Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 102 in total

  1. Mastura I
    PMID: 25606114
    Leadership in a huge and complex organisation like the Ministry of Health is important. The importance of leadership lies in the role it plays in defining the character, values and direction of an organization; and it's relation to organizational performance. Leadership is a quality that must be embedded within an organization for the organization to be successful and meet its objectives. Good leaders can be developed through a continuous process of self-study, education, training and experience. This concept of leadership also highlights the importance of seeking people with leadership talent, developing their potential and providing opportunities for them to lead.
    Matched MeSH terms: Leadership
  2. Ismail, Saimy B.
    JUMMEC, 2007;10(2):1-2.
    Leadership and management in health organisations are essential and frequent topics of discussion among professionals and other staff, who are directly or indirectly involved with the operation of the said organisations. In a hospital setting for example, managers are appointed at different functional or unit levels. Though more often than not, we refer to them as the heads or managers or by any other names, the leadership component might be assumed to be just part but not the most important aspect of their roles.(Copied from article).
    Matched MeSH terms: Leadership
  3. Ozono H, Jin N, Watabe M, Shimizu K
    Sci Rep, 2016 12 09;6:38349.
    PMID: 27934871 DOI: 10.1038/srep38349
    Punishment of non-cooperators-free riders-can lead to high cooperation in public goods games (PGG). However, second-order free riders, who do not pay punishment costs, reduce the effectiveness of punishment. Here we introduce a "leader support system," in which one group leader can freely punish group followers using capital pooled through the support of group followers. In our experiment, participants engage in three stages repeatedly: a PGG stage in which followers decide to cooperate for their group; a support stage in which followers decide whether to support the leader; and a punishment stage in which the leader can punish any follower. We compare a support-present condition with a no-support condition, in which there is an external source for the leader's punishment. The results show that punishment occurs more frequently in the support-present condition than the no-support condition. Within the former, both higher cooperation and higher support for a leader are achieved under linkage-type leaders-who punish both non-cooperators and non-supporters. In addition, linkage-type leaders themselves earn higher profits than other leader types because they withdraw more support. This means that leaders who effectively punish followers could increase their own benefits and the second-order free rider problem would be solved.
    Matched MeSH terms: Leadership
  4. Darzi S, Islam MT, Tiong SK, Kibria S, Singh M
    PLoS One, 2015;10(11):e0140526.
    PMID: 26552032 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0140526
    In this paper, stochastic leader gravitational search algorithm (SL-GSA) based on randomized k is proposed. Standard GSA (SGSA) utilizes the best agents without any randomization, thus it is more prone to converge at suboptimal results. Initially, the new approach randomly choses k agents from the set of all agents to improve the global search ability. Gradually, the set of agents is reduced by eliminating the agents with the poorest performances to allow rapid convergence. The performance of the SL-GSA was analyzed for six well-known benchmark functions, and the results are compared with SGSA and some of its variants. Furthermore, the SL-GSA is applied to minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) beamforming technique to ensure compatibility with real world optimization problems. The proposed algorithm demonstrates superior convergence rate and quality of solution for both real world problems and benchmark functions compared to original algorithm and other recent variants of SGSA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Leadership
  5. Varatharajoo, R.
    ASM Science Journal, 2011;5(2):153-155.
    Malaysia has adopted various strategies in developing its space sector. Indigenous space technologies would enable a sustainable growth of the space field and at the same time develop the strategic space technologies. Therefore, issues related to the current space research level are fundamentally crucial to be highlighted. Subsequently, the space focus areas can be derived in order to meet the expectations of the national and international space technology growth requirements, which are moving on to a stronger posture in R&D. In the absence of a strong R&D national space industry leadership, the Malaysian space sector remains in a traditional downstream mode of the world space technology supply chain ever since. The space technology supply chain can be divided into the ground segment and the space segment. This paper examines the current space research activities in Malaysia within the framework of the space technology supply chain. As a result, a preliminary gap in the overview of space research in Malaysia is established.
    Matched MeSH terms: Leadership
  6. Habshah, M., Syaiba, B.A.
    It is now evident that the estimation of logistic regression parameters, using Maximum LikelihoodEstimator (MLE), suffers a huge drawback in the presence of outliers. An alternative approach is touse robust logistic regression estimators, such as Mallows type leverage dependent weights estimator(MALLOWS), Conditionally Unbiased Bounded Influence Function estimator (CUBIF), Bianco andYohai estimator (BY), and Weighted Bianco and Yohai estimator (WBY). This paper investigates therobustness of the preceding robust estimators by using real data sets and Monte Carlo simulations. Theresults indicate that the MLE behaves poorly in the presence of outliers. On the other hand, the WBYestimator is more efficient than the other existing robust estimators. Thus, it is suggested that the WBYestimator be employed when outliers are present in the data to obtain a reliable estimate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Leadership
  7. Lee, J.S., Lim, L.S.
    This study was designed to elucidate the effects of osmotic dehydration of pumpkin slice prior to hot-air drying. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) with Central Composite Design was used to investigate the influence of three variables, namely sucrose concentration (30-60˚Brix), immersion temperature (35-65˚C) and immersion time (90-120 min). These factors increased the solid gains and decreased the water activity (aw) of the sample; while the temperature and sucrose solution concentration increased the water loss (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Leadership
  8. Olesen A, Amin L, Mahadi Z
    Dev World Bioeth, 2018 09;18(3):271-278.
    PMID: 30048029 DOI: 10.1111/dewb.12200
    INTRODUCTION: To explore academia perceptions and experience with unethical authorship practices in their respective institutions.

    METHOD: 21 in-depth interviews were carried out.

    RESULTS: Our analysis revealed variability in experiences with various types of unethical authorship practices among the interviewees. Second, we found that unethical authorship practices are not so unusual among academia although the exact numbers of incidents are unknown due to the fact that such practices are seldom reported. Third, our interviewees revealed that the culture of 'publish or perish' could be the main contributor to unethical practices of authorship because publication records are the main criteria for researcher's career evaluation besides, others, which are set by the university.

    CONCLUSION: It was suggested that the institution must play a proactive role in educating and promoting awareness on authorship guidelines, through education and training, ethical leadership as well as promoting the importance of publication ethics.

    Matched MeSH terms: Leadership
  9. Choi, Mui Fong, Florianna Lendai Michael Mulok, Helmi Sumilan
    There has been only limited research focused on the assumption of leader stress and affective well-being. Hence, this study aims to determine the relationship between leadership style and employee stress level at workplace. This study primarily took a quantitative approach for data collection and analysis. Questionnaires were distributed at three branches of banks located in Kuching, Sarawak and to their employees. The findings show that there is a relationship between autocratic leadership style and employee stress level at workplace. The strength of the relationship is weak due to r = .461, p = .002. The findings also show that democratic leadership and transformational leadership have no relationship with the employee stress level at workplace.
    Matched MeSH terms: Leadership
  10. Mohamad Izzuan Mohd Ishar, Mohd Khata Jabor
    This study is a survey to identify the formation of leadership skills through teaching practice.
    Leadership skills consist of three basic skills of technical skills, interpersonal skills and conceptual
    skills. The study also examined the relationship between the formations of leadership skills with the
    course of study and identifies the differences in formation of leadership skills during teaching practice
    conducted in rural schools and urban schools. The study was conducted through survey method by
    using questionnaires. Meanwhile, the population involved were students of Faculty of Education,
    UTM. Analysis of the findings of this study is using SPSS 17.0 by descriptive and inferential. The
    results of this study show that the formation of leadership skills through teaching practice is high at
    85.4%. For inferential statistical results showed there was no significant relationship to formation of
    leadership skills with the course of study and there was no significant difference in relationship between the formation of leadership skills through teaching practice conducted in rural schools and
    urban schools. In conclusion, all the elements of leadership skills can be formed and developed through
    teaching practice and will be improved from time to time. Meanwhile, there was no significant
    relationship to the formation of leadership skills through teaching practice with the course of study and
    with the different of teaching practice location.
    Matched MeSH terms: Leadership
  11. Lee L, Patrick W, Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2002;14(1):47-8.
    PMID: 12597519
    Matched MeSH terms: Leadership*
  12. Sprong S, Jetten J, Wang Z, Peters K, Mols F, Verkuyten M, et al.
    Psychol Sci, 2019 11;30(11):1625-1637.
    PMID: 31566081 DOI: 10.1177/0956797619875472
    Societal inequality has been found to harm the mental and physical health of its members and undermine overall social cohesion. Here, we tested the hypothesis that economic inequality is associated with a wish for a strong leader in a study involving 28 countries from five continents (Study 1, N = 6,112), a study involving an Australian community sample (Study 2, N = 515), and two experiments (Study 3a, N = 96; Study 3b, N = 296). We found correlational (Studies 1 and 2) and experimental (Studies 3a and 3b) evidence for our prediction that higher inequality enhances the wish for a strong leader. We also found that this relationship is mediated by perceptions of anomie, except in the case of objective inequality in Study 1. This suggests that societal inequality enhances the perception that society is breaking down (anomie) and that a strong leader is needed to restore order (even when that leader is willing to challenge democratic values).
    Matched MeSH terms: Leadership*
  13. Ali N, Tretiakov A, Whiddett D, Hunter I
    Int J Med Inform, 2017 01;97:331-340.
    PMID: 27919392 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2016.11.004
    PURPOSE: To deliver high-quality healthcare doctors need to access, interpret, and share appropriate and localised medical knowledge. Information technology is widely used to facilitate the management of this knowledge in healthcare organisations. The purpose of this study is to develop a knowledge management systems success model for healthcare organisations.

    METHOD: A model was formulated by extending an existing generic knowledge management systems success model by including organisational and system factors relevant to healthcare. It was tested by using data obtained from 263 doctors working within two district health boards in New Zealand.

    RESULTS: Of the system factors, knowledge content quality was found to be particularly important for knowledge management systems success. Of the organisational factors, leadership was the most important, and more important than incentives.

    CONCLUSION: Leadership promoted knowledge management systems success primarily by positively affecting knowledge content quality. Leadership also promoted knowledge management use for retrieval, which should lead to the use of that better quality knowledge by the doctors, ultimately resulting in better outcomes for patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Leadership*
  14. Rahim AF, Hitam WH, Alwi MN, Ghazali G, Rahim SZ
    PMID: 22977384
    To aid future curriculum revision and planning, a batch of newly graduated medical students were surveyed using a questionnaire containing items representing possible areas of concern during house-officership. Students rated items representing communication issues as areas of concern. They did not agree that areas concerning responsibilities as a doctor, continuing medical education, theoretical and practical skills and potentially stressful working conditions were problem areas. Communication skills should remain among the priority areas for undergraduate training. Students should also be given more information about the house-officership period prior to graduation. Further study is needed to confirm perceived strengths of the USM curriculum suggested by the study, which are skills in finding resources for further learning and skills in leadership. A task-analysis of the house-officership period is also needed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Leadership
  15. Dirilen-Gumus O
    Int J Psychol, 2017 Dec;52 Suppl 1:35-44.
    PMID: 26939908 DOI: 10.1002/ijop.12264
    This study aims at comparing operational codes (namely, philosophical and instrumental beliefs about the political universe) of political leaders from different cultures. According to Schwartz (2004), cultures can be categorised into 3 dimensions: autonomy-embeddedness, egalitarianism-hierarchy and mastery-harmony. This study draws upon the 1st dimension (akin to the most popular cultural dimension of Hofstede: individualism-collectivism) and focuses on comparing the leaders of autonomous and embedded cultures based on how cooperative/conflictual they are. The main research hypothesis is as follows: the leaders of embedded cultures would be more cooperative than the leaders of autonomous cultures. For this purpose, 3 autonomous cultures (the UK, Canada and Australia) and embedded cultures (Singapore, South Africa and Malaysia) cultures were chosen randomly and the cooperativeness of the correspondent countries' leaders were compared after being profiled by Profiler Plus. The results indicated that the leaders of embedded cultures were significantly more cooperative than autonomous cultures after holding the control variables constant. The findings were discussed in the light of relevant literature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Leadership
  16. Janes G
    Nurse Educ Pract, 2006 Mar;6(2):87-97.
    PMID: 19040861 DOI: 10.1016/j.nepr.2005.09.003
    This paper analyses the experience of one individual in the development and delivery of an innovative, undergraduate leadership development module. The module is accessed by practising health care professionals in Malaysia as part of a top-up Honours Degree and is delivered solely using a virtual learning environment (VLE), in this case Blackboard. The aim of this analysis is to contribute to the current body of knowledge regarding the use of VLE technology to facilitate learning at a distance. Of particular relevance is the paper's focus on: the drivers for e-learning; widening participation and increasing access; the experience of designing and delivering learning of relevance for this contemporary student population and evaluating the VLE experience/module. The development and delivery of this module is one result of a rapidly growing area of education. As a novice teacher in her first year in the higher education sector, this experience was a significant and stimulating challenge for a number of reasons and these are explored in greater depth. This is achieved by means of personal reflection using the phases of module development and delivery as a focus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Leadership
  17. Khatijah, L.A.
    JUMMEC, 2007;10(2):37-42.
    Leadership style has been shown to be an important determinant of organisational success. The aim of this preliminary study was to develop an understanding of leadership style of three employees with leadership responsibility in a hospital. All the participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire around a framework on leadership behaviours followed by self administered T-P leadership questionnaire and voluntary completion of a leadership perception survey by each of the participant’s colleagues. The results suggest that whilst individuals are aspiring to be transformational in style, key barriers such as organisational culture, inter-professional dynamics and lack of leadership development meant responses more characteristic of a transactional style were encountered. There is a need to have joint responsibility between developing the individual leadership style and the organisation that facilitates such development for their leaders. The author concludes that a more analytical approach to leadership and mentorship opportunities for developments is required.
    Matched MeSH terms: Leadership
  18. Rafidah Bahari, Muhammad Najib Mohamed Alwi
    Objective: The aim of this paper is to examine medical students’ views on the usefulness of a community project as a venue to train professionalism. Methods:Medical students at Cyberjaya University College of Medical Sciences (CUCMS) were surveyed following psychiatry community projects organized during year 4 undergraduate attachments in psychiatry. Results: A total of 176 students returned the survey forms. A majority of medical students thought that the psychiatry community project promotes teamwork and leadership skills. About a quarter thought that it helped foster their communication ability and encouraged them to be more reflective in their daily lives. These findings were translated into the potential of the community project to train “collaborative” and “managerial” affective domain learning outcomes of the university. Conclusions: The findings indicate that psychiatry community project or similar programmes may be useful tools to train several elements of medical professionalism. Future research however should utilise specific measurements to confirm this finding.
    Matched MeSH terms: Leadership
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