Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 755 in total

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  1. Ashoka Menon M, Saw Huat Seong
    Med J Malaysia, 1979 Mar;33(3):230-4.
    PMID: 522728
    Matched MeSH terms: Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis*
  2. Danaraj TJ, D'Silva LS, Schacher JF
    Matched MeSH terms: Lung Diseases
  3. Khajotia R
    Pan Afr Med J, 2021;40:169.
    PMID: 34970411 DOI: 10.11604/pamj.2021.40.169.31223
    Twenty months into the COVID-19 pandemic, we are still learning about the various long-term consequences of COVID-19 infection. While many patients do recover with minimal long-term consequences, some patients develop irreversible parenchymal and interstitial lung damage leading to diffuse pulmonary fibrosis. Unfortunately, these are some of the consequences of post-SARS-CoV-2 infection which thousands more people around the world will experience and which will outlast the pandemic for a long time to come. It is now being observed at various leading medical centres around the world that lung transplantation may be the only meaningful treatment available to a select group of patients experiencing serious lung damage and non-resolving COVID-19-associated respiratory failure, resulting from the triad of coronavirus infection, a hyper-inflammatory immune response to it and the inability of the human body to repair that injury.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lung/pathology; Lung Transplantation*
  4. Liam CK, Mallawathantri S, Fong KM
    Respirology, 2020 09;25(9):933-943.
    PMID: 32335992 DOI: 10.1111/resp.13823
    Molecular biomarker testing of advanced-stage NSCLC is now considered standard of care and part of the diagnostic algorithm to identify subsets of patients for molecular-targeted treatment. Tumour tissue biopsy is essential for an accurate initial diagnosis, determination of the histological subtype and for molecular testing. With the increasing use of small biopsies and cytological specimens for diagnosis and the need to identify an increasing number of predictive biomarkers, proper management of the limited amount of sampling materials available is important. Many patients with advanced NSCLC do not have enough tissue for molecular testing and/or do not have a biopsy-amenable lesion and/or do not want to go through a repeat biopsy given the potential risks. Molecular testing can be difficult or impossible if the sparse material from very small biopsy specimens has already been exhausted for routine diagnostic purposes. A limited diagnostic workup is recommended to preserve sufficient tissue for biomarker testing. In addition, tumour biopsies are limited by tumour heterogeneity, particularly in the setting of disease resistance, and thus may yield false-negative results. Hence, there have been considerable efforts to determine if liquid biopsy in which molecular alterations can be non-invasively identified in plasma cell-free ctDNA, a potential surrogate for the entire tumour genome, can overcome the issues with tissue biopsies and replace the need for the latter.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics*; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/metabolism; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology; Lung/pathology; Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy; Lung Neoplasms/genetics*; Lung Neoplasms/metabolism; Lung Neoplasms/pathology
  5. Chan PWK, Ramanujam TM, Goh AYT, Lum LCS, Debruyne JA, Chan L
    Med J Malaysia, 2003 Dec;58(5):636-40.
    PMID: 15190646
    An open lung biopsy was performed in 12 children with diffuse parenchymal lung disease. A definitive histopathological diagnosis was obtained from all procedures but determined treatment options in only 10 children (83%). Three (25%) children were ventilated for respiratory failure prior to the procedure. Four (44%) of the other 9 children required ventilatory support after the procedure. Three (25%) children developed post-op pneumothorax that resolved fully with chest tube drainage. There were no deaths as a direct result of the procedure. Open lung biopsy is useful in providing a definitive diagnosis in children with diffuse parenchymal lung disease and determining treatment in the majority of cases. The procedure was well-tolerated with minimal complications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lung/pathology*; Lung Diseases/pathology*
  6. Manavalan AS
    Med J Malaya, 1969 Dec;24(2):124-7.
    PMID: 4244137
    Matched MeSH terms: Lung Diseases*; Lung Neoplasms*
  7. Highet HC
    Matched MeSH terms: Lung Diseases
  8. Rampal KG
    Family Physician, 1991;3:7-10.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lung
  9. Ess BJ
    Matched MeSH terms: Lung
  10. Menon MA
    Family Practitioner, 1981;4:13-16.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lung Diseases
  11. Thirunanthini Manoharan, Jayanthi Arasan, Habshah Midi, Mohd Bakri Adam
    Sains Malaysiana, 2017;46:2529-2539.
    Left-truncated and censored survival data are commonly encountered in medical studies. However, traditional inferential methods that heavily rely on normality assumptions often fail when lifetimes of observations in a study are both truncated and censored. Thus, it is important to develop alternative inferential procedures that ease the assumptions of normality and unconventionally relies on the distribution of data in hand. In this research, a three parameter log-normal parametric survival model was extended to incorporate left-truncated and right censored medical data with covariates. Following that, bootstrap inferential procedures using non-parametric and parametric bootstrap samples were applied to the parameters of this model. The performance of the parameter estimates was assessed at various combinations of truncation and censoring levels via a simulation study. The recommended bootstrap intervals were applied to a lung cancer survival data.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lung Neoplasms
  12. Yong SJ
    Med Hypotheses, 2021 Aug;153:110628.
    PMID: 34139599 DOI: 10.1016/j.mehy.2021.110628
    Presently, it remains unclear why the prevalence of lung diseases, namely chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is much lower than other medical comorbidities and the general population among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). If COVID-19 is a respiratory disease, why is COPD not the leading risk factor for contracting COVID-19? The same odd phenomenon was also observed with other pathogenic human coronaviruses causing severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), but not other respiratory viral infections such as influenza and respiratory syncytial viruses. One commonly proposed reason for the low COPD rates among COVID-19 patients is the usage of inhaled corticosteroids or bronchodilators that may protect against COVID-19. However, another possible reason not discussed elsewhere is that lungs in a diseased state may not be conducive for the severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to establish COVID-19. For one, COPD causes mucous plugging in large and small airways, which may hinder SARS-CoV-2 from reaching deeper parts of the lungs (i.e., alveoli). Thus, SARS-CoV-2 may only localize to the upper respiratory tract of persons with COPD, causing mild or asymptomatic infections requiring no hospital attention. Even if SARS-CoV-2 reaches the alveoli, cells therein are probably under a heavy burden of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and extensively damaged where it may not support efficient viral replication. As a result, limited SARS-CoV-2 virions would be produced in diseased lungs, preventing the development of COVID-19.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lung
  13. Ruwanpura R, Rathnaweera A, Hettiarachchi M, Dhahanayake K, Amararatne S
    Med J Malaysia, 2012 Dec;67(6):595-600.
    PMID: 23770952
    INTRODUCTION: According to statistical unit of the Karapitiya Teaching Hospital, Galle, the main tertiary care institution of the Southern Province serving approximately three million population, in 2008, there were 459 patients with clinical diagnosis of leptospirosis, with 25 fatalities, 21 out of which were referred for autopsy examination.

    OBJECTIVES: The present study to study and correlate pathological changes in deaths associated with pulmonary form of leptospirosis with clinico-diagnostic aspects of the infection.

    METHOD: There had been 21 leptospirosis related autopsy examinations performed at forensic medicine unit of the Karapitiya Teaching Hospital from January to December 2008. The clinical, laboratory and autopsy findings of these cases were recorded in detail and analyzed.

    RESULTS: The characteristic autopsy feature of all these cases was a moderate to severe pulmonary haemorrhage in association with hepato-renal, myocardial and cerebral lesions. The histology of the lung tissues in most cases showed extensive alveolar haemorrhages, hyaline like deposits, neutrophilic infiltrations, swollen septa with congested blood vessels.

    CONCLUSION: Severe pulmonary complications are mostly responsible for all fatalities due to leptospirosis in our series. Though there are no reliable clinical indicators that suggest probability of developing pulmonary haemorrhages, we emphasize that respiratory functions and haematological parameters need to be closely monitored in all hospitalized patients with leptospirosis for early detection and prevention of haemorrhagic complications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lung*
  14. Loh LC, Chan LY, Tan RY, Govindaraju S, Ratnavelu K, Kumar S, et al.
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2006;18(1):69-71.
    PMID: 16629441
    The prognosis of lung cancer remains poor with overall five year survival figures varying between five and 10% worldwide, However, it has been shown that surgery in patients with early stage disease in non-small cell lung cancer can achieve five year survival rates up to 80%, suggesting that early or delay diagnosis can influence prognosis. Nevertheless, studies addressing this have been inconclusive and mostly derived from Western countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/diagnosis*; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/mortality; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/surgery*; Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis*; Lung Neoplasms/mortality; Lung Neoplasms/surgery*
  15. Saw Huat Seong, Ashoka Menon M
    Med J Malaysia, 1979 Mar;33(3):235-42.
    PMID: 522729
    Matched MeSH terms: Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis*
  16. MUIR CS
    Med J Malaya, 1959 Sep;14:47-54.
    PMID: 14425051
    Matched MeSH terms: Lung Diseases*
  17. Liam CK
    Respirology, 2020 08;25(8):784-786.
    PMID: 31805607 DOI: 10.1111/resp.13750
    Matched MeSH terms: Lung Diseases, Interstitial*
  18. Mehta M, Dhanjal DS, Satija S, Wadhwa R, Paudel KR, Chellappan DK, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2020;26(42):5380-5392.
    PMID: 33198611 DOI: 10.2174/1381612826999201116161143
    Cell Signaling pathways form an integral part of our existence that allows the cells to comprehend a stimulus and respond back. Such reactions to external cues from the environment are required and are essential to regulate the normal functioning of our body. Abnormalities in the system arise when there are errors developed in these signals, resulting in a complication or a disease. Presently, respiratory diseases contribute to being the third leading cause of morbidity worldwide. According to the current statistics, over 339 million people are asthmatic, 65 million are suffering from COPD, 2.3 million are lung cancer patients and 10 million are tuberculosis patients. This toll of statistics with chronic respiratory diseases leaves a heavy burden on society and the nation's annual health expenditure. Hence, a better understanding of the processes governing these cellular pathways will enable us to treat and manage these deadly respiratory diseases effectively. Moreover, it is important to comprehend the synergy and interplay of the cellular signaling pathways in respiratory diseases, which will enable us to explore and develop suitable strategies for targeted drug delivery. This review, in particular, focuses on the major respiratory diseases and further provides an in-depth discussion on the various cell signaling pathways that are involved in the pathophysiology of respiratory diseases. Moreover, the review also analyses the defining concepts about advanced nano-drug delivery systems involving various nanocarriers and propose newer prospects to minimize the current challenges faced by researchers and formulation scientists.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lung Neoplasms*
  19. Chellappan DK, Sze Ning QL, Su Min SK, Bin SY, Chern PJ, Shi TP, et al.
    Chem Biol Interact, 2019 Sep 01;310:108732.
    PMID: 31276660 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbi.2019.108732
    BACKGROUND: The human body is a home to thousands of microbiotas. It is defined as a community of symbiotic, commensal and pathogenic microorganisms that have existed in all exposed sites of the body, which have co-evolved with diet, lifestyle, genetic factors and immune factors. Human microbiotas have been studied for years on their effects with relation to health and diseases.

    METHODS: Relevant published studies, literature and reports were searched from accessible electronic databases and related institutional databases. We used keywords, viz; microbiome, microbiota, microbiome drug delivery and respiratory disease. Selected articles were carefully read through, clustered, segregated into subtopics and reviewed.

    FINDINGS: The traditional belief of sterile lungs was challenged by the emergence of culture-independent molecular techniques and the recently introduced invasive broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) sampling method. The constitution of a lung microbiome mainly depends on three main ecological factors, which include; firstly, the immigration of microbes into airways, secondly, the removal of microbes from airways and lastly, the regional growth conditions. In healthy conditions, the microbial communities that co-exist in our lungs can build significant pulmonary immunity and could act as a barrier against diseases, whereas, in an adverse way, microbiomes may interact with other pathogenic bacteriomes and viromes, acting as a cofactor in inflammation and host immune responses, which may lead to the progression of a disease. Thus, the use of microbiota as a target, and as a drug delivery system in the possible modification of a disease state, has started to gain massive attention in recent years. Microbiota, owing to its unique characteristics, could serve as a potential drug delivery system, that could be bioengineered to suit the interest. The engineered microbiome-derived therapeutics can be delivered through BC, bacteriophage, bacteria-derived lipid vesicles and microbe-derived extracellular vesicles. This review highlights the relationships between microbiota and different types of respiratory diseases, the importance of microbiota towards human health and diseases, including the role of novel microbiome drug delivery systems in targeting various respiratory diseases.

    Matched MeSH terms: Lung/microbiology*; Lung Diseases/microbiology; Lung Diseases/therapy
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