Potato starch nanocrystals were found to serve as an effective reinforcing agent for natural rubber (NR). Starch nanocrystals were obtained by the sulfuric acid hydrolysis of potato starch granules. After mixing the latex and the starch nanocrystals, the resulting aqueous suspension was cast into film by solvent evaporation method. The composite samples were successfully prepared by varying filler loadings, using a colloidal suspension of starch nanocrystals and NR latex. The morphology of the nanocomposite prepared was analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). FESEM analysis revealed the size and shape of the crystal and their homogeneous dispersion in the composites. The crystallinity of the nanocomposites was studied using XRD analysis which indicated an overall increase in crystallinity with filler content. The mechanical properties of the nanocomposites such as stress-strain behavior, tensile strength, tensile modulus and elongation at break were measured according to ASTM standards. The tensile strength and modulus of the composites were found to improve tremendously with increasing nanocrystal content. This dramatic increase observed can be attributed to the formation of starch nanocrystal network. This network immobilizes the polymer chains leading to an increase in the modulus and other mechanical properties.
Here is presented a systematic study of the dispersibility of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in natural rubber latex (NR-latex) assisted by a series of single-, double-, and triple-sulfosuccinate anionic surfactants containing phenyl ring moieties. Optical polarising microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Raman spectroscopy have been performed to obtain the dispersion-level profiles of the MWCNTs in the nanocomposites. Interestingly, a triple-chain, phenyl-containing surfactant, namely sodium 1,5-dioxo-1,5-bis(3-phenylpropoxy)-3-((3-phenylpropoxy)carbonyl) pentane-2-sulfonate (TCPh), has a greater capacity the stabilisation of MWCNTs than a commercially available single-chain sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) surfactant. TCPh provides significant enhancements in the electrical conductivity of nanocomposites, up to ∼10(-2) S cm(-1), as measured by a four-point probe instrument. These results have allowed compilation of a road map for the design of surfactant architectures capable of providing the homogeneous dispersion of MWCNTs required for the next generation of polymer-carbon-nanotube materials, specifically those used in aerospace technology.
Chemical modification of natural rubber (NR) has frequently been attempted to improve the performance in specific application. 30% poly(methyl metacrylate) (PMMA) grafted into NR (MG30) has been explored as a potential candidate for polymer electrolytes. The complexation effect of salt and plasticizer in polymer host electrolytes had been investigated using FTIR. The carbonyl stretch of MG30 locates at 1729 cm-1, with the addition of lithium trimethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3) salt, new band evolves at lower frequency region at 1643-1645 cm-1. The nondegenerate vibrational mode of nus(SO3) of salted electrolytes appearing at 1031-1034 cm-1 comes from 'free' trimethanesulfonate anions and the 1040-1046 cm-1 absorption from the monodentate ion paired with triflates. These indicate MG30-salt interaction. When MG30 and ethylene carbonate (EC) formed film, the CH3 asymmetric bend of MG30 appearing at 1447cm-1 is shifted to 1449 cm-1 in the EC-polymer complex. The CO stretching at 1729 cm-1 also shifted to 1728 cm-1. Hence, the EC-MG30 system is complexed to each other. EC-LiCF3SO3 interactions are indicated by the shifting of CO bending band of EC from 718 cm-1 being shifted to 720 cm-1 in the complex. In Li+-EC interaction where the ring breathing region at 897 cm-1 in EC has shifted to 899 cm-1 in EC-salt spectrum. The band appearing at 1643-1645 cm-1 due to the coordination of Li+
Sensitization to natural rubber latex has been linked to proteins from medical latex gloves. Various assays to estimate the amount of residual allergenic proteins extractable from latex gloves to assess their potential exposure hazard have inherent weaknesses.
Many proteins derived from the latex of Hevea brasiliensis that remain soluble in trichloroacetic acid (TCA) can be precipitated by phosphotungstic acid (PTA). A combination of 5% TCA and 0.2% PTA precipitates a wide range of proteins effectively even when they are present in low concentrations (below 1 microgram ml-1). In addition to its protein purification function, acid precipitation also increases the sensitivity of the subsequent protein assay by allowing the test sample to be concentrated. Another advantage of protein precipitation by TCA and PTA is that very small amounts of protein (of the order of 10 micrograms) can be repeatably recovered without the use of precipitate-bulking agents such as sodium deoxycholate. This general procedure of protein purification and concentration is simple and rapid, but the use of PTA may not be fully compatible with the Bradford protein assay. A modified Lowry microassay is described which enables about 3 micrograms ml-1 to be quantitated at the photometric absorbance of 0.05. When used in conjunction with protein concentration by precipitating with TCA/PTA, approximately 0.4 microgram ml-1 protein present in 6 ml of solution can be assayed.
Two major water-insoluble proteins are located on the surface of rubber particles in Hevea brasiliensis latex. A 14.6 kd protein (Hev b 1), found mainly on large rubber particles (> 350 mm in diameter), and a 24 kd protein (Hev b 3), found mainly on small rubber particles (average diameter, 70 nm), are recognized by IgE from patients with spina bifida and latex allergy. Although Hev b 1 (also called the rubber elongation factor [REF]) has previously been reported as a major latex allergen, this conclusion has been disputed on the basis of results from other studies. The allergenicity of Hev b 1 is verified in this study by testing the recombinant protein generated from its gene. Because allergenicity is confined to patients with spina bifida and not observed in adults sensitive to latex, it is not a major latex allergen. The identification of Hev b 3 as another allergen originating from rubber particles is confirmed by immunogold labeling and electron microscopy. Observations with the monoclonal antibody USM/RC2 developed against Hev b 3 show that the protein has a tendency to fragment into several polypeptides of lower molecular weight (from 24 kd to about 5 kd) when stored at -20 degrees C. There is also indication of protein aggregation from the appearance of proteins with molecular weights greater than 24 kd. Fragmentation of Hev b 3 is induced immediately on he addition of latex B-serum, which is normally compartmentalized in the lutoids in fresh latex. In the preparation of ammoniated latex (used for the manufacture of latex products), the lutoids are ruptured, and the released B-serum reacts with Hev b 3 on the rubber particles to give rise to an array of low molecular weight polypeptides that are allergenic to patients with spina bifida.
Six Hevea brasiliensis latex protein allergens, Hevb 1, Hev b 2, Hev b 3, Hev b 4, and two variants of Hev b 7 (7b and 7c), were purified from Hevea latex, while a seventh protein, Hev b 5, was prepared in recombinant form. The presence of these proteins in glove extracts was indicated by their respective antibodies in the serum of rabbits immunized against the extracts. The relative propensities of IgE binding to the individual latex allergens were compared using sera from latex-allergic patients. IgE recognition of Hev b 4, Hev b 7b, Hev b 5 and Hev b 2 was most frequently encountered, with 75, 61, 31 and 28%, respectively, of the patient sera reacting. Sensitivity to multiple latex proteins was common, and out of the 31 seropositive patients, 23 (74%/ ) had IgE against at least two latex allergens, while 12 (39%) had IgE specific for at least three allergens. Statistical analysis of the data suggested that many patients might have acquired sensitivity to Hev b 2, Hev b 4 and Hev b 7b from a common source. (e.g., from latex products). On the other hand, sensitivity to Hev b 5 and to Hev b 7c were interrelated. It is plausible that sensitivity to these two proteins might have been acquired from sources other than latex products (e.g., from certain foods).
Glove wearing during patient treatment has been central to dental surgery infection control for over 15 years. However, little is known about the cutaneous effects of glove wearing on the hands of dental healthcare workers (DHCWs). The objective of this project was to assess the hand skin health of DHCWs before and after wearing gloves of two types and to compare this with a control group of non-DHCWs.
The natural rubber latex extracted from the bark of Hevea brasiliensis plays various important roles in today's modern society. Following ultracentrifugation, the latex can be separated into 3 layers: C-serum, lutoids, and rubber particles. Previous studies have shown that a large number of proteins are present in these 3 layers. However, a complete proteome for this important plant is still unavailable. Protein sequences have been recently translated from the completed draft genome database of H. brasiliensis, leading to the creation of annotated protein databases of the following H. brasiliensis biosynthetic pathways: photosynthesis, latex allergens, rubberwood formation, latex biosynthesis, and disease resistance. This research was conducted to identify the proteins contained within the latex by way of de novo sequencing from mass spectral data obtained from the 3 layers of the latex. Peptides from these proteins were fragmented using collision-induced dissociation, higher-energy collisional dissociation, and electron-transfer dissociation activation methods. A large percentage of proteins from the biosynthetic pathways (63% to 100%) were successfully identified. In addition, a total of 1839 unique proteins were identified from the whole translated draft genome database (AnnHBM).
Recurring reports of a highly allergenic 42-46-kDa protein in Hevea brasiliensis latex appeared to have been resolved with the discovery of a 43-kDa allergenic latex protein that was a homologue to patatin. However, the low to moderate prevalence of sensitization to the protein, designated Hev b 7, among latex-allergic patients could not adequately explain the frequent observations of the 42-46-kDa allergen. This led to the hypothesis that another, more allergenic protein of a similar molecular mass existed in Hevea latex. We report the isolation and purification of a 42.98-kDa latex glycoprotein showing homology to the early nodule-specific protein (ENSP) of the legumes Medicago sativa, Medicago truncatula, and Glycine max. The protein is allergenic, being recognized by immunoglobulin E (IgE) in sera from latex-allergic patients. The IgE epitope resides on the carbohydrate moiety of the protein, and the presence of a similar carbohydrate component on potato tuber patatin enables the latter to inhibit IgE binding to the ENSP homologue. The cDNA encoding the ENSP homologue was isolated by reverse transcription-PCR and cloned. The protein predicted from the cDNA sequence has 391 amino acids, the first 26 of which constitute a putative signal peptide. The deduced molecular mass of the mature protein is 40.40 kDa, while its isoelectric point is estimated at 5.0. The discrepancy between the predicted and observed molecular mass might be due to glycosylation, for which three N-sites on the protein are predicted. The purified protein showed lipase and esterase activities and may be involved in plant defense.
Latex from Hevea brasiliensis (natural rubber tree primarily cultivated for its rubber particles) has no known primary metabolic function, although its biological role is as a plant defence system. The present study has evaluated specific anti-proliferative effects of latex whole C-serum and its subfractions, on human cancer cell lines.
This study was to compare the effect of three different one-step polishing systems on the color stability of three different types of nanocomposites after immersion in coffee for one day and seven days and determine which nanocomposite material has the best color stability following polishing with each of the one-step polishing system.