Linoleic acid (LA) is converted to per-carboxylic acid catalyzed by an immobilized lipase from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435). This per-carboxylic acid is only intermediate and epoxidized itself in good yields and almost without consecutive reactions. Monoepoxide linoleic acid 9(12)-10(13)-monoepoxy 12(9)-octadecanoic acid (MEOA) was optimized using D-optimal design. At optimum conditions, higher yield% (82.14) and medium oxirane oxygen content (OOC) (4.91%) of MEOA were predicted at 15 μL of H(2)O(2), 120 mg of Novozym 435, and 7 h of reaction time. In order to develop better-quality biolubricants, pour point (PP), flash point (FP), viscosity index (VI), and oxidative stability (OT) were determined for LA and MEOA. The results showed that MEOA exhibited good low-temperature behavior with PP of -41(°)C. FP of MEOA increased to 128(°)C comparing with 115(°)C of LA. In a similar fashion, VI for LA was 224 generally several hundred centistokes (cSt) more viscous than MEOA 130.8. The ability of a substance to resist oxidative degradation is another important property for biolubricants. Therefore, LA and MEOA were screened to measure their OT which was observed at 189 and 168(°)C, respectively.
The aim of this study was to investigate the oxidative stability, antioxidant activity and fatty acid composition of 2 minutes microwave pre-treated kenaf seed oil (MKSO) in comparison with the untreated kenaf seed oil (KSO) under accelerated storage for 24 days. Results obtained on oxidative stability for both KSO and MKSO by the end of storage with PV were 9.83 meq O2 /kg and 8.97 meq O2 /kg, respectively; p-Anv were 17.28 and 13.48, respectively; TOTOX value of 36.94 and 31.42, respectively; IV value were measured 84.50 g of I2 / 100 g and 84.34 g of I2 / 100 g oil, respectively; FFA value of 5.67 mg KOH/100g oil and 5.14 mg KOH/100g oil, respectively. Aside from that, the antioxidant activity in MKSO was better than KSO. For the fatty acid composition, the oleic and linoleic acids were affected significantly throughout storage for both KSO and MKSO. MKSO presented a better overall oxidative stability, antioxidant activity and retained higher content of MUFA and PUFA significantly (p< 0.05) upon accelerated storage.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on fatty acid composition, lipoprotein content, lipid peroxidation, and meat colour of broiler chickens. A total of 180 broiler chickens were allocated to 3 dietary treatments (0, 2.5, and 5% Lutrell) and given a standard broiler starter diet and finisher diet. Body weight of chickens and feed intake were recorded weekly. After slaughter, the breast meat was aged at 4 °C for 0, 3, and 6 days. The fatty acid composition was measured in the breast meat. Body weight (BW) and feed efficiency were decreased by dietary CLA level (P < 0.05). Chicken fed with 2.5% Lutrell had the highest feed intake compared to the control (CON) group. The total CLA increased significantly (P < 0.05) in breast meat from birds supplemented with CLA. Propensity for lipid peroxidation was significantly higher after 6 days of meat storage (P < 0.05) and the redness in chicken breast meat was lower in CLA-fed birds (P < 0.05). It is also notable that a 5% Lutrell supplementation decreased the plasma total cholesterol (TC), low density protein (LDL), and HDL (high-density lipoprotein)/LDL ratio in chickens (P < 0.05).
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of isomers of linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6), which is mostly found in the ruminant meat and dairy products. The CLA is known to have many potential health benefits, and considered a potent powerful fatty acid, which is linked to animal and human health. The present work aims to discuss the source and production, mechanism of action, and effects of CLA on humans, poultry, and ruminants by reviewing the recent studies carried out on CLA. Despite most of the recent studies indicating beneficial effects of CLA on improving body weight control parameters, its effects on reducing risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), inflammation, blood glucose, and insulin are still controversial, and need to be further studied in different hosts.
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-rich triacylglycerols (TAG) have received significant attention owing to their health promoting properties. In this study, CLA-rich TAG were successfully synthesized by an immobilized mutant lipase (MAS1-H108A)-catalyzed esterification of CLA-rich fatty acids and glycerol under vacuum. MAS1-H108A was first immobilized onto ECR1030 resin. Results showed that the lipase/support ratio of 41 mg/g was suitable for the immobilization and the thermostability of immobilized MAS1-H108A was greatly enhanced. Subsequently, the immobilized MAS1-H108A was employed for the synthesis of CLA-rich TAG and 95.21% TAG with 69.19% CLA was obtained under the optimized conditions. The TAG content (95.21%) obtained by immobilized MAS1-H108A is the reported highest value thus far, which was significantly higher than that (9.26%) obtained by Novozym 435 under the same conditions. Although the TAG content comparable to the results obtained in this study could also be obtained by Novozym 435, the used enzyme amount is approximately 5-fold of the immobilized MAS1-H108A. Additionally, the immobilized MAS1-H108A exhibited excellent recyclability during esterification retaining 95.11% of its initial activity after 10 batches. Overall, such immobilized mutant lipase with superior esterification activity and recyclability has the potential to be used in oils and fats industry.
For environmental reasons, a new class of environmentally acceptable and renewable biolubricant based on vegetable oils is available. In this study, oxirane ring opening reaction of monoepoxide linoleic acid (MEOA) was done by nucleophilic addition of oleic acid (OA) with using p-toluene sulfonic acid (PTSA) as a catalyst for synthesis of 9(12)-hydroxy-10(13)-oleoxy-12(9)-octadecanoic acid (HYOOA) and the physicochemical properties of the resulted HYOOA are reported to be used as biolubricant base oils. Optimum conditions of the experiment using D-optimal design to obtain high yield% of HYOOA and lowest OOC% were predicted at OA/MEOA ratio of 0.30 : 1 (w/w), PTSA/MEOA ratio of 0.50 : 1 (w/w), reaction temperature at 110°C, and reaction time at 4.5 h. The results showed that an increase in the chain length of the midchain ester resulted in the decrease of pour point (PP) -51°C, increase of viscosity index (VI) up to 153, and improvement in oxidative stability (OT) to 180.94°C.
In this study, the effects of limited and excess phosphate on biomass content, oil content, fatty acid profile and the expression of three fatty acid desaturases in Messastrum gracile SE-MC4 were determined. It was found that total biomass (0.67-0.83 g L-1), oil content (30.99-38.08%) and the duration for cells to reach stationary phase (25-27 days) were not considerably affected by phosphate limitation. However, excess phosphate slightly reduced total biomass and oil content to 0.50 g L-1 and 25.36% respectively. The dominant fatty acids in M. gracile, pamitic acid (C16:0) and oleic acid (C18:1) which constitute more than 81% of the total fatty acids remained relatively high and constant across all phosphate concentrations. Reduction of phosphate concentration to 25% and below significantly increased total MUFA, whereas increasing phosphate concentration to ≥ 50% and ≥ 100% significantly increased total SFA and PUFA content respectively. The expression of omega-3 fatty acid desaturase (ω-3 FADi1, ω-3 FADi2) and omega-6 fatty acid desaturase (ω-6 FAD) was increased under phosphate limitation, especially at ≤ 12.5% phosphate, whereas levels of streoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD) transcripts were relatively unchanged across all phosphate concentrations. The first isoform of ω-3 FAD (ω-3 FADi) displayed a binary upregulation under limited (≤ 12.5%) and excess (200%) phosphate. The expression of ω-6 FAD, ω-3 FAD and SAD were inconsistent with the accumulation of oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2) and alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3), suggesting that these genes may be regulated indirectly by phosphate availability via post-transcriptional or post-translational mechanisms.
The cis(c)-9, trans(t)-11 (c9,t11) and t10,c12 isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) have been reported as agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and beneficial in lipidemia and glycemia. However, it is unclear whether CLA isomers enhance or antagonize effects of conventional drugs targeting PPAR. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed high fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks and treated without or with CLA, rosiglitazone or both for 4 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance and surrogate markers of insulin resistance were not significantly different for all treatments compared to untreated normal diet (ND) or HFD group, except lipoprotein levels. The combination of CLA and rosiglitazone had suppressed levels of low and high density lipoproteins (46 % and 25 %, respectively), compared to HFD-alone. Conversely, the atherogenic co-efficient of the animals received HFD or HFD+rosiglitazone+CLA was 2-folds higher than ND, HFD+rosiglitazone or HFD+CLA. Isolated aortic rings from the combined CLA and rosiglitazone treated animals were less sensitive to isoprenaline-induced relaxation among endothelium-denuded aortas with a decreased efficacy and potency (R(max)=53+/-4.7 %; pEC50=6+/-0.2) compared to endothelium-intact aortas (R(max)=100+/-9.9 %; pEC50=7+/-0.2). Our findings illustrate that the combination of CLA and rosiglitazone precede the atherogenic state with impaired endothelium-independent vasodilatation before the onset of HFD-induced insulin resistance.
Proximate content and fatty acid composition of germinated and non-germinated legumes (kidney, mung, soy bean and peanut) and rice varieties (red, black, Barrio, brown and milled) were evaluated. In germinated samples, moisture content increased significantly while carbohydrate, protein and fat were decreased significantly. Total dietary fibre was increased in germinated samples except germinated kidney and mung bean. Germination also increased saturated fatty acids (SFA) in legumes, black, red and brown rice. Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) decreased in all samples except germinated kidney, soy and Barrio rice. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increased in some germinated samples (mung bean, peanut, red, brown, Barrio and white rice) but decreased in other legume and rice samples. Generally, palmitic acid increased while stearic, oleic and linoleic acids decreased after germination. Overall, the proximate content and fatty acids of legume and rice varieties changed after germination and may be used as alternate resources for individuals with lifestyle diseases.
An optimized refining process for kenaf seed oil was conducted. The 3-monochloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) contents, triacylglycerol composition, fatty acids composition, bioactive compounds, phosphorus contents, and oxidation indexes of the kenaf seed oil during each stage of the refining process were determined. The results showed that there was no detected 3-MCPD ester in kenaf seed oil throughout the refining process. Deodorization had slightly increased the 2-MCPD ester (9.0 μg/kg) and glycidyl ester (54.8 μg/kg). Oleic (36.53%) and linoleic acids (36.52%) were presented in the largest amount in the refined kenaf seed oil, and triacylglycerols contributed to 99.96% in the oil. There was a removal of 31.6% of phytosterol content and 17.1% of tocopherol and tocotrienol contents in kenaf seed oil after refining. The refining process was totally removed the hydroperoxides, 93% of free fatty acids and 98.8% of phosphorus content in kenaf seed oil.
Dysregulated hepatic gluconeogenesis is a hallmark of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although existing drugs have been proven to improve gluconeogenesis, achieving this objective with functional food is of interest, especially using conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) found in dairy products. Both cis-9, trans-11 (c9,t11) and trans-10, cis-12 (t10,c12) isomers of CLA were tested in human (HepG2) and rat (H4IIE) hepatocytes for their potential effects on gluconeogenesis. The hepatocytes exposed for 24 h with 20 μM of c9,t11-CLA had attenuated the gluconeogenesis in both HepG2 and H4IIE by 62.5% and 80.1%, respectively. In contrast, t10,c12-CLA had no effect. Of note, in HepG2 cells, the exposure of c9,t11-CLA decreased the transcription of gluconeogenic enzymes, cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) by 87.7%, and glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit (G6PC) by 38.0%, while t10,c12-CLA increased the expression of G6PC, suggesting the isomer-specific effects of CLA on hepatic glucose production. In HepG2, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonist, rosiglitazone, reduced the glucose production by 72.9%. However, co-administration of c9,t11-CLA and rosiglitazone neither exacerbated nor attenuated the efficacy of rosiglitazone to inhibit glucose production; meanwhile, t10,c12-CLA abrogated the efficacy of rosiglitazone. Paradoxically, PPARγ antagonist GW 9662 also led to 70.2% reduction of glucose production and near undetectable PCK1 expression by abrogating CLA actions. Together, while the precise mechanisms by which CLA isomers modulate hepatic gluconeogenesis directly or via PPAR warrant further investigation, our findings establish that c9,t11-CLA suppresses gluconeogenesis by decreasing PEPCK on hepatocytes.
This cross-sectional study investigated the use of alternative medications to alleviate menopause-related symptoms among Malay, Chinese, and Indian women of Ipoh city. The prevalence, types, effectiveness, and associated factors were determined. The prevalence of alternative medication use was 41.4%. Evening primrose oil (EPO) was the most popular medication used (18.1%), followed by soy-based products (12.3%), green tea (6.8%), and gingko (5.8%). The medication was reported to be highly effective by 58.3% of soya bean diet users and 41.1% of EPO users. Significant variables associated with the use were Chinese or Indian ethnicity (P < .001), age between 50 and 54 years (P < .01), lower self-health rating (P < .05), education level of diploma or professional degree (P < .05), employment as professionals or entrepreneurs (P < .05), and the use of hormone replacement therapy (P < .05). Regression analysis showed that Chinese and Indians had significantly higher odds for the use than Malays (Chinese: odds ratio [OR] = 4.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.392-7.837; Indians: OR = 3.248, 95% CI = 1.586-6.654).
Matched MeSH terms: Linoleic Acids/therapeutic use
Amauroderma rugosum is a wild mushroom that is worn as a necklace by the indigenous communities in Malaysia to prevent fits and incessant crying by babies. The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritive composition and antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory effects of A. rugosum extracts on LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Nutritional analysis of freeze-dried mycelia of A. rugosum (KUM 61131) from submerged culture indicated a predominant presence of carbohydrates, proteins, dietary fibre, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium. The ethanol crude extract (EE), its hexane (HF), ethyl acetate (EAF), and aqueous (AF) fractions of mycelia of A. rugosum grown in submerged culture were evaluated for antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory effects. EAF exhibited the highest total phenolic content and the strongest antioxidant activity based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assays. HF showed dose-dependent inhibition of NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and NO radical scavenging activity. Gas chromatographic analysis of HF revealed the presence of ethyl linoleate and ergosterol, compounds with known anti-inflammatory properties. In conclusion, the nutritive compositions and significant antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory effects of mycelia extracts of A. rugosum have the potential to serve as a therapeutic agent or adjuvant in the management of inflammatory disorders.
Nerve crush injuries are commonly used models for axonotmesis to examine peripheral nerve regeneration. As evening primrose oil (EPO) is rich in omega-6 essential fatty acid component and gamma-linolenic acid, studies have shown the potential role of EPO in myelination. Seventy-two healthy adult Sprague-Dawley rats were classified into three groups: normal group, control group, and experimental group. The result indicates that there was significant difference in toe-spreading reflex between the normal and the control groups (1.9 ± 0.031, p < 0.05) and the normal and the EPO groups (0.4 ± 0.031, p < 0.05) and significant difference between EPO and the control groups (1.5 ± 0.031, p < 0.05). Regeneration of axons and myelin in nerve fibre in the EPO-treated group developed better and faster than in the control group. In the control group, the shape of the axon was irregular with a thinner myelin sheath. In the experimental group, the shape of the axons, the thickness of the myelin sheath, and the diameter of the axons were almost the same as in the normal group. In conclusion, EPO supplementation may be beneficial as a therapeutic option for disturbances of nerve interaction.
Different fatty acids have distinct effects on the survival of breast cancer cells, which could be mediated by fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs), a family of lipid chaperones. Due to the diverse structures of the members of FABP family, each FABP demonstrates distinct binding affinities to different fatty acids. Of note, FABP7 is predominantly expressed in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), the most aggressive subtype of breast cancer. Yet, the role of FABP7 in modulating the effects of fatty acids on TNBC survival was unclear. In contrast to the high expression of FABP7 in human TNBC tumours, FABP7 protein was undetectable in TNBC cell lines. Hence, a FABP7 overexpression model was used for this study, in which the transduced TNBC cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T) were treated with various mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Oleic acid (OA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) inhibited TNBC cell growth at high concentrations, with no differences resulted from FABP7 overexpression. Interestingly, overexpression of FABP7 augmented linoleic acid-induced cell death in MDA-MB-231 cells. The increased cell death may be explained by a decrease in 13-HODE, a pro-tumorigenic oxidation product of linoleic acid. The phenotype was, however, attenuated with a rescue treatment using 25 nM 13-HODE. The decrease in 13-HODE was potentially due to fatty acid partitioning modulated by FABP7, as demonstrated by a 3-fold increase in fatty acid oxidation. Our findings suggest that linoleic acid could be a potential therapeutic strategy for FABP7-overexpressing TNBC patients.
Introduction: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been studied for its fat mass
reduction effects. This study aimed to determine the effects of CLA supplementation
on body fat mass (BFM) and selected blood lipid profiles among overweight Iranian.
Methods: A total of 180 adults with BMI = 26-29 kg/m2 and BFM exceeding 21%
and 28% for men and women, respectively were recruited through voluntary
participation from weight management clinics in Tehran. They were assigned
randomly to three groups as follows: Group (1) (control group) receives weight loss
diet only; Group (2) receives weight loss diet +3 gr/day CLA supplement (mixture
of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12) twice a day and Group (3) weight loss diet
+3 gr/day CLA supplement as Group (2) twice a day + regular exercise (walking at
5.5-6 km/h for at least 160 minutes/week). The trial was conducted for 12 weeks.
Anthropometric measurements and blood lipid profiles were determined at weeks 0,
6 and 12.
Results: Both Group 2 and Group 3 showed a significant between-group
difference in reduction of BFM (1.3% and 2.6% respectively) compared to Group 1.
Group 2 supplementation showed increased free fatty acid (FFA) (0.44 mM to 0.55
mM) and decreased HDL-chol (47.5 mg/dL to 42.0 mg/dL) between weeks 0 and
12. These results were not observed for Group 3.
Conclusion: Combination of CLA
supplementation with exercise showed BFM reduction in overweight Iranian adults.
Further research is suggested to verify the findings of this study.
Alteration of the lipid content and fatty acid (FA) composition of foods can result in a healthier product. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of flaxseed oil or sunflower oil in the goat diet on fatty acid composition of muscle and expression of lipogenic genes in the semitendinosus (ST) muscle. Twenty-one entire male Boer kid goats were fed diets containing different levels of linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (LNA) for 100 days. Inclusion of flaxseed oil increased (p < 0.05) the α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) concentration in the ST muscle. The diet high in α-linolenic acid (p < 0.05) decreased the arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6) and conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) c-9 t-11 content in the ST muscle. There was a significant (p < 0.05) upregulation of PPARα and PPARγ gene expression and downregulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene in the ST muscle for the high α-linolenic acid group compared with the low α-linolenic acid group. The results of the present study show that flaxseed oil as a source of α-linolenic acid can be incorporated into the diets of goats to enrich goat meat with n-3 fatty acids, upregulate the PPARα and PPARγ, and downregulate the SCD gene expression.