keratins/analysis
  7. Chong Huat Siar, Kok Han Ng
    J Nihon Univ Sch Dent, 1996 Mar;38(1):52-6.
    PMID: 8648412
    Two cases of either peripheral odontogenic fibroma (POF) (WHO type) or peripheral ameloblastoma are reported. Their immunohistochemical characteristics were investigated in an attempt to clarify their histogenesis. The results showed that the epithelial component of this neoplasm tended to retain its distinct odontogenic character and expressed a keratin profile different from that of the overlying oral epithelium from which both cases most probably originated. The connective tissue element of these tumors was vimentin-positive and S-100 protein negative, confirming their mesodermal nature but precluding the possibility of ectomesenchymal derivation. No reactivity for desmin was noted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Keratins/analysis
  8. Jayaram G, Looi LM
    Malays J Pathol, 1994 Jun;16(1):83-7.
    PMID: 16329582
    A five-month-old male baby presented with an abdominal mass which was found on computerised tomography (CT) to be involving the left kidney. Nephrectomy and histopathological study showed morphological featues of a malignant rhabdoid tumour. The tumour cells stained strongly for cytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen and less intensely for vimentin. Electron microscopy revealed concentric whorled arrays of intermediate filaments within the tumour cell cytoplasm. The child was put on post-operative chemotherapy and radiotherapy but developed bilateral lung metastases and died three months after surgery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Keratins/analysis
  9. Siar CH, Ng KH
    J Nihon Univ Sch Dent, 1995 Sep;37(3):163-9.
    PMID: 7490610
    The lining epithelium of 15 cases of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) was evaluated immunohistochemically. The peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique was applied to study the distribution of polyclonal keratin and S-100 protein while the indirect method was used to examine monoclonal vimentin and desmin reactivity. Consistent positive keratin staining was revealed in the lining epithelium of all 15 OKCs with additional intense staining in the stratum corneum. None of the cases showed vimentin or desmin reactivity within the lining epithelium elements. One of the 15 cysts studied showed positive S-100 protein staining in the nuclei of the lining epithelial cells. The pertinent literature on the immunophenotyping of the lining epithelium of OKC is reviewed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Keratins/analysis
  10. Looi LM, Cheah PL, Lin HP
    Pathology, 1992 Jan;24(1):34-6.
    PMID: 1374551
    Clear cell sarcoma of kidney (CCSK) is a rare but distinct tumor of childhood frequently confused with Wilms' tumor (nephroblastoma). It has a characteristic histology, a marked predilection for metastasis to bone, and an aggressive clinical course with a high relapse rate in spite of surgical excision, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We report the first histologically proven CCSK in a Malaysian patient. This was an 8-mth-old Malay boy who was clinically diagnosed to have stage I Wilms' tumor. Despite treatment, he developed multiple metastases 10 mths after initial presentation and died soon after. Emphasis is placed on recognizing this entity in view of (1) its naturally aggressive behaviour and (2) the prospect of improving prognosis with currently recommended intensified chemotherapeutic regimes. Its immunohistochemical profile of vimentin-positivity and negativity for epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratin and Factor-8 related antigen is more in favour of a mesenchymal or glomerular origin than a tubular or vascular origin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Keratins/analysis
  11. Wong SY, Lee CC, Ashrafzadeh A, Junit SM, Abrahim N, Hashim OH
    PLoS One, 2016;11(10):e0164993.
    PMID: 27741315 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0164993
    Proteome analysis of the human hair remains challenging due to the poor solubility of hair proteins and the difficulty in their extraction. In the present study, we have developed a rapid extraction protocol for hair shaft protein using alkaline-based buffer. The new protocol accelerated the procedure by reducing the extraction time from at least a day to less than two hours and showed a protein recovery of 47.3 ± 3.72%. Further analyses of the extracted protein sample through sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis unveiled a total of 60 proteins, including 25 that were not previously reported. Identification of these proteins is anticipated to be crucial in helping to understand the molecular basis of hair for potential applications in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Keratins/analysis
  12. Wong YP, Shah SA, Shaari N, Mohamad Esa MS, Sagap I, Isa NM
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(4):1725-30.
    PMID: 24641399
    Management of patients with stage II colorectal carcinomas remains challenging as 20 - 30% of them will develop recurrence. It is postulated that these patients may harbour nodal micrometastases which are imperceptible by routine histopathological evaluation. The aims of our study were to evaluate (1) the feasibility of multilevel sectioning method utilizing haematoxylin and eosin stain and immunohistochemistry technique with cytokeratin AE1/AE3, in detecting micrometastases in histologically-negative lymph nodes, and (2) correlation between nodal micrometastases with clinicopathological parameters. Sixty two stage I and II cases with a total of 635 lymph nodes were reviewed. Five-level haematoxylin and eosin staining and one-level cytokeratin AE1/AE3 immunostaining were performed on all lymph nodes retrieved. The findings were correlated with clinicopathological parameters. Two (3.2%) lymph nodes in two patients (one in each) were found to harbour micrometastases detected by both methods. With cytokeratin AE1/AE3, we successfully identified four (6.5%) patients with isolated tumour cells, but none through the multilevel sectioning method. Nodal micrometastases detected by both multilevel sectioning and immunohistochemistry methods were not associated with larger tumour size, higher depth of invasion, poorer tumour grade, disease recurrence or distant metastasis. We conclude that there is no difference between the two methods in detecting nodal micrometastases. Therefore it is opined that multilevel sectioning is a feasible and yet inexpensive method that may be incorporated into routine practice to detect nodal micrometastases in centres with limited resources.
    Matched MeSH terms: Keratins/analysis
  13. Ngeow WC, Zain RB, Yeo JF, Chai WL
    J Oral Sci, 2000 Mar;42(1):9-14.
    PMID: 10808269
    This was a retrospective study of odontogenic keratocysts in people from the Singapore-Malaysian region. The purpose of this study was to present the clinicopathologic features of odontogenic keratocysts in the Oriental population and to compare these data with those from other reported studies. Biopsy records from 1981 to 1992 of 61 cases of odontogenic keratocysts from patients in Malaysia and Singapore showed that 42.6% of patients were female and 57.4% of patients were male. Among patients with cysts, 75.4% were Chinese, 6.6% were Malays, 9.8% were Indians and 8.2% were other ethnic groups. The mean age of these patients was 26.98 +/- 15.38 years with a peak incidence occurring in the second to fourth decades. The location of the lesions was more often in the mandible (65.5%) than the maxilla (31.0%). There was a marked predilection for lesions to occur in the posterior mandible. Histologically, 90.2% of the cysts were lined with a para-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium while only 3.3% of the cysts were lined with orthokeratinized stratified squamous epithelium. Mixed para-keratinized and orthokeratinized epithelial linings were observed in 4 cases (6.5%). The cyst linings were mainly uninflamed (95.1%). Inflammation of the cyst wall was found in 42 cases (68.8%). Twelve (19.7%) cases contained keratin in the lumen. A satellite cyst was observed in only 6 cases (9.8%). In conclusion, most clinical and histological features seen in this study were similar to those found for Caucasians. The only clinical feature that was different was the peak age incidence, that ranged from the second to fourth decades, with an absence of a second peak. Odontogenic keratocysts presenting at the site of the dentigerous cyst were observed in 7 cases (11.5%).
    Matched MeSH terms: Keratins/analysis
  14. Sharifah NA, Muhaizan WM, Rahman J, Zulfikar A, Zahari Z
    Malays J Pathol, 1999 Dec;21(2):105-9.
    PMID: 11068415
    The cytological features of a rare case of undifferentiated (embryonal) sarcoma of the liver are presented. The cytology smears showed singly dispersed polygonal and spindle cells as well as loose clusters of cells held together in myxoid material. Neoplastic cells were generally large with round, oval or lobulated nuclei. The cytoplasm was variable in amount with ill-defined borders. Occasional multinucleated cells were also present. Hyaline globules were present on sections of the cell block. Immunohistochemical studies performed showed positivity for vimentin, cytokeratin and alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) in the tumour cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Keratins/analysis
  15. Chow HT
    PMID: 9830650
    The odontogenic keratocyst has been well documented and extensively studied. It is of particular interest because of its high recurrence rate and aggressive nature. The material for this study consisted of 70 cases of odontogenic keratocysts in predominantly ethnic Chinese patients who were treated from 1981 to 1996. The cases were retrospectively studied to compare characteristics of the lesion in this population with those in previous reports. Most of the patients in this series were 21 to 30 years of age. Association with an impacted mandibular third molar was found in more than 50% of the cases. The recurrence rate was 20% for 35 patients with a follow-up period of at least 5 years. The follow-up period for the whole series ranged from 1 to 16 years. Treatment was surgical enucleation with peripheral ostectomy. There were no significant differences in characteristics with respect to presentation and prognosis between this series and those described in previous publications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Keratins/analysis
  16. McCart Reed AE, Kalaw E, Nones K, Bettington M, Lim M, Bennett J, et al.
    J. Pathol., 2019 02;247(2):214-227.
    PMID: 30350370 DOI: 10.1002/path.5184
    Metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC) is relatively rare but accounts for a significant proportion of global breast cancer mortality. This group is extremely heterogeneous and by definition exhibits metaplastic change to squamous and/or mesenchymal elements, including spindle, squamous, chondroid, osseous, and rhabdomyoid features. Clinically, patients are more likely to present with large primary tumours (higher stage), distant metastases, and overall, have shorter 5-year survival compared to invasive carcinomas of no special type. The current World Health Organisation (WHO) diagnostic classification for this cancer type is based purely on morphology - the biological basis and clinical relevance of its seven sub-categories are currently unclear. By establishing the Asia-Pacific MBC (AP-MBC) Consortium, we amassed a large series of MBCs (n = 347) and analysed the mutation profile of a subset, expression of 14 breast cancer biomarkers, and clinicopathological correlates, contextualising our findings within the WHO guidelines. The most significant indicators of poor prognosis were large tumour size (T3; p = 0.004), loss of cytokeratin expression (lack of staining with pan-cytokeratin AE1/3 antibody; p = 0.007), EGFR overexpression (p = 0.01), and for 'mixed' MBC, the presence of more than three distinct morphological entities (p = 0.007). Conversely, fewer morphological components and EGFR negativity were favourable indicators. Exome sequencing of 30 cases confirmed enrichment of TP53 and PTEN mutations, and intriguingly, concurrent mutations of TP53, PTEN, and PIK3CA. Mutations in neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1) were also overrepresented [16.7% MBCs compared to ∼5% of breast cancers overall; enrichment p = 0.028; mutation significance p = 0.006 (OncodriveFM)], consistent with published case reports implicating germline NF1 mutations in MBC risk. Taken together, we propose a practically minor but clinically significant modification to the guidelines: all WHO_1 mixed-type tumours should have the number of morphologies present recorded, as a mechanism for refining prognosis, and that EGFR and pan-cytokeratin expression are important prognostic markers. Copyright © 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Matched MeSH terms: Keratins/analysis
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