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  1. Chuah LO, Ho WY, Beh BK, Yeap SK
    PMID: 23990846 DOI: 10.1155/2013/751658
    Garcinia is a plant under the family of Clusiaceae that is commonly used as a flavouring agent. Various phytochemicals including flavonoids and organic acid have been identified in this plant. Among all types of organic acids, hydroxycitric acid or more specifically (-)-hydroxycitric acid has been identified as a potential supplement for weight management and as antiobesity agent. Various in vivo studies have contributed to the understanding of the anti-obesity effects of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid via regulation of serotonin level and glucose uptake. Besides, it also helps to enhance fat oxidation while reducing de novo lipogenesis. However, results from clinical studies showed both negative and positive antiobesity effects of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid. This review was prepared to summarise the update of chemical constituents, significance of in vivo/clinical anti-obesity effects, and the importance of the current market potential of Garcinia/hydroxycitric acid.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lipogenesis
  2. Nematbakhsh S, Pei Pei C, Selamat J, Nordin N, Idris LH, Abdull Razis AF
    Genes (Basel), 2021 03 13;12(3).
    PMID: 33805667 DOI: 10.3390/genes12030414
    In the poultry industry, excessive fat deposition is considered an undesirable factor, affecting feed efficiency, meat production cost, meat quality, and consumer's health. Efforts to reduce fat deposition in economically important animals, such as chicken, can be made through different strategies; including genetic selection, feeding strategies, housing, and environmental strategies, as well as hormone supplementation. Recent investigations at the molecular level have revealed the significant role of the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory networks and their interaction on modulating fat metabolism in chickens. At the transcriptional level, different transcription factors are known to regulate the expression of lipogenic and adipogenic genes through various signaling pathways, affecting chicken fat metabolism. Alternatively, at the post-transcriptional level, the regulatory mechanism of microRNAs (miRNAs) on lipid metabolism and deposition has added a promising dimension to understand the structural and functional regulatory mechanism of lipid metabolism in chicken. Therefore, this review focuses on the progress made in unraveling the molecular function of genes, transcription factors, and more notably significant miRNAs responsible for regulating adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and fat deposition in chicken. Moreover, a better understanding of the molecular regulation of lipid metabolism will give researchers novel insights to use functional molecular markers, such as miRNAs, for selection against excessive fat deposition to improve chicken production efficiency and meat quality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lipogenesis/genetics*
  3. Lee YY, Tang TK, Chan ES, Phuah ET, Lai OM, Tan CP, et al.
    PMID: 33480262 DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2021.1873729
    Structured lipid is a type of modified form of lipid that is "fabricated" with the purpose to improve the nutritional and functional properties of conventional fats and oils derived from animal and plant sources. Such healthier choice of lipid received escalating attention from the public for its capability to manage the rising prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Of which, medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) and medium-and long-chain triacylglycerol (MLCT) are the few examples of the "new generation" custom-made healthful lipids which are mainly composed of medium chain fatty acid (MCFA). MCT is made up exclusively of MCFA whereas MLCT contains a mixture of MCFA and long chain fatty acid (LCFA), respectively. Attributed by the unique metabolism of MCFA which is rapidly metabolized by the body, MCFA and MCT showed to acquire multiple physiological and functional properties in managing and reversing certain health disorders. Several chemically or enzymatically oils and fats modification processes catalyzed by a biological or chemical catalyst such as acidolysis, interesterification and esterification are adopted to synthesis MCT and MLCT. With their purported health benefits, MCT and MLCT are widely being used as nutraceutical in food and pharmaceutical sectors. This article aims to provide a comprehensive review on MCT and MLCT, with an emphasis on the basic understanding of its structures, properties, unique metabolism; the current status of the touted health benefits; latest routes of production; its up-to-date applications in the different food systems; relevant patents filed and its drawbacks.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lipogenesis
  4. Ji H, Om AD, Yoshimatsu T, Umino T, Nakagawa H, Sakamoto S
    Fish Physiol Biochem, 2010 Sep;36(3):749-755.
    PMID: 19685218 DOI: 10.1007/s10695-009-9349-z
    To assess the effect of dietary ascorbate on lipid metabolism, 1-year black sea bream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii) were reared on a casein-based purified diet and an ascorbate fortified diet (1,100 mg of L: -ascorbyl-2- monophosphate-Mg/kg diet). The fortified ascorbate was effectively incorporated into the fish body and elevated muscle carnitine content. Fortifications of dietary ascorbate depressed activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase as lipogenic enzymes in the hepatopancreas and intraperitoneal fat body. Starvation after feeding experiment activated carnitine palmitoyltransferase as a lipolysis enzyme in the hepatopancreas in both control and vitamin C(VC) groups, while the lipolysis activity was significantly higher in VC group. These results confirmed that dietary ascorbate depressed lipogenesis and activated lipolysis, i.e., influenced the lipid metabolism of black sea bream.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lipogenesis/drug effects*
  5. Shuib S, Ibrahim I, Mackeen MM, Ratledge C, Hamid AA
    Sci Rep, 2018 Feb 15;8(1):3077.
    PMID: 29449592 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-21452-4
    Malic enzyme (ME) plays a vital role in determining the extent of lipid accumulation in oleaginous fungi being the major provider of NADPH for the activity of fatty acid synthase (FAS). We report here the first direct evidence of the existence of a lipogenic multienzyme complex (the lipid metabolon) involving ME, FAS, ATP: citrate lyase (ACL), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), pyruvate carboxylase (PC) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) in Cunninghamella bainieri 2A1. Cell-free extracts prepared from cells taken in both growth and lipid accumulation phases were prepared by protoplasting and subjected to Blue Native (BN)-PAGE coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A high molecular mass complex (approx. 3.2 MDa) consisting of the above enzymes was detected during lipid accumulation phase indicating positive evidence of multienzyme complex formation. The complex was not detected in cells during the balanced phase of growth or when lipid accumulation ceased, suggesting that it was transiently formed only during lipogenesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lipogenesis
  6. Moslehi A, Farahabadi M, Chavoshzadeh SA, Barati A, Ababzadeh S, Mohammadbeigi A
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 Feb;25(1):16-23.
    PMID: 29599631 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.1.3
    Background: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress creates abnormalities in the insulin action, inflammatory responses, lipoprotein B100 degradation, and hepatic lipogenesis. Hepatic steatosis leads to a broad spectrum of hepatic disorders such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and NASH. Amygdalin has beneficial effects on asthma, bronchitis, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. We designed this study to evaluate the effect of amygdalin on the ER stress induced hepatic steatosis.

    Methods: Inbred mice received saline, DMSO and amygdalin, as control groups. ER stress was induced by tunicamycin (TM) injection. Amygdalin was administered 1 h before the TM challenge (Amy + TM group). Mice body and liver weights were measured. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and oil red O staining from liver tissue, were performed. Alanin aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride and cholesterol levels were measured.

    Results: Histological evaluation revealed that amygdalin was unable to decrease the TM induced liver steatosis; however, ALT and AST levels decreased [ALT: 35.33(2.15) U/L versus 92.33(6.66) U/L; (57.000, (50.63, 63.36),P< 0.001) and AST: 93(5.09) U/L versus 345(97.3) U/L, (252, (163.37, 340.62),P< 0.001)]. Amygdalin also decreased triglyceride and cholesterol plasma levels in the Amy + TM group [TG: 42.66(2.15) versus 53.33(7.24) mg/dL; (10.67, (3.80, 17.54),P= 0.006) and TC: 9.33(3.55) versus 112.66(4.31) mg/dL, (103.33, (98.25, 108.40)P< 0.001)].

    Conclusion: Amygdalin improved the ALT, AST, and lipid serum levels after the TM challenge; however, it could not attenuate hepatic steatosis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Lipogenesis
  7. Khatun J, Loh TC, Akit H, Foo HL, Mohamad R
    Anim Sci J, 2017 Sep;88(9):1406-1413.
    PMID: 28220633 DOI: 10.1111/asj.12775
    The present study assessed the effect of feeding palm oil (PO), sunflower oil (SO) and their combination on performance, fat deposition, fatty acid composition and lipogenic gene expression of broilers reared for 42 days. A total of 144 1-day-old broilers (Cobb500) were randomly allotted into four treatment diets with each having six replicates of six chicks in each replicate following a completely randomized design. Live weight gain and feed efficiency was significantly (P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Lipogenesis/genetics*
  8. Wang L, Xu B, Sagada G, Ng WK, Chen K, Zhang J, et al.
    Br J Nutr, 2021 Mar 14;125(5):481-493.
    PMID: 32718379 DOI: 10.1017/S0007114520003025
    The present study investigated the influence of berberine (BBR) supplementation in normal and high-lipid (HL) diets on lipid metabolism and accumulation in black sea bream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii). BBR was supplemented at 50 mg/kg to control (Con, 11·1 % crude lipid) and high-lipid (HL, 20·2 % crude lipid) diets and named as ConB and HLB, respectively. After the 8-week feeding trial, fish body length and specific growth rate were significantly reduced by HL diets (P < 0·05). Muscle and whole-body crude lipid contents were significantly influenced by both BBR supplementation and dietary lipid level. Fish fed the HLB diet had significantly lower serum TAG, LDL-cholesterol contents and alanine aminotransferase activity compared with the HL group. The HL group presented vast lipid accumulation in the liver, and hypertrophied hepatocytes along with large lipid droplets, and translocation of nuclear to the cell periphery. These abnormalities in black sea bream were alleviated in the HLB group. BBR supplementation in the HL diet significantly down-regulated the hepatic expression levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase α, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and pparγ, whereas the lipoprotein lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a expression levels were significantly up-regulated. However, the expression levels of these genes showed opposite trends in muscle (except for pparγ). In conclusion, dietary BBR supplementation in the HL diet reduced hepatic lipid accumulation by down-regulating lipogenesis gene expression and up-regulating lipolysis gene expression, and it increased muscle lipid contents with opposite trends of the mechanism observed in the liver.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lipogenesis
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