Displaying all 18 publications

  1. Aruna Devi A, Abu Hassan A, Kumara TK, Che Salmah MR
    Trop Biomed, 2011 Dec;28(3):524-30.
    PMID: 22433881
    The life history of the male and female of the indoor forensic fly, Synthesiomyia nudiseta was studied under fluctuating temperature of indoor environments and analysed based on the age-stage and two sex life table. The life cycle of S. nudiseta was 14.0±1.0 days from the egg stage to adult emergence. The population parameters calculated were; net reproduction rate (R(o)= 108.6), mean generation time (T(o)= 12.2), intrinsic rate of increase (r(m)= 0.38), and finite rate of increase (λ= 1.46). The pre-oviposition period (APOP) was 6.0± 0.1 days. All population parameters suggested that S. nudiseta exhibits the r-strategist characteristics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Life Tables*
  2. Nur Idayu Ah Khaliludin, Zarina Mohd Khalid, Haliza Abd.Rahman
    MATEMATIKA, 2019;35(2):177-186.
    Life table is a table that shows mortality experience of a nation. However, in Malaysia, the information in this table is provided in the five-years age groups (abridged) instead of every one-year age. Hence, this study aims to estimate the one-year age mor- tality rates from the abridged mortality rates using several interpolation methods. We applied Kostaki method and the Akima spline method to five sets of Malaysian group mortality rates ranging from period of 2012 to 2016. The result were then compared with the one-year mortality rates. We found that the method by Akima is the best method for Malaysian mortality experience as it gives the least minimum of sum of square errors. The method does not only provide a good fit but also, shows a smooth mortality curve.
    Matched MeSH terms: Life Tables
  3. Hashim NA, Ahmad AH, Rawi CS, Tahir NA, Basari N
    PMID: 18567442
    Life tables were constructed for twelve cohorts of immature stages of the dengue vector Ae. albopictus in a wooded area of Penang, Malaysia. The development time of Ae. albopictus ranged from 6 to 10 days depending on the mean environmental temperature (r = - 0.639, p < 0.05). Total cohort mortality was correlated with total development time (r = 0.713, p < 0.05) but not temperature (r = -0.477, p > 0.05). Rainfall was correlated with neither development time (r = 0.554, p > 0.05) nor mortality (r = 0.322, p > 0.05). There was a significant difference among the total mortality that occurred in the twelve cohorts (H = 119.783, df = 11, p < 0.05). There was also a significant difference in mortality among the different stages (H = 274.00, df = 4, p < 0.05).
    Matched MeSH terms: Life Tables*
  4. Arifah Bahar, Siti Rohani Mohd Nor, Fadhilah Yusof
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:1337-1347.
    The growing number of multi-population mortality models in the recent years signifies the mortality improvement in
    developed countries. In this case, there exists a narrowing gap of sex-differential in life expectancy between populations;
    hence multi-population mortality models are designed to assimilate the correlation between populations. The present
    study considers two extensions of the single-population Lee-Carter model, namely the independent model and augmented
    common factor model. The independent model incorporates the information between male and female separately
    whereas the augmented common factor model incorporates the information between male and female simultaneously.
    The methods are demonstrated in two perspectives: First is by applying them to Malaysian mortality data and second
    is by comparing the significance of the methods to the annuity pricing. The performances of the two methods are then
    compared in which has been found that the augmented common factor model is more superior in terms of historical fit,
    forecast performance, and annuity pricing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Life Tables
  5. Win SS, Muhamad R, Ahmad ZA, Adam NA
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2011 May;22(1):25-35.
    PMID: 24575207 MyJurnal
    Survival and fertility characteristics of the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens were assessed in the laboratory and field. Life tables and population parameters of the BPH were constructed in an environment with unlimited food supply and that was free of natural enemies. The highest mortality occurred in the immature stage, especially in the first and second instars. The life table analysis showed that the population density of BPH decreased gradually. The survival ratio of male to female was 0.512:0.488. The females lived for a maximum of 20 days. The trend of oviposition showed a peak at around the tenth day of the female life. The highest number of eggs produced per female per day was 9.63. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) in egg production per female per day was 0.0677 and the daily finite of increase (λ) was 1.0688 females per female per day, with a mean generation time (T) of 34.05 days. The net reproductive rate (Ro) of the population was 10.02. The population doubling time (DT) was 10.42 days.
    Matched MeSH terms: Life Tables
  6. Beulens JWJ, Fransen HP, Struijk EA, Boer JMA, de Wit GA, Onland-Moret NC, et al.
    Eur. J. Epidemiol., 2017 04;32(4):317-326.
    PMID: 28409278 DOI: 10.1007/s10654-017-0247-x
    The relation of alcohol consumption with disease burden remains debated partly due to opposite associations with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. The relation of alcohol consumption with disease burden expressed in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) summarizes opposing associations of alcohol consumption on chronic diseases. This study aimed to investigate the association of alcohol consumption with chronic disease burden expressed in DALYs based on individual-participant data. The study was a prospective study among 33,066 men and women from the EPIC-NL cohort. At baseline, alcohol consumption was assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Participants were followed for occurrence of and mortality from chronic diseases and DALYs were calculated. After 12.4 years follow-up, 6647 disease incidences and 1482 deaths were documented, resulting in 68,225 healthy years of life lost (6225 DALYs). Moderate drinkers (women 5-14.9 g/day, men 5-29.9 g/day) had a lower chronic disease burden (mean DALYs -0.27; 95% CI -0.43; -0.11) than light drinkers (0-4.9 g/day), driven by a lower disease burden due to CVD (-0.18: -0.29; -0.06) but not cancer (-0.05: -0.16; 0.06). The associations were most pronounced among older participants (≥50 years; -0.32; -0.53; -0.10) and not observed among younger women (-0.08; -0.43; 0.35), albeit non-significant (pinteraction > 0.14). Substantial drinking (women 15-29.9 g/day, men 30-59.9 g/day) compared to light drinking was not associated with chronic disease burden. Our results show that moderate compared to light alcohol consumption was associated with living approximately 3 months longer in good health. These results were mainly observed among older participants and not seen among younger women.
    Matched MeSH terms: Life Tables*
  7. Ibrahim YB, Yee TS
    J. Econ. Entomol., 2000 Aug;93(4):1085-9.
    PMID: 10985016
    Effects of sublethal exposure to abamectin on the biological performance of Neoseiulus longispinosus (Evans) were studied under ambient laboratory conditions of 28 +/- 2 degrees C and 80 +/- 15% RH with 24 h light. The red form of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, complex (Acari: Tetranychidae), was offered as prey. The LC50 obtained from the contact bioassay at 48 h after treatment was 0.015 ppm (AI). A big change in kill for a given variation in dosage for the regression slope probably indicated that abamectin was unlikely selective. Sublethal exposure to abamectin caused a reduction in survival with the female reaching 50% mortality by the sixth day and the male 4 d later. The mean preoviposition period was extended by almost 1 d, whereas the mean oviposition period was shortened by almost 5 d causing a reduction in the mean fecundity female-1 to almost half that of the untreated females. The net reproductive rate (Ro), the intrinsic rate of increase (rm), and the finite rate of increase (lambda) of the treated females were markedly inferior. Treated males were seriously affected; the mean life span was almost half that of the untreated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Life Tables
  8. Arumugam K, Omar SZ
    Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol, 1992 May;32(2):154-7.
    PMID: 1520202
    The study investigates the use of the various parameters of the semen analysis in predicting the fertility outcome in 82 infertile couples. The sperm density, % progressive motility, % normal morphology were divided into 'normal' and 'abnormal' based on the criteria proposed by WHO. The subsequent cumulative pregnancy rates were then calculated according to this criteria. A life-table method of analysis was used. All female related fertility factors were excluded. With the exception of a sperm density of less than 20 x 10(6) per ml the other parameters showed no significant correlation with the cumulative pregnancy rates at 12 months or 24 months respectively. We concluded that the semen analysis does not predict the probable outcome of the subsequent rates even when female fertility related factors were excluded apart from a sperm density less than 20 x 10(6) per ml.
    Matched MeSH terms: Life Tables
  9. Farr G, Amatya R
    Adv Contracept, 1994 Jun;10(2):137-49.
    PMID: 7942261
    The clinical performance of the Copper T380A (TCu380A) and the Multiload 250 (MLCu250) intrauterine devices (IUDs) were evaluated for 12 months in a group of women who had one of the two IUDs inserted. Results are from a randomized clinical trial conducted at four collaborating research sites located in three developing countries. The gross cumulative life-table pregnancy rate of the TCu380A IUD was significantly lower than the rate with the MLCu250 IUD at 12 months (0.5 and 1.2, respectively, p < 0.01). No statistically significant differences between the two study IUDs were found with regard to IUD expulsion or IUD removal due to bleeding/pain, personal reasons, medical reasons, or planned pregnancy. TCu380A IUD users were more likely to report experiencing increased dysmenorrhea (p < 0.01) or intermenstrual pelvic pain (p < 0.01) than were MLCu250 IUD users. However, few of these users discontinued use of their assigned IUD because of having experienced menstrual bleeding disturbances or intermenstrual pelvic pain. These data indicate that the TCu380A IUD may be a better option than the MLCu250 IUD for women wishing to practice highly effective long-term birth control without having to resort to hormonal methods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Life Tables
  10. Lun KC
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 1995 May;24(3):382-92.
    PMID: 7574420
    General life tables for the 1990 Singapore resident population are given in this paper. Analyses were carried out separately for males and females for all ethnic groups as well as for Chinese, Malays and Indians. Average fractions of the last age interval lived were used to give a more precise derivation of the life table death rates from their corresponding age-specific death rates. The results show that in 1990, Singapore males had achieved a life expectancy at birth of 73.7 years while the females had attained a level of 78.6 years. These levels were comparable to those of many developed countries. Other interesting features include higher differentials in the life expectancies between sexes among the Chinese and the Indians taking over the Malays for second placing in terms of life expectancy at birth for both sexes. As a result, the Indians registered a 12% gain in life expectancy at birth for males for the decade 1980 to 1990, compared to only 7.1% for Chinese and 4.4% for Malays as well as nearly 10% for females compared to only 6.2% for Chinese and 6.3% for Malays. A subsequent paper will highlight the results of multiple-decrement life table analyses which will summarise the mortality of the 1990 Singapore resident population for various component causes of death rather than for all causes combined.
    Matched MeSH terms: Life Tables*
  11. Fix AG
    Hum. Biol., 1991 Apr;63(2):211-20.
    PMID: 2019414
    An excess of male over female deaths is characteristic of modern national populations, whereas in some high-mortality societies female mortality exceeds that of males. Among the Semai Senoi, a Malaysian Orang Asli ("aboriginal") population, women experienced higher mortality than males in the decades before 1969. This differential occurred in all age classes older than 15 years so that the sex ratio progressively increased with age. A recent (1987) restudy of the Semai population found that sex-specific differential mortality is much reduced. A comparison of the 1969 and 1987 life tables shows a sharp shift in the sex ratios of mortality for the post-15-year-old age classes (the geometric means of age classes 15-44 were 0.768 in 1969 and 0.997 in 1987) so that male and female expectations of further life at age 15 are now nearly identical. In contrast to the best-known cases of high female mortality (mostly in South Asia), Semai sex differential mortality does not include the childhood ages. The Semai have traditionally been relatively sexually egalitarian, and sex bias in care has not occurred. Analysis of sex-specific causes of death for the pre-1969 population suggests that maternal mortality is the major cause of the excess female deaths. The reduced number of maternal deaths seems largely due to better health care, particularly the availability of hospital services. Interestingly, the reduction in female mortality has occurred simultaneously with increased fertility, and overall mortality has continued at relatively high levels (eO less than 36). Thus, rather than forming a component of a unitary demographic transition, declining sex differences in mortality can be accounted for by a specific factor, better maternal care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Life Tables*
  12. Karuppanan P, Thurmond MC, Gardner IA
    Prev Vet Med, 1997 May;30(2):171-9.
    PMID: 9234420
    A study was undertaken to develop the use of survivorship methods in characterizing the magnitude of culling and in testing for differences in culling among dairy herds. A prospective observational study was conducted on nine herds representing 19482 cows. The cull rate derived from survivorship data was estimated as the weighted slope of the cumulative proportion of cows remaining in a herd after first parturition, where cumulative proportion was computed using a cohort life-table with intervals of 1 month. Cull rates ranged from 9.0-13.8% per 12 months of age, compared with culling density rates of 22.2-39.7 culled per 100 cow-years. Comparison of ranks of density rates, weighted-slope rates and median ages at culling among the herds illustrated that the measures were not interchangeable. An advantage of a survivorship approach to measuring culling was illustrated by the use of the Cox proportional hazards model that tested for differences in cull rates among herds. Results suggested that variation in culling among herds during the first lactation, and particularly during the first part of the first lactation, may be an important consideration in future studies of optimal culling practices. In addition to being able to compare culling among herds, a survivorship approach to measuring culling provides an estimate of the rate of removal that is not biased by age, in contrast to currently used methods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Life Tables
  13. Zaini A, Khir A, Doi SA, Chan SP, Paramsothy M, Khoo BH
    J. Int. Med. Res., 1992 Jun;20(3):279-88.
    PMID: 1397673
    To evaluate the effects of simple compensated fixed-dose iodine-131 therapy for thyrotoxicosis, the long-term results for 74 patients treated with a fixed dose of iodine-131 ranging from 5 to 12 mCi (185 to 444 MBq) were evaluated in the first 2 years of a trial. The dose selected was loosely based on the gross size of the thyroid gland. Routine antithyroid drug therapy was given for a minimum of 3 months after iodine-131 therapy. The mean (+/- SD) duration of follow-up was 74.5 +/- 42 months. The results indicated that roughly 25% of patients treated in this way will become hypothyroid after 5 years and that 85% are cured (need no further therapy during the follow-up period) using a single dose of iodine-131. Of those cured using a single iodine-131 dose, 81% were no longer receiving drugs after 6 months and 85% after 1 year. Such a regimen seems currently to be among the best available where prolonged periods of medication-free euthyroidism after therapy are sought.
    Matched MeSH terms: Life Tables
  14. Tan QY, Zomer E, Owen AJ, Chin KL, Liew D
    Tob Control, 2020 01;29(1):111-117.
    PMID: 30610080 DOI: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2018-054677
    BACKGROUND: The loss of productivity arising from tobacco use in low/middle-income countries has not been well described. We sought to examine the impact of cigarette smoking on population health and work productivity in Malaysia using a recently published measure, the productivity-adjusted life year (PALY).

    METHODS: A life table model was constructed using published Malaysian demographic and mortality data. Our analysis was limited to male smokers due to the low smoking prevalence in females (1.1%). Male smokers aged 15-64 years were followed up until 65 years or until death. The population attributable risk, health-related quality of life decrements and relative reduction in productivity due to smoking were sourced from published data. The analysis was repeated assuming the cohorts were never smokers, and the differences in outcomes represented the health and productivity burden conferred by smoking. The cost of productivity loss was estimated based on the gross domestic product per equivalent full-time worker in Malaysia.

    RESULTS: Tobacco use is highly prevalent among working-age males in Malaysia, with 4.2 million (37.5%) daily smokers among men aged between 15 and 64 years. Overall, our model estimated that smoking resulted in the loss of over 2.1 million life years (2.9%), 5.5 million (8.2%) quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and 3.0 million (4.8%) PALYs. Smoking was estimated to incur RM275.3 billion (US$69.4 billion) in loss of productivity.

    CONCLUSION: Tobacco use imposes a significant public health and economic burden among working-age males in Malaysia. This study highlights the need of effective public health interventions to reduce tobacco use.

    Matched MeSH terms: Life Tables
  15. Wan KS, Moy FM, Mohd Yusof K, Mustapha FI, Mohd Ali Z, Hairi NN
    PLoS One, 2020;15(10):e0240531.
    PMID: 33035261 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0240531
    BACKGROUND: Clinical inertia can lead to poor glycemic control among type 2 diabetes patients. However, there is paucity of information on clinical inertia in low- and middle-income countries including Malaysia. This study aimed to determine the time to treatment intensification among T2D patients with HbA1c of ≥7% (≥53 mmol/mol) in Malaysian public health clinics. The proportion of patients with treatment intensification and its associated factors were also determined.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a five-year retrospective open cohort study using secondary data from the National Diabetes Registry. The study setting was all public health clinics (n = 47) in the state of Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Time to treatment intensification was defined as the number of years from the index year until the addition of another oral antidiabetic drug or initiation of insulin. Life table survival analysis based on best-worst case scenarios was used to determine the time to treatment intensification. Discrete-time proportional hazards model was fitted for the factors associated with treatment intensification.

    RESULTS: The mean follow-up duration was 2.6 (SD 1.1) years. Of 7,646 patients, the median time to treatment intensification was 1.29 years (15.5 months), 1.58 years (19.0 months) and 2.32 years (27.8 months) under the best-, average- and worst-case scenarios respectively. The proportion of patients with treatment intensification was 45.4% (95% CI: 44.2-46.5), of which 34.6% occurred only after one year. Younger adults, overweight, obesity, use of antiplatelet medications and poorer HbA1c were positively associated with treatment intensification. Patients treated with more oral antidiabetics were less likely to have treatment intensification.

    CONCLUSION: Clinical inertia is present in the management of T2D patients in Malaysian public health clinics. We recommend further studies in lower- and middle-income countries to explore its causes so that targeted strategies can be developed to address this issue.

    Matched MeSH terms: Life Tables
  16. Lim RB, Zheng H, Yang Q, Cook AR, Chia KS, Lim WY
    BMC Public Health, 2013;13:1012.
    PMID: 24160733 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-1012
    The increase in life expectancy and the persistence of expectancy gaps between different social groups in the 20th century are well-described in Western developed countries, but less well documented in the newly industrialised countries of Asia. Singapore, a multiethnic island-state, has undergone a demographic and epidemiologic transition concomitant with economic development. We evaluate secular trends and differences in life expectancy by ethnicity and gender in Singapore, from independence to the present.
    Matched MeSH terms: Life Tables
  17. Dunson TR, McLaurin VL, Israngkura B, Leelapattana B, Mukherjee R, Perez-Palacios G, et al.
    Contraception, 1993 Aug;48(2):109-19.
    PMID: 8403908 DOI: 10.1016/0010-7824(93)90002-O
    A comparative multicenter clinical trial of two low-dose combined oral contraceptives (OCs) was conducted in Malaysia, Egypt, Thailand, and Mexico. Efficacy, safety and acceptability were investigated in women taking either a norgestrel-based (NG) OC or a norethindrone acetate-based (NA) OC. This paper includes analysis of 892 women, all of whom were at least 42 days but within 26 weeks postpartum and randomly allocated to one of the above OCs. Follow-up visits were scheduled at 1, 4, 8 and 12 months after admission. Baseline sociodemographic characteristics were similar for both groups, as well as compliance. There were nine unintended pregnancies reported; eight of these occurring in the NA group. Adverse experiences were minor with headaches and dizziness being the most common complaints; frequency of reports was similar in both groups. The group taking the NG-based OC had significantly (p < .05) fewer menstrual-related complaints. Discontinuations due to menstrual problems were significantly more common among NA users (primarily amenorrhea). Discontinuations in the NG group were primarily for other personal reasons, e.g. unable to return to the clinic. There was also a significant difference between the two groups for the 11-month gross cumulative life table discontinuation rates due to menstrual problems (p < .01); the NA group had the higher rate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Life Tables
  18. Salim AS
    Intern. Med., 1993 May;32(5):359-64.
    PMID: 8400493
    This prospective randomized study investigated the possibility that duodenal ulcer relapse associated with Helicobacter Pylori infection is mediated by oxygen-derived free radicals. To this end, the radical scavengers allopurinol (50 mg 4 times daily) and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO, 500 mg 4 times daily) were administered orally. One hundred and forty-six consecutive patients with previous symptomatic endoscopy proven duodenal ulceration, which had been shown endoscopically to have healed in the presence of gastric mucosal infection with Helicobacter Pylori, were randomized to receive for the period of one year either placebo, or cimetidine 400 mg at bedtime, or allopurinol, or DMSO. In one hundred and twenty-six patients evaluable for efficacy, the cumulative relapse at one year was: placebo 47%, cimetidine 24%, allopurinol 6% and DMSO 6%. Cimetidine was significantly effective in preventing the relapse (p < 0.01), however allopurinol and DMSO were superior to cimetidine in this respect (p < 0.05). In the patients who relapsed, ulcer recurrence tended to occur early in those on placebo and cimetidine and to be evenly distributed over the year in those on free radical scavenging therapy. In all groups, ulcer recurrence throughout the maintenance year was more frequently symptomatic than silent. The incidence of infection with Helicobacter Pylori was not influenced by any of the regimens employed and the bacterium was detected with every relapse noted in this study and during the follow-up endoscopy which was carried out at 6 months and at 12 months during the maintenance year. The results suggest that oxygen-derived free radicals are involved in the relapse of duodenal ulceration in patients infected with Helicobacter Pylori.
    Matched MeSH terms: Life Tables
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