Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 213 in total

  1. Mohd Yasin ZN, Mohd Idrus FN, Hoe CH, Yvonne-Tee GB
    Differentiation, 2022;128:67-82.
    PMID: 36370526 DOI: 10.1016/j.diff.2022.10.001
    Macrophages derived from human monocytic leukemia THP-1 cell line are often used as the alternative of human primary macrophage. However, the polarization method of THP-1 to macrophages varies between different laboratories, which may unknowingly affect the relevance of research output across research groups. In this regard, a systematic search was developed in Pubmed, BioOne, Scopus, and Science Direct to identify articles focusing on THP-1 polarization into M1 and M2 macrophages. All selected articles were read and discussed by two independent reviewers. The selection process was based on selected keywords on the title, abstract and full-text level. A total of 85 articles were selected and categorized based on the field of studies, method of THP-1 differentiation, and markers or genes expressed upon differentiation. THP-1 derived macrophages were mainly used together with primary monocyte-derived macrophages in cellular inflammation studies, while it was commonly employed alone in cancer research. THP-1 derived macrophages are also of paramount importance in biomaterials studies to prevent unfavorable immune responses in-vivo. We explored various methods of THP-1 differentiation and suggested several common genes encountered to characterize M1 and M2 macrophages differentiated from THP-1. The systematic review highlights the relevance of using THP-1 derived macrophage as a useful alternative to primary macrophage. Although it is not possible to derive a standard method of THP-1 polarization into M1 and M2 macrophages from this review, it may lead researchers to obtain reproducible polarization protocol based on commonly used stimulants and markers of differentiation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Macrophages*
  2. Zaidi NE, Shazali NAH, Leow TC, Osman MA, Ibrahim K, Cheng WH, et al.
    Cells, 2022 Nov 10;11(22).
    PMID: 36428985 DOI: 10.3390/cells11223556
    Tumour heterogeneity refers to the complexity of cell subpopulations coexisting within the tumour microenvironment (TME), such as proliferating tumour cells, tumour stromal cells and infiltrating immune cells. The bidirectional interactions between cancer and the surrounding microenvironment mark the tumour survival and promotion functions, which allow the cancer cells to become invasive and initiate the metastatic cascade. Importantly, these interactions have been closely associated with metabolic reprogramming, which can modulate the differentiation and functions of immune cells and thus initiate the antitumour response. The purpose of this report is to review the CD36 receptor, a prominent cell receptor in metabolic activity specifically in fatty acid (FA) uptake, for the metabolic symbiosis of cancer-macrophage. In this review, we provide an update on metabolic communication between tumour cells and macrophages, as well as how the immunometabolism indirectly orchestrates the tumour metastasis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Macrophages/metabolism
  3. Yahaya MAF, Lila MAM, Ismail S, Zainol M, Afizan NARNM
    J Immunol Res, 2019;2019:2368249.
    PMID: 30931335 DOI: 10.1155/2019/2368249
    Tumour-associated macrophage (TAM) serves as the site in which most inflammatory cells coreside. It plays an important role in determining the progression and metastasis of a tumour. The characteristic of TAM is largely dependent on the stimuli present in its tumour microenvironment (TME). Under this environment, however, M2 macrophages are found to be in abundance compared to M1 macrophages which later promote tumour progression. Numerous studies have elucidated the relationship between TAM and the progression of tumour; hence, TAM has now been the subject of interest among researchers for anticancer therapy. This review discusses the role of TAM in colorectal cancer (CRC) and some of the potential candidates that could reeducate TAM to fight against CRC. It is with hope that this review will serve as the foundation in understanding TAM in CRC and helping other researchers to select the most suitable candidate to reeducate TAM that could assist in enhancing the tumouricidal activity of M1 macrophage and eventually repress the development of CRC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Macrophages/classification; Macrophages/immunology*
  4. Isa T, Zakaria ZA, Rukayadi Y, Mohd Hezmee MN, Jaji AZ, Imam MU, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2016;17(5).
    PMID: 27213349 DOI: 10.3390/ijms17050713
    The use of nanoparticle delivery systems to enhance intracellular penetration of antibiotics and their retention time is becoming popular. The challenge, however, is that the interaction of nanoparticles with biological systems at the cellular level must be established prior to biomedical applications. Ciprofloxacin-cockle shells-derived calcium carbonate (aragonite) nanoparticles (C-CSCCAN) were developed and characterized. Antibacterial activity was determined using a modified disc diffusion protocol on Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). Biocompatibilittes with macrophage were evaluated using the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) assays. Transcriptional regulation of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) was determined using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). C-CSCCAN were spherical in shape, with particle sizes ranging from 11.93 to 22.12 nm. Encapsulation efficiency (EE) and loading content (LC) were 99.5% and 5.9%, respectively, with negative ζ potential. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed strong crystallizations and purity in the formulations. The mean diameter of inhibition zone was 18.6 ± 0.5 mm, which was better than ciprofloxacin alone (11.7 ± 0.9 mm). Study of biocompatability established the cytocompatability of the delivery system without upregulation of IL-1β. The results indicated that ciprofloxacin-nanoparticles enhanced the antibacterial efficacy of the antibiotic, and could act as a suitable delivery system against intracellular infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Macrophages/metabolism*
  5. Rajamani L, Nadia A, Shamala D
    JUMMEC, 1997;2:11-17.
    Matched MeSH terms: Macrophages
  6. Mahmood AA, Khiarul Anwar A, Ansary A, Sidik K, Salmah I, Suzainur KAR
    JUMMEC, 2001;6:30-33.
    Nine local plant species were picked randomly and their aqueous extracts have been screened to know their effects on the phagocytic capability and intracellular killing of StapllylococclIs al/rellS bacteria by mouse peritoneal macrophages. Macrophage cultures were incubated with different concentration of each plant extracts forI hour. Among these aqueous extracts, Ageratum conyzoides and Malastoma melabathricum inhibited the phagocytic capability and intracellular killing of Stapllylococclls aureus compared with controls. Elicited (activated) cells have more phagocytic capability and intracellular killing than the resident (normal) macrophages. There were no differences in the viability of cells between treated cells (with extracts) and controls (without extracts). KEYWORDS: Aqueous plant extracts, murine macrophage, phagocytosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Macrophages
  7. Sosroseno W
    Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol, 2004 May;26(2):309-13.
    PMID: 15209366
    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of L-arginine on Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced phagocytosis by RAW264.7 cells. The cells were pretreated with L-arginine or D-arginine prior to incubation with either unopsonized or opsonized P. gingivalis. In other experiments, the cells were pretreated with L-arginine and various concentrations of NMLA (N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine) prior to incubation with the bacteria. The phagocytosis was microscopically assessed and determined by the phagocytic index. The results showed that L-arginine, but not D-arginine enhances the ability of RAW264.7 cells to engulf the bacteria. The upregulatory effect of L-arginine on P. gingivalis-induced phagocytosis was abolished by NMLA. The results of the present study suggest that L-arginine may upregulate the P. gingivalis-induced phagocytic activity of RAW264.7 cells, perhaps, via modulation of nitric oxide synthase.
    Matched MeSH terms: Macrophages/drug effects*; Macrophages/immunology*; Macrophages/microbiology
  8. Jiemy WF, Heeringa P, Kamps JAAM, van der Laken CJ, Slart RHJA, Brouwer E
    Autoimmun Rev, 2018 Jul;17(7):715-726.
    PMID: 29729443 DOI: 10.1016/j.autrev.2018.02.006
    Macrophages are key players in the pathogenesis of large-vessel vasculitis (LVV) and may serve as a target for diagnostic imaging of LVV. The radiotracer, 18F-FDG has proven to be useful in the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis (GCA), a form of LVV. Although uptake of 18F-FDG is high in activated macrophages, it is not a specific radiotracer as its uptake is high in any proliferating cell and other activated immune cells resulting in high non-specific background radioactivity especially in aging and atherosclerotic vessels which dramatically lowers the diagnostic accuracy. Evidence also exists that the sensitivity of 18F-FDG PET drops in patients upon glucocorticoid treatment. Therefore, there is a clinical need for more specific radiotracers in imaging GCA to improve diagnostic accuracy. Numerous clinically established and newly developed macrophage targeted radiotracers for oncological and inflammatory diseases can potentially be utilized for LVV imaging. These tracers are more target specific and therefore may provide lower background radioactivity, higher diagnostic accuracy and the ability to assess treatment effectiveness. However, current knowledge regarding macrophage subsets in LVV lesions is limited. Further understanding regarding macrophage subsets in vasculitis lesion is needed for better selection of tracers and new targets for tracer development. This review summarizes the development of macrophage targeted tracers in the last decade and the potential application of macrophage targeted tracers currently used in other inflammatory diseases in imaging LVV.
    Matched MeSH terms: Macrophages/pathology*
  9. Mehta M, Deeksha, Sharma N, Vyas M, Khurana N, Maurya PK, et al.
    Chem Biol Interact, 2019 May 01;304:10-19.
    PMID: 30849336 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbi.2019.02.021
    Macrophages are considered as the most flexible cells of the hematopoietic system that are distributed in the tissues to act against pathogens and foreign particles. Macrophages are essential in maintaining homeostatic tissue processes, repair and immunity. Also, play important role in cytokine secretion and signal transduction of the infection so as to develop acquired immunity. Accounting to their involvement in pathogenesis, macrophages present a therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory respiratory diseases. This review focuses on novel drug delivery systems (NDDS) including nanoparticles, liposomes, dendrimers, microspheres etc that can target alveolar macrophage associated with inflammation, intracellular infection and lung cancer. The physiochemical properties and functional moieties of the NDDS attributes to enhanced macrophage targeting and uptake. The NDDS are promising for sustained drug delivery, reduced therapeutic dose, improved patient compliance and reduce drug toxicity. Further, the review also discuss about modified NDDS for specificity to the target and molecular targeting via anti-microbial peptides, kinases, NRF-2 and phosphodiesterase.
    Matched MeSH terms: Macrophages/drug effects*
  10. Choo, K.K., Chin, V.K., Chong, P.P., Ho, S.H., Yong, V.C.
    JUMMEC, 2019;22(2):24-30.
    Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated fungal pathogen that causes severe disease primarily in
    immunocompromised patients. Adherence and internalisation of microbial pathogens into host cells often
    begin with engagement of microbes to the surface receptors of host. However, the mechanisms involved
    remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the association of cell surface determinants of C.
    neoformans with mammalian cells. Our results showed that treatment with trypsin, but not paraformaldehyde
    or heat killing, could reduce host-cryptococci interaction, suggesting the involvement of cell surface proteins
    (CSPs) of C. neoformans in the interaction. We extended our investigations to determine the roles of CSPs
    during cryptococci-host cells interaction by extracting and conjugating CSPs of C. neoformans to latex beads.
    Conjugation of CSPs with both encapsulated and acapsular C. neoformans increased the association of latex
    beads with mammalian alveolar epithelial cells, alveolar macrophages and monocyte-derived macrophages.
    Further examination on the actin organisation of the host cells implied the involvement of actin-dependent
    phagocytosis in the internalisation of C. neoformans in CSP-conjugated latex beads. We hypothesised that
    CSPs present on the cell wall of C. neoformans mediate the adherence and actin-dependent phagocytosis
    of cryptococci by mammalian cells. Our results warrant further studies on the exact role of CSPs in the
    pathogenesis of cryptococcosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Macrophages; Macrophages, Alveolar
  11. Nathan SA, Qvist R, Puthucheary SD
    FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol., 2005 Feb 1;43(2):177-83.
    PMID: 15681148
    The oxidative response of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Escherichia coli infected macrophages from normal and melioidosis subjects was determined by measuring the production of nitric oxide which is one of the reactive nitrogen intermediates, and the activation state of these macrophages was determined by measuring the generation of 8-iso-PGF(2alpha), a bioactive product of free radical induced lipid peroxidation. Macrophages obtained from the melioidosis patients generated significantly lower levels of nitric oxide and 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) compared to macrophages obtained from the normal subjects (P<0.001). The reduced efficiency of the oxygen dependent microbicidal mechanism in macrophages of melioidosis patients may be one of the survival strategies developed by B. pseudomallei to remain viable intracellularly.
    Matched MeSH terms: Macrophages/immunology; Macrophages/metabolism*; Macrophages/microbiology*
  12. Daood U, Yiu CKY
    Dent Mater, 2019 02;35(2):206-216.
    PMID: 30509480 DOI: 10.1016/j.dental.2018.11.018
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the transdentinal cytotoxicity and macrophage phenotype response to a novel quaternary ammonium silane (QAS) cavity disinfectant.

    METHODS: NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium and incubated for 3 days. The cells (3×104) were seeded on the pulpal side of dentine discs and the occlusal side of the discs were treated with different cavity disinfectants: Group 1: de-ionized water (control); Group 2: 2% chlorhexidine (CHX); Group 3: 2% QAS; Group 4: 5% QAS, and Group 5: 10% QAS. Cell morphology of NIH 3T3 cells was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cell viability was assessed using Trypan blue assay. The eluates were collected and applied on cells seeded in 24-well plates. The total protein production, alkaline phosphatase activity and deposition of mineralized nodules were evaluated after 7 and 14 days. Immunofluorescence staining was performed on the samples with primary antibodies of CD68+, CD80+, and CD163+ assessing the macrophage M1/M2 phenotypes. The macrophages were imaged using a confocal scanning light microscope with an excitation wavelength of 488nm.

    RESULTS: No significant difference in cell viability (p<0.0001), total protein production (p<0.01) and mineralized nodule production (p<0.05) was found between 2% QAS and the control, which was significantly higher than 2% CHX, 5% and 10% QAS after 14 days. Alkaline phosphatase production of 2% QAS was significantly lower than the control (p<0.001), but higher than 2% CHX at 14 days. The M1/M2 macrophage ratio was also significantly lower in the 2% and 10% QAS groups (p<0.05) compared to the control and 2% CHX groups.

    SIGNIFICANCE: The 2% QAS cavity disinfectant does not have cytotoxic effects on 3T3 NIH mouse fibroblast cells and the predominance of the anti-inflammatory phenotype after its application may stimulate healing and tissue repair.

    Matched MeSH terms: Macrophages
  13. Lau JZH, Chua CL, Chan YF, Nadarajan VS, Lee CLL, Sam IC
    J Gen Virol, 2023 Apr;104(4).
    PMID: 37043371 DOI: 10.1099/jgv.0.001842
    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne virus, which causes epidemics of fever, joint pain and rash. There are three genotypes: West African, East/Central/South/Africa (ECSA) and Asian, with the latter two predominant globally. Genotype-specific differences in clinical presentations, virulence and immunopathology have been described. Macrophages are key cells in immune responses against CHIKV. Circulating blood monocytes enter tissue to differentiate into monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) in response to CHIKV infection at key replication sites such as lymphoid organs and joints. This study analyses differences in replication and induced immune mediators following infection of MDMs with Asian and ECSA CHIKV genotypes. Primary human MDMs were derived from residual blood donations. Replication of Asian (MY/06/37348) or ECSA (MY/08/065) genotype strains of CHIKV in MDMs was measured by plaque assay. Nineteen immune mediators were measured in infected cell supernatants using multiplexed immunoassay or ELISA. MY/08/065 showed significantly higher viral replication at 24 h post-infection (h p.i.) but induced significantly lower expression of proinflammatory cytokines (CCL-2, CCL-3, CCL-4, RANTES and CXCL-10) and the anti-inflammatory IL-1Ra compared to MY/06/37348. No differences were seen at later time points up to 72 h p.i. During early infection, MY/08/065 induced lower proinflammatory immune responses in MDMs. In vivo, this may lead to poorer initial control of viral infection, facilitating CHIKV replication and dissemination to other sites such as joints. This may explain the consistent past findings that the ECSA genotype is associated with greater viremia and severity of symptoms than the Asian genotype. Knowledge of CHIKV genotype-specific immunopathogenic mechanisms in human MDMs is important in understanding of clinical epidemiology, biomarkers and therapeutics in areas with co-circulation of different genotypes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Macrophages
  14. Hamidah NH, Cheong SK, Abu Hassan J
    Malays J Pathol, 1995 Jun;17(1):39-41.
    PMID: 8907004
    A 35-year-old man from Bangladesh, who had been in Malaysia for approximately a year, was extensively investigated for more than two months in a state hospital for pyrexia with hepatosplenomegaly. However, no obvious cause of his illness was found. He was treated with multiple antibiotics with no resolution of pyrexia and hepatosplenomegaly. He was later referred to the Haematology Unit, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia for further assessment as a case of lymphoma. On carefully reviewing his bone marrow aspirate smears, the diagnosis of leishmaniasis (kala-azar) was finally made. The patient responded to treatment with pentamidine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Macrophages/parasitology; Macrophages/pathology
  15. Mohamed R, Nathan S, Embi N, Razak N, Ismail G
    Microbiol. Immunol., 1989;33(10):811-20.
    PMID: 2615673
    Pseudomonas pseudomallei exotoxin was found to be a potent inhibitor of protein and DNA synthesis in cultured macrophages. Inhibition of DNA synthesis occurred at toxin concentrations as low as 1-2 micrograms/ml and inhibition of 3H-thymidine uptake was almost complete at concentrations of 8 micrograms/ml or more. A close correlation between cell damage and inhibition by DNA synthesis was observed. For protein synthesis, inhibition was obtained at much lower doses (0.06-2.0 micrograms/ml) of the toxin. At similar toxin concentrations, DNA synthesis was marginally affected. Further, it was shown that protein synthesis inhibition occurred almost immediately after incubation, reaching its maximal inhibitory effect of 70% after 6 hr. DNA synthesis, however, was minimally affected by a similar toxin concentration even after 10 hr of incubation. The inhibition of macromolecular synthesis in macrophages by P. pseudomallei exotoxin may be relevant to its modulatory effect on the host defense mechanism.
    Matched MeSH terms: Macrophages/drug effects; Macrophages/metabolism*
  16. Cardosa MJ
    Lancet, 1987 Jan 24;1(8526):193-4.
    PMID: 2880019
    Acute-phase serum samples collected during an outbreak of dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever in Penang, Malaysia, were tested by a method involving antibody-dependent enhancement of infectivity in the mouse macrophage-like cell line, P388D1. 58 of 71 (81.7%) serologically positive cases yielded virus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Macrophages/immunology; Macrophages/microbiology*
  17. Sum AYC, Li X, Yeng YYH, Razif MFM, Jamil AHA, Ting NS, et al.
    Int J Med Mushrooms, 2020;22(8):803-814.
    PMID: 33389874 DOI: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2020035658
    Natural compounds found in Lignosus rhinocerus like polysaccharides and polysaccharide-protein complexes have the capabilities to modulate the immune system. It possesses antitumor and anti-inflammatory properties and is commonly used in Southeast Asia and Southern China to alleviate illness. To investigate its immunomodulating properties, composition of polysaccharides and the expression of cytokines/chemokines from L. rhinocerus (TM02®) cultivar treated RAW 264.7 were explored. It was revealed, CWE contains linear polysaccharides with 1,4-linkages and rhinoprolycan fraction (HMW & MMW) possesses 1,4-Glcp and 1,6-Glcp backbone and branched chain (1,3,6-Glcp, 1,4,6-Glcp, 1,3,6-Glcp, 1,2,4,6-Glcp). Cytokines profile showed upregulation from CWE (IL-5: 12.078 ± 1.225), HMW (IL-6: 7.297 ± 0.338; TIMP-1: 3.358 ± 0.200), MMW (IL-5: 15.412 ± 5.823; TIMP-1: 1.747 ± 0.053), and LMW (MIP-2: 3.495 ± 0.416; TIMP-1: 7.573 ± 0.088) and possible involvement of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathway. Further in vivo studies are needed to fully understand the immunomodulatory effects of TM02®.
    Matched MeSH terms: Macrophages/drug effects; Macrophages/immunology
  18. Mai CW, Kang YB, Hamzah AS, Pichika MR
    Food Funct, 2018 Jun 20;9(6):3344-3350.
    PMID: 29808897 DOI: 10.1039/c8fo00136g
    Vanilloid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl benzenoid) containing foods are reported to possess many biological activities including anti-inflammatory properties. Homodimerisation of the Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4)/Myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD-2) complex results in life-threatening complications in inflammatory disorders. In this study, we report activity of vanilloids in inhibition of TLR-4/MD-2 homodimersization and their molecular interactions with the receptor. The inhibitory activities of vanilloids were assessed in vitro by determining their antagonistic actions of lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli (LPSEc) in activation of TLR-4/MD-2 homodimerisation in TLR-4/MD-2/CD-14 transfected HEK-293 cells. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of vanilloids was also determined using RAW 264.7 cells. All the vanilloids were found to be active in the inhibition of TLR-4/MD-2 homodimersiation and nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 cells. Rigid and flexible molecular docking studies were performed to gain insight into interactions between vanilloids and the binding site of the TLR-4/MD-2 complex.
    Matched MeSH terms: Macrophages/drug effects; Macrophages/immunology
  19. Jaswir I, Monsur HA, Simsek S, Amid A, Alam Z, bin Salleh MN, et al.
    J Oleo Sci, 2014;63(8):787-94.
    PMID: 25007746
    Aqueous extracts obtained from five Malaysian brown seaweeds, Sargassum duplicatum, Sargassum binderi, Sargassum fulvellum, Padina australis, and Turbinaria turbinata, were investigated for their abilities to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage RAW 264.7 cell lines as well as to determine their chemical composition. The percentage yield of extracts varied among species, with P. australis having the lowest yield and T. turbinata having the highest yield. The chemical compositions of the extracts showed that the percentage of sulfate ions as well as uronic acid and total sugar content varied significantly. All extracts contained high fucose and inhibited NO secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Extracts of P. australis and T. turbinata dosed at 200 μg/mL were able to inhibit NO secretion by > 75%. Furthermore, cytotoxicity assays revealed that some extracts were moderately toxic, while others were not. Based on these results, brown seaweed of Malaysian origin should be investigated for the production of additional anti-inflammatory compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Macrophages/drug effects*; Macrophages/secretion*
  20. Razali FN, Ismail A, Abidin NZ, Shuib AS
    PLoS One, 2014;9(10):e108988.
    PMID: 25299340 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0108988
    The polysaccharide fraction from Solanum nigrum Linne has been shown to have antitumor activity by enhancing the CD4+/CD8+ ratio of the T-lymphocyte subpopulation. In this study, we analyzed a polysaccharide extract of S. nigrum to determine its modulating effects on RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells since macrophages play a key role in inducing both innate and adaptive immune responses. Crude polysaccharide was extracted from the stem of S. nigrum and subjected to ion-exchange chromatography to partially purify the extract. Five polysaccharide fractions were then subjected to a cytotoxicity assay and a nitric oxide production assay. To further analyze the ability of the fractionated polysaccharide extract to activate macrophages, the phagocytosis activity and cytokine production were also measured. The polysaccharide fractions were not cytotoxic, but all of the fractions induced nitric oxide in RAW 264.7 cells. Of the five fractions tested, SN-ppF3 was the least toxic and also induced the greatest amount of nitric oxide, which was comparable to the inducible nitric oxide synthase expression detected in the cell lysate. This fraction also significantly induced phagocytosis activity and stimulated the production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6. Our study showed that fraction SN-ppF3 could classically activate macrophages. Macrophage induction may be the manner in which polysaccharides from S. nigrum are able to prevent tumor growth.
    Matched MeSH terms: Macrophages/drug effects*; Macrophages/metabolism
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