Humans are subjected to various diseases; hence, proper diagnosis helps avoid further disease consequences. One such severe issue that could cause significant damage to the human liver is the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Several techniques are available to detect HCV under various categories, such as detection through antibodies, antigens, and RNA. Although immunoassays play a significant role in discovering hepatitis viruses, there is a need for point-of-care tests (POCT). Some developing strategies are required to ensure the appropriate selection of POCT for HCV detection, initiate appropriate antiviral therapy, and define associated risks, which will be critical in achieving optimal outcomes. Though molecular assays are precise, reproducible, sensitive, and specific, alternative strategies are required to enhance HCV diagnosis among the infected population. Herein, we described and assessed the potential of various microfluidic detection techniques and confirmatory approaches used in present communities. In addition, current key market players in HCV chip-based diagnosis and the future perspectives on the basis of which the diagnosis can be made easier are presented in the present review.
In 2006, cervical cancer was reported as the second most common cancer in women of Malaysia. This type of cancer has been shown to correlate with persistent high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Although HPV is well known to induce cervical cancer, knowledge of pathways that link the latent stage of the viral replication cycle to precancerous and cancerous stages remains incomplete. However, it is interesting to note that the virus can be isolated from tissues ranging from normal to low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions as well as high-grade intraepithelial lesions (HSILs), thus prompting scientists to develop HPV detection methods for screening. Detection of HPV using viral proteins such as L1 and E1 is proposed to be very useful in assisting the management of high risk infection and cervical cancer. These tests however can lead to false positive results, largely due to the exisstence of asymptomatic or transient HPV infections within any given individual. Somes observation indicate that use of HPV proteins such as E6 and E7 might lead to false positive results. However, one particular HPV protein, E4 shows potential as an accurate marker of the tissue state following HPV infection. E4 expression has been shown to correlate with the levels of HPV DNA incorporation by the host. Thus, it is possible that E4 could serve as a useful marker to define stages of viral carcinogenesis.
The global pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 is a known consequence of infection of severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). It has affected nations worldwide with soaring number of cases daily. Symptoms such as fever, cough, and shortness of breath, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting are commonly presented in COVID-19 patients. This focused review aims to discuss these uncommon and atypical COVID-19 symptoms that may be presented which might affect neurological, cardiovascular, cutaneous and ocular systems and their possible mode of actions. Nonetheless, there are some cases of reported uncommon or atypical symptoms which may warrant healthcare professionals to be aware of, especially when in contact with patients. The knowledge and information concerning these symptoms might be able to provide additional cues for healthcare professional by subjecting patients to COVID-19 screening. Meanwhile, it might be able to further enhance the alertness and additional precautions being taken by healthcare personnel, which eventually lead to reduced risk of infections.
A systematic review on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Immunochemical faecal occult IFOBT for CRC screening was carried out. A total of 450 relevant titles were identified, 41 abstracts were screened and 18 articles were included in the results. There was fair level of retrievable evidence to suggest that the sensitivity and specificity of IFOBT varies with the cut-off point of haemoglobin, whereas the diagnostic accuracy performance was influenced by high temperature and haemoglobin stability. A screening programme using IFOBT can be effective for prevention of advanced CRC and reduced mortality. There was also evidence to suggest that IFOBT is cost-effective in comparison with no screening, whereby a two-day faecal collection method was found to be costeffective as a means of screening for CRC. Based on the review, quantitative IFOBT method can be used in Malaysia as a screening test for CRC. The use of fully automated IFOBT assay would be highly desirable.
Digital retinal imaging is a challenging screening method for which effective, robust and cost-effective approaches are still to be developed. Regular screening for diabetic retinopathy and diabetic maculopathy diseases is necessary in order to identify the group at risk of visual impairment. This paper presents a novel automatic detection of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy in eye fundus images by employing fuzzy image processing techniques. The paper first introduces the existing systems for diabetic retinopathy screening, with an emphasis on the maculopathy detection methods. The proposed medical decision support system consists of four parts, namely: image acquisition, image preprocessing including four retinal structures localisation, feature extraction and the classification of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy. A combination of fuzzy image processing techniques, the Circular Hough Transform and several feature extraction methods are implemented in the proposed system. The paper also presents a novel technique for the macula region localisation in order to detect the maculopathy. In addition to the proposed detection system, the paper highlights a novel online dataset and it presents the dataset collection, the expert diagnosis process and the advantages of our online database compared to other public eye fundus image databases for diabetic retinopathy purposes.
Background: The major problem with cervical cancer screening in countries which have no organized national screening program for cervical cancer is sub-optimal participation. Implementation of self-sampling method may increase the participation of women to screen for cervical cancer.
Aims: To determine the agreement of cytological diagnoses made on samples collected by women themselves (self-sampling) versus cytological diagnoses made on samples collected
by physicians (Physician sampling)
Methods: We invited women volunteers to undergo two procedures; cervical self-sampling using the Evalyn brush and physician scraping using Cervex brush. They women were
shown a video presentation on how to take their own cervical samples before the procedure. The samples taken by physicians were taken as per routine testing (Gold Standard). All
samples were subjected to Thin Prep monolayer smears. The diagnoses made were according to the Bethesda classification. The results from the two sampling methods were analysed and compared.
Results: A total of 367 women were recruited into the study. Thin Prep smears by physicians were better in terms of volume and variety of the cells seen. There is significant good agreement of the cytological diagnoses made on the samples from the two sampling methods with the Kappa value of 0.568 (p=0.040). The Thin Prep smears by self-sampling method were better in detecting microorganisms.
Conclusion: This study shows that samples taken by women themselves (self-sampling) and physicians sampling had good cytology agreement. Self-sampling could be the method of
choice in countries in which the coverage of women attending clinics for screening for cervical cancer is poor.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the commonest cancers in Asian males. In Malaysia, it is one of the ten most common cancers amongst the male population. Most of our patients with HCC present to us rather late and almost all die within 4 months of diagnosis. HCC occurs more commonly in patients with cirrhosis associated with hepatitis B and C infections. Screening for HCC can lead to early detection of small tumours (< 5 cm) that are more amenable to surgical resection, resulting in improved survival rates. The average 5-year survival rate for those who have undergone surgical resection is 68% (range, 22-73%). Better results are obtained with the smaller tumours (< 2 cm in diameter). Patients with chronic hepatitis B and C infection especially those who are > 45 years of age, who have concomitant cirrhosis or have a family history of HCC should be examined every 3-6 months with periodic serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) measurements and abdominal ultrasound examinations. Abdominal ultrasound is useful in the detection of small tumours. While mass screening for HCC is not cost-effective in countries of low incidence of HCC, screening of high risk groups may be justified in countries with a high endemicity of HBV infection. Screening for HCC in Japan, Taiwan and China appears to yield better results than those in the West. Nonetheless, primary prevention with mass hepatitis B vaccination and blood donor screening for anti-HCV is expected to make a much greater impact in the control of HCC in the years to come.