MATERIALS AND METHODS: In mutation screening of CRNN gene, gDNA from OSCC tissues were extracted, amplified, and followed by direct sequencing. OSCC samples were also subjected to fragment analysis on CRNN gene to investigate its microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH). Immunohistochemistry was performed to validate CRNN downregulation in OSCC samples.
RESULTS: No pathogenic mutation was found in CRNN gene, while high frequency of allelic imbalances was found at 1q21.3 region. MSI was found more frequent (25.3 %) than LOH (9.3 %). Approximately 22.6 % of cases had high MSI which reflects higher probability of inactivation of DNA mismatch repair genes. MSI showed significant association with no betel quid chewing (p = 0.003) and tongue subsite (p = 0.026). LOH was associated with ethnicity (p = 0.008) and advanced staging (p = 0.039). The LOH at 1q21.3 was identified to be as an independent prognostic marker in OSCC (HRR = 7.15 (95 % CI, 1.41-36.25), p = 0.018). Downregulation of CRNN was found among MSI-positive OSCCs and was associated with poor prognosis (p = 0.044).
CONCLUSION: This study showed a significant correlation between LOH/MSI at 1q21.3 with clinical outcomes and that downregulation of CRNN gene could be considered as a prognostic marker of OSCC.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Insights of the downregulation mode of CRNN gene lays the basis of drug development on this gene as well as revealing its prognostic value.
METHODS: Thirty-six full-length pkmsp7D gene sequences (along with the reference H-strain: PKNH_1266000) obtained from clinical isolates of Malaysia, which were orthologous to pvmsp7H (PVX_082680) were downloaded from public databases. Population genetic, evolutionary and phylogenetic analyses were performed to determine the level of genetic diversity, polymorphism, recombination and natural selection.
RESULTS: Analysis of 36 full-length pkmsp7D sequences identified 147 SNPs (91 non-synonymous and 56 synonymous substitutions). Nucleotide diversity across the full-length gene was higher than its ortholog in Plasmodium vivax (msp7H). Region-wise analysis of the gene indicated that the nucleotide diversity at the central region was very high (π = 0.14) compared to the 5' and 3' regions. Most hyper-variable SNPs were detected at the central domain. Multiple test for natural selection indicated the central region was under strong positive natural selection however, the 5' and 3' regions were under negative/purifying selection. Evidence of intragenic recombination were detected at the central region of the gene. Phylogenetic analysis using full-length msp7D genes indicated there was no geographical clustering of parasite population.
CONCLUSIONS: High genetic diversity with hyper-variable SNPs and strong evidence of positive natural selection at the central region of MSP7D indicated exposure of the region to host immune pressure. Negative selection at the 5' and the 3' regions of MSP7D might be because of functional constraints at the unexposed regions during the merozoite invasion process of P. knowlesi. No evidence of geographical clustering among the clinical isolates from Malaysia indicated uniform selection pressure in all populations. These findings highlight the further evaluation of the regions and functional characterization of the protein as a potential blood stage vaccine candidate for P. knowlesi.
METHODS: A prospective analysis of ninety nine H. pylori-positive patients who underwent endoscopy in our Endoscopy suite were included in this study. DNA was isolated from antral biopsy samples and the presence of cagA, iceA, and iceA2 genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction and a reverse hybridization technique. Screening for H. pylori infection was performed in all patients using the rapid urease test (CLO-Test).
RESULTS: From a total of 326 patients who underwent endoscopy for upper gastrointestinal symptoms, 99 patients were determined to be H. pylori-positive. Peptic ulceration was seen in 33 patients (33%). The main virulence strain observed in this cohort was the cagA gene isolated in 43 patients. cagA was associated with peptic ulcer pathology in 39.5% (17/43) and in 28% (16/56) of non-ulcer patients. IceA1 was present in 29 patients (29%) and iceA2 in 15 patients (15%). Ulcer pathology was seen in 39% (11/29) of patients with iceA1, while 31% (22/70) had normal findings. The corresponding values for iceA2 were 33% (5/15) and 33% (28/84), respectively.
CONCLUSION: Virulence factors were not common in our cohort. The incidence of factors cagA, iceA1 and iceA2 were very low although variations were noted in different ethnic groups.
RESULTS: Positively significant departures from neutral expectations were detected on the surf4.1region encoding C-terminus of the variable region 2 (Var2) by 3 population-based tests in the western Kenyan population as similar in the Thai population, which was not covered by the previous analysis for eastern Kenyan population. Significant excess of non-synonymous substitutions per nonsynonymous site over synonymous substitutions per synonymous site was also detected in the Var2 region. Negatively significant departures from neutral expectations was detected on the region encoding Var1 C-terminus consistent to the previous observation in the eastern Kenyan population. Parasites possessing a frameshift mutation resulting a product without intracellular Trp-rich (WR) domains were 22/23 in western Kenya and 22/36 in Thailand. More than one copy of surf4.1gene was detected in western Kenya (4/24), but no CNV was found in Thailand (0/36).
CONCLUSIONS: The authors infer that the high polymorphism of SURFIN4.1Var2 C-terminus in both Kenyan and Thai populations were shaped-up by diversifying selection and maintained by balancing selection. These phenomena were most likely driven by immunological pressure. Whereas the SURFIN4.1Var1 C-terminus is suggested to be under directional selection consistent to the previous report for the eastern Kenyan population. Most western Kenyan isolates possess a frameshift mutation that would limit the expression of SURFIN4.1on the merozoite, but only 60% of Thai isolates possess this frameshift, which would affect the level and type of the selection pressure against this protein as seen in the two extremities of Tajima's D values for Var1 C-terminus between Kenyan and Thai populations. CNV observed in Kenyan isolates may be a consequence of this frameshift mutation to increase benefits on the merozoite surface.